WJ Julian - The Aquila Digital Community - The University of Southern

WJ Julian - The Aquila Digital Community - The University of Southern

The University of Southern Mississippi The Aquila Digital Community Dissertations 12-1-2012 WJ Julian: His Life and Career with Emphasis on His Ten...

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The University of Southern Mississippi

The Aquila Digital Community Dissertations

12-1-2012

WJ Julian: His Life and Career with Emphasis on His Tenure as Director of Bands at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 1961 to 1993 John Tilford Martin University of Southern Mississippi

Follow this and additional works at: http://aquila.usm.edu/dissertations Recommended Citation Martin, John Tilford, "WJ Julian: His Life and Career with Emphasis on His Tenure as Director of Bands at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 1961 to 1993" (2012). Dissertations. 639. http://aquila.usm.edu/dissertations/639

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The University of Southern Mississippi WJ JULIAN: HIS LIFE AND CAREER WITH EMPHASIS ON HIS TENURE AS DIRECTOR OF BANDS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE, KNOXVILLE, 1961 TO 1993 by John Tilford Martin Abstract of a Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School of The University of Southern Mississippi in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Musical Arts

December 2012

ABSTRACT WJ JULIAN: HIS LIFE AND CAREER WITH EMPHASIS ON HIS TENURE AS DIRECTOR OF BANDS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE, KNOXVILLE, 1961 TO 1993 by John Tilford Martin December 2012 WJ Julian served with distinction as director of bands at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville and Tennessee Polytechnic Institute during his forty-five-year teaching career. The purpose of this study is to compile a biographical sketch of WJ Julian prior to his appointment as director of bands at the University of Tennessee in 1961, to examine his impact on the Tennessee band program, and to show how both Julian and the Tennessee band program rose to state and national acclaim in the American band movement. The primary source of information for this study was extensive interviews with Julian himself. Secondary data was obtained from interviews with his colleagues and former students. Additional materials utilized included programs, articles, and material from the University of Tennessee band archive and university library. As director of bands at the University of Tennessee, Julian transformed a regional Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) marching band into a comprehensive national university band program. He founded the concert band program that subsequently appeared at five national band conventions during his tenure. The “Pride of the Southland” marching band rose to national acclaim with over fifty appearances on television that included seven presidential inaugural parades. Julian served as president of ii

the American Bandmasters Association, National Band Association, College Band Directors Association, and Tennessee Music Educators Conference; he founded the Tennessee Bandmasters Association. Julian’s career was predicated on his commitment to a standard of excellence that influenced generations of students, music educators, peers, and colleagues. He dedicated forty-three years of his teaching career in his home state and to the advancement of music education in Tennessee. Research concludes that WJ Julian’s influence was significant in the American band movement as a leader, teacher, and prominent director of bands.

iii

COPYRIGHT BY JOHN TILFORD MARTIN 2012

The University of Southern Mississippi WJ JULIAN: HIS LIFE AND CAREER WITH EMPHASIS ON HIS TENURE AS DIRECTOR OF BANDS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE, KNOXVILLE, 1961 TO 1993 by John Tilford Martin A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School of The University of Southern Mississippi in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Musical Arts Approved: _ Steven Moser_______________________ Director _Thomas V. Fraschillo_________________

_Edward Hafer_______________________

_Joseph Brumbeloe____________________

_ Catherine Rand______________________

_Susan A. Siltanen____________________ Dean of the Graduate School December 2012

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank the University of Southern Mississippi doctoral committee chair, Dr. Steven Moser, and the other committee members, Dr. Thomas Fraschillo, Dr. Edward Hafer, Dr. Joseph Brumbeloe, and Dr. Catherine Rand, and Dr. Jennifer Shank for their advice, support, and patience throughout the duration of this project. Special appreciation goes to Dr. Danny Phipps and the music faculty at Grand Valley State University for their unconditional support and encouragement especially during the difficult periods of this process. A singular thank you is extended to Dr. Charles Norris for his incredible help in the editing process. The highest appreciation goes to Dr. WJ Julian for his accessibility and mentorship to the author. Appreciation to University of Tennessee President Emeritus Dr. Joseph Johnson, Dr. Gary Sousa, Dr. Al G. Wright, Dr. A. Wayne Tipps, Dr. John Culvahouse, Mr. Walter McDaniel, and Paula Crider for their willingness to participate in the interview process.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT........................................................................................................................ ii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................................................................................. vi LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................ vii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ........................................................................................... viii CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................1 Statement of Purpose Need for Study Methodology Delimitations Review of Literature Outline of Subsequent Chapters

II.

THE EARLY YEARS: 1922 - 1950 ..........................................................22 Silver Point, Tennessee Baxter Seminary College Years at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute and World War II College Years at Northwestern University Teaching at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute Conclusion

III.

DIRECTOR OF BANDS, UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE, KNOXVILLE ............................................................................................46 Overview of Music Department and Band Program Prior to 1961 Julian Appointed as Director of Bands at the University of Tennessee “Pride of the Southland” Marching Band Development of the Concert Band Program Assistant Directors and Staff The “Director of Bands” Position Conclusion

IV.

LEADERSHIP IN BAND ASSOCIATIONS AND MUSIC EDUCATION ...............................................................................96 v

National Band Association College Band Directors National Association American Bandmasters Association Impact of Julian’s Leadership in National Associations Leadership Roles in Tennessee Band Associations Impact on Music Education in Tennessee Smoky Mountain Music Festival Conclusion V.

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS...........120 Answer to Question One Answer to Question Two Answer to Question Three Answer to Question Four Conclusion

APPENDIXES .................................................................................................................134 BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................246

vi

LIST OF TABLES Table 1.

Instrumentation of Select University of Tennessee Concert Bands and Wind Ensembles ....................................................................................................79

vii

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1.

Julian in the University of Tennessee band room, circa 1987 .................................1

2.

Constance Ohlinger, Julian’s music teacher at Baxter Seminary ..........................25

3.

Julian in naval uniform, circa 1944........................................................................33

4.

Explosion of LSM 318 after kamikaze attack on December 7, 1944 ....................35

5.

Julian with Glenn Cliffe Bainum, circa 1962 ........................................................38

6.

Julian conducting the “Pride of the Southland” marching band, circa 1987 .........52

7.

Julian with Barry McDonald, circa 1965 ...............................................................57

8.

Tennessee concert band at MENC convention in Atlanta, GA, April 28, 1975 ....87

9.

Julian honored with family for fifty years of association to the University of Tennessee at Neyland stadium on November 5, 2011. ........................................132

viii

1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION One of the great phenomena that occurred during the American band movement was the development of the modern college and university band programs throughout the twentieth century. The rise of these programs prospered, in part, by the matriculation of students seeking to continue the performance opportunities they had experienced in the growing public school instrumental music curriculum through the effective leadership of college band directors. Notable leaders, or director of bands, of collegiate programs proved themselves as contributed significantly to the American band movement as they promoted academic, performance, leadership, administrative, and repertoire integrity and amplified the exposure of their respective programs to a national level. One such director of bands who impacted his university, state, and significantly contributed to the American band movement as a leader, educator, and administrator was Dr. WJ Julian (see Figure 1).

Figure 1. Julian in the University of Tennessee band room, circa 1987. Photograph used with permission from the University of Tennessee band archive. Winston Churchill stated, "One mark of a great man is the power of making lasting impressions upon people he meets. Another is to have handled matters during his

2 life that the course of after events is continuously affected by what he did."1 One can use this measurement to help evaluate the towering figures of history, or it can be applied to those individuals who left their mark in a more specific setting. The latter application characterized the life and career of WJ Julian, director of emeritus bands at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. After forty-five years of teaching in public schools and higher education, serving as president of the three most influential national band associations and Tennessee music and band associations, Julian made enduring impressions upon thousands of students, leaders, conductors, and performers. Throughout Julian’s career his actions were planned and purposeful. Perfection and discipline in the classroom, concert hall, and marching field combined with a charismatic personality made Julian an imposing figure. His actions served to promote the program and student. Viewed as an authoritarian figure by many, Julian strove to be fair in his dealings with students, faculty, and administration; he expected the same in return. In an interview with Paula Crider, president of the American Bandmasters Association, Julian was asked how he wanted to be remembered, he simply stated, “I hope my former students remember me as someone who was demanding, but fair.”2 WJ Julian was born on October 22, 1922, in Silver Point, Tennessee. He married Faye Derryberry in 1960. They have two children, Jennifer Julian Nelson and Jeff Julian, and two grandchildren, Claire and Jay Nelson.3 He received degrees from Tennessee Polytechnic Institute in Cookeville, Tennessee (renamed Tennessee Technological 1

Winston Churchill, “Joseph Chamberlain,” in Great Contemporaries (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973), 61. 2

Paula Crider, “The NBA Past President’s Legacy: Spotlight on WJ Julian,” NBA Journal 49, no. 2 (December 2008), 21. 3

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 13, 2011.

3 University in 1965) and Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois. A veteran of World War II, Julian served in the U.S. Navy in the Pacific theater. In 1950, Julian accepted a postion at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute as professor of music and later named director of bands. In addition to his duties at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute, Julian served as the band director at Cookeville High School from 1950 to 52.4 Julian officially joined the faculty at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville in January 1961. He served as director of bands and professor of music for thirty-three years until his retirement in 1993.5 His marching band set a benchmark of excellence, discipline, and execution for other university programs that remained consistent throughout his tenure. The concert band program featured many renowned guest soloists, conductors, and composers and performed new band literature that represented the enormous growth and exposure of the medium. Julian brought the concept of the wind ensemble to the Tennessee program in his first year as director. The concert bands performed at the conventions of the College Band Directors National Association, American Bandmasters Association, Music Educators National Conference, and the Tennessee Music Educators Association.6 Julian’s reputation as a skilled leader, administrator, educator, and conductor in the American band movement was evident by his election as president of the National Band Association, College Band Directors National Association, and American Bandmasters Association. In addition, Julian served as president of the Tennessee Music

4

WJ Julian, “Vitae,” Knoxville, TN, September 1987.

5

Ibid.

6

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

4 Educators Association and founded the Tennessee Bandmasters Association. He held membership in other associations: Music Educators National Conference, East Tennessee Band and Orchestra Association, Tennessee Education Association, National Education Association, American Association of University Professors, Phi Beta Mu, Phi Mu Alpha, and served on the Knoxville Symphony Orchestra Board.7 One of Julian’s personal musical accomplishments was the creation of the Smoky Mountain Music Festival in 1983. Since its inception the festival has hosted more than five thousand high school performing ensembles from throughout the United States and Canada in choral, band, and orchestral mediums.8 Statement of Purpose The purpose of this study is twofold: first, to compile a biographical sketch of WJ Julian prior to his appointment as director of bands at the University of Tennessee in 1961; second, to examine his impact on the Tennessee band program and how both Julian and the Tennessee band program rose to state and national acclaim in the American band movement. The researcher used four guiding questions: 1. What were the major events and musical influences in Julian’s life from 1922 to 1960 that prepared him for his appointment at the University of Tennessee? 2. What was the significance of Julian’s role with the University of Tennessee band program’s rise to state and national acclaim? 3. How did Julian’s teaching impact the music education program at the University of Tennessee?

7

WJ Julian, “Vitae,” unpublished, September 1987.

8

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

5 4. How did his affiliation and leadership in band associations contribute to state and national recognition for the Tennessee band program? Need for Study The American band movement’s history is marked by a wealth of distinguished music educators, conductors, bandmasters, and musicians. It is essential that a continuous examination be made of the band movement and those responsible for its evolution and advancement. “History cannot be fully understood without knowing the people whose lives produced the evidence from which history is deduced. Achieving any music education history requires a human acquaintance with its personalities and a rich store of local history.”9 The purpose of this paper is to show the significance of the life and career of WJ Julian as a prominent director of bands and leader. Existing scholarly studies of outstanding contributors to the American band movement that provided perspective and validity to this research included those pertaining to Albert Austin Harding, Mark H. Hindsley, William D. Revelli, Leonard Falcone, Gary Garner, Harold B. Bachman, Harry Begian, David Elbert Whitwell, John D. Paynter, D.O. “Prof” Wiley, Frank Battisti, Patrick Sarsfield Gilmore, John Philip Sousa, Edwin Franko Goldman, Richard Franko Goldman, Hubert Estel Nutt, Howard Raymond Lyons, Leonard B. Smith, Herbert R. Hazelman, Victor Herbert, and Arthur Pryor.10 Equally important were chronological

9

Bruce D. Wilson and George N. Heller, “Historical Research in Music Education: Choosing a Topic-What Are the Options?” Unpublished paper, 1982, quoted in Richard Francis Piagentini, “John P. Paynter: A biography of Northwestern University’s second director of bands (1928-1996),” (DMA diss., Arizona State University, 1999), 8. 10

Calvin Earl Weber, “The Contribution of Albert Austin Harding and His Influence on the Development of School and College Bands” (EdD diss., University of Illinois, 1963); Earle Suydam Gregory, “Mark H. Hindsley: The Illinois Years” (EdD diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1982); George Alfred Cavanagh, “William D. Revelli: The Hobart Years” (master’s thesis, University of Michigan, 1971); Myron Delford Welch, “The Life and Work of Leonard Falcone with Emphasis on His Years as Director of Bands at Michigan State University, 1927 to 1967” (EdD diss., University of Illinois at

6 studies of the American band movement that gave historical context for Julian’s career. Lewis Sheckler stated, “Each of these biographies makes known the unique contribution of a pioneer leader, and by this means, provides valuable insight into various aspects of music instruction in the United States.”11 The modern American band movement can trace its roots to the mid-nineteenth century bandmaster Patrick Gilmore when he organized his first band in 1859. According to Richard Franko Goldman, “The man who changed the history of band music in America (was) Patrick Sarsfield Gilmore.”12 With over one hundred and fifty years of history, there is relatively little research regarding the pioneers of this field, especially concerning higher education band directors. In a biographical study of Harry Begian, Carroll Lewis Wallace indicated the need for further

Urbana-Champaign, 1973); Russell Dean Teweleit, “Dr. Gary Garner, Director of Bands at West Texas A & M University, 1963-2002: His Career and Teachings” (PhD diss., The University of Oklahoma, 2006); Alton Wayne Tipps, “Harold B. Bachman, American Bandmaster – His Contributions and Influence” (PhD diss., University of Michigan, 1974); Carroll Lewis Wallace, “The Life and Work of Harry Begian,” (DMA diss., The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1994); German Gonzalez, “David Elbert Whitwell (b. 1937): His Life and Career in the Band World through 1977” (DMA diss., Arizona State University, 2007); Richard Francis Piagentini, “John P. Paynter: A Biography of Northwestern University’s Second Director of Bands (1928-1996)” (DMA diss., Arizona State University, 1999); James Irwin Hansford, Jr., “D. O. (“Prof”) Wiley: His Contributions to Music Education (1921 to 1963” (PhD diss., University of North Texas, 1982); Brian Harry Norcross, “The Ithaca (N.Y.) High School Band from 1955 to 1967 Directed by Frank Battisti” (DMA diss., Catholic University of America, 1992); Timothy Carlyle Leech, “Grand Jubilees: How Patrick S. Gilmore Realized His Visions of Giant Musical Festivals in Boston, in 1869 and 1872” (master’s thesis, Harvard University, 1999); Charles Fremont Church, “The Life and Influence of John Philip Sousa” (PhD diss., The Ohio State University, 1942); Kirby R. Edwin, “Edwin Franko Goldman and the Goldman Band” (PhD diss., New York University, 1971); Noel K. Lester, “Richard Franko Goldman: His Lie and Works” (DMA diss., Peabody Institute of the John Hopkins University, 1984); George Richard Borich, “The Lives of Howard Raymond Lyons and Hubert Estel Nutt, CoFounders of the Mid-West National Band ad Orchestra Clinic” (PhD diss., Northwestern University, 1984); Vincent John Polce, “The Influence of Leonard B. Smith on the Heritage of the Band in the United States” (PhD diss., The Ohio State University, 1991); Harold Leon Jeffreys, “The Career of Herbert R. Hazelman: Public School Bandmaster” (EdD diss., The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 1988); Ronald Joseph Dieker, “Victor Herbert’s Band Marches: Historical Notes and Modern Performing Editions”) DMA diss., Arizona State University, 1987); Daniel E. Frizane, “Arthur Pryor (1870-1942) American Trombonists, Bandmaster, Composer” (PhD diss., The University of Kansas, 1984). 11

Lewis Raymond Sheckler, “Charles Alexander Fullerton: His Life and Contribution to Music Education” (EdD diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1965), 6. 12

Richard Franko Goldman, The Wind Band (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1961), 48.

7 research “of significant band conductors of this century” with WJ Julian and the Tennessee Bands as one recommendation.13 Julian was an influential leader and participant of the college and university band movement since the mid-twentieth century as the director of bands at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute at age twenty-eight and director of bands at the University of Tennessee at age thirty-eight. A component of this research was an investigation into his approach in leading a major university band program and his views about the past, present, and future role of the university band. His impact was significant and this study brings to light Julian’s role in the American band movement. Whether it is the quest for understanding how past events influenced present events, making assumptions concerning the future, understanding why events happened, or simply discovering recorded evidence of the past, historical research is multifaceted. John Buchan, statesman and author, wrote, “History is neither science nor philosophy, though it enlists both in its service; but it is indisputably an art.”14 Historians view the purpose and approach of historical research differently. George Heller wrote, “historians do three things: they gather, organize, and report evidence of the recent and remote past in order to explain the present and prepare for the future.”15 Rainbow and Froelich offered a different position, “Most historians do not share such notions, and propose that

13

Carroll Lewis Wallace, “The Life and Work of Harry Begian,” (DMA diss., The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1994), 161. 14

Andrew Lownie, John Buchan: The Presbyterian Cavalier (Great Britain: Constable, 1995),

184. 15

George N. Heller, “On the Meaning and Value of Historical Research in Music Education,” Journal of Research in Music Education, 33, no. 1 (Spring 1985), 4.

8 historical research should only be viewed as an effort toward understanding the past.”16 During the last century, some historians have favored not only a scientific based approach, but also expanding historical findings in narrative, or story. While recording history as it happened is one aspect for historians, writing an historical narrative is another. This historiographical approach that Barbara Tuchman called “the story and study of the past” relates to the difficulties of narrative.17 The entire Tuchman quote states, “The story and study of the past, both recent and distant, will not reveal the future, but it flashes beacon lights along the way and it is a useful nostrum against despair.”18 The Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary defines historiography as “the writing of history based on the critical examination of sources, the selection of particulars from the authentic materials, and the synthesis of particulars into a narrative that will stand the test of critical methods.”19 This definition suggests four steps of historiographical research: collection of materials, critical examination of the sources, selection of authenticated materials, and creating a narrative that accurately relates particular historical facts. Whether historical research and historiography are two distinctly separate branches of the same tree or one is a sub-set of the other is beyond the scope of this study. The focus is to pose important questions, gather information, authenticate the information, and interpret the findings with insight and understanding into an accurate narrative.

16

Edward L. Rainbow and Hildegard C. Froelich, Research in Music Education: An Introduction to Systematic Inquiry (New York: Schrimer Books, 1987), 107. 17

Barbara Tuchman, Practicing History (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1981), 55.

18

Barbara Tuchman, Practicing History, 55.

19

Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed., s.v. “Historiography.”

9 Methodology The primary method of research used for this study was the interview, or oral history. Paul Thompson, a leading expert on oral history and one of the main advocates of using this method as a reliable historical research tool stated, “Oral historians should always keep in mind our ultimate objective, which is to use personal memory – the unique power of personal memory – to interpret change over time.”20 Over the past fifty years, researchers like Paul Thompson, Jan Vansina, and Valerie Yow championed oral history. This research method draws from other disciplines. Vansina, professor emeritus of history and anthropology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison,21 identified four disciplines that are borrowed from more frequently than others: archaeology, cultural history, linguistics, and physical anthropology. Archaeology supplies direct historical evidence pertaining to groups of people or events. When coupled with oral history, it can sometimes provide a link between traditions and names with material objects. The use of cultural history methods used by ethnologists tries to establish the connection between two groups, or cultures, and the progression each has gone through by comparing the cultural qualities common to both. Borrowing from linguistics, oral historians use the development of collective memory, recognition of subjectivity, the use of storytelling, and a focus on the unconscious to develop new interpretive methods. Anthropologists provide information into the methods of interpreting data concerning adaptation and the differences and likenesses between various groups. The oral tradition as a whole has

20

Paul Thompson, “Believe It or Not: Rethinking the Historical Interpretation of Memory,” in Memory and History: Essays on Recalling and Interpreting Experiences, ed. Jaclyn Jeffrey and Gleance Edwall (Lanham, MD: University Press of America and the Institute for Oral History, 1994), 11. 21

Department of History, “Faculty,” University of Wisconsin-Madison http://www.history.wisc.edu/african/faculty.htm (accessed September 29, 2012).

10 limitations and biases that are palpable; likewise, information gleaned separately from each of the other disciplines is limited. The act of combining all information together creates the possibility of expanding the facts of a historical account.22 Julian’s career as a music educator and band director spanned from 1948 to 1993. It mirrored the most dynamic change and growth in the American band medium and the Tennessee band program. His insights and accounts, along with information from other interviewees, provide meaning and significance by linking experience to history. Thad Sitton defined oral history as “the process of interviewing living historical informants to record the remembered past for posterity.”23 Recalling the past through the means of oral history provides greater insight to understanding context and amplifies historical evidence as Paul Thompson alluded to when he said, “Oral history is a connecting value which moves in all sorts of different directions. It connects the old and the young, the academic world and the outside world. But more specifically it allows us to make connections in the interpretation of history.”24 Primary sources for this study were interviews conducted with Julian, school records, correspondence, historical documents, award presentations, publications, and archival material from the University of Tennessee band program. Due to the significance of the interviews provided by WJ Julian, the author used an extensive amount of the original interview material in the body of the document to preserve the context and

22

Jan Vansina, Oral Tradition: A Study in Historical Methodology, trans. H. M. Wright (New Brunswick: AldineTransaction, 2009), 173-182. 23

Thad Sitton, George L. Mehaffy, and O. L. Davis, Jr., Oral History: A Guide of Teachers (and Others) (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1983), 152. 24

Paul Thompson, “Believe It or Not: Rethinking the Historical Interpretation of Memory,” in Memory and History: Essays on Recalling and Interpreting Experiences, 11.

11 essence of this influential figure. Secondary resources included interviews with colleagues, high school band directors, music educators, former students, and University of Tennessee officials. The interview method employed was based upon the Goals and Guidelines: The Oral History Association as outlined in the book, Oral History: A Guide for Teachers (and Others).25 Depending on the circumstances of the interviewees, a “one on one” interview with the use of a recording device and subsequent transcription, e-mail, or phone interview and subsequent transcription were the primary modes of documenting the interviews. Each interviewee was sent initial questions before the actual interview occurred. A signed release form was obtained from each participant that transferred to the interviewer the contents of the interview and waived their right of anonymity for the scholarly purpose of this study. Delimitations This study is intended to focus on the life and career of WJ Julian with emphasis on his tenure at the University of Tennessee. His service as director of bands at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute from 1950 to 1960 is significant, but is not a primary focus of this research. Though Julian’s tenure with the University of Tennessee parallels the program’s history, it is beyond the scope of this study to document the complete history of the Tennessee band program or a general history of the band movement. Review of Literature The selected studies of prominent band directors that were previously listed offered great insight into their lives, careers, and teaching philosophies, but the scope of

25

Thad Sitton, George L. Mehaffy, and O. L. Davis, Jr., Oral History: A Guide of Teachers (and Others) (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1983), 128-130.

12 this study prevented a detailed examination of each. However, it is important to draw attention to the limited number of scholarly papers concerning college or university band directors. Brief examination of these studies provides comparable parallels and context between Julian and other significant directors. Each biography highlighted is presented in chronological order according to their first year as a college or university band director. The conclusion of the review of literature includes selected histories of the American band movement that coincide with Julian’s career. Though college and university bands were in existence since the mid-nineteenth century typically under the auspices of the school’s military department, the modern university band movement began when Albert Austin Harding was named director of bands at the University of Illinois in 1905. He served in that position until his retirement in 1948. Frederick Fennell wrote concerning the Illinois band program under Harding: The educational concert band at the college level has become a force with which the musical world must reckon with increasing regard. America has several firstclass concert-giving bands in its educational institutions; among them the Concert Band of the University of Illinois is not only the oldest but the most venerated and emulated…many large and magnificently instrumentated organizations which have come into existence since A.A. Harding began his work at Illinois in 1905.26 Calvin Earl Weber’s study concerning the career of Harding succinctly examined his many contributions to the college and university band movement that included band instrumentation, innovations of gridiron bands, and increasing the band medium repertoire with over 140 personal transcriptions of orchestral music with several representing a core component of the band genre. Weber examined his close friendship with John Philip Sousa who gave his entire personal library of band music to Harding and the University of Illinois bands prior to his death in 1932, his involvement in the 26

Frederick Fennell, Time and the Winds (Kenosha, WI: Leblanc Corporation, 1954), 49.

13 formation of the American Bandmasters Association as a charter member, and his influence upon music education in the United States.27 Under Harding’s tutelage, many of his students and assistants became school and college band directors. Most notable of his legacies who became director of bands at major universities were Mark H. Hindsley at Illinois, Glenn Cliffe Bainum at Northwestern University, Leonard Falcone at Michigan State University, Raymond Dvorak at the University of Wisconsin, and William D. Revelli at the University of Michigan. The primary sources of this study included Harding’s personal files, other relevant material from his office that was still intact at the time of the research, printed programs, original musical scores of his transcriptions, phonograph and tape recordings of his bands, files from the Department of Public Information at the University of Illinois, interviews with students and colleagues, journal articles that referenced his work, and proceedings from professional associations.28 Mark H. Hindsley, director of bands at Indiana (1926-1929) and director of bands at Illinois (1948-1970), was the subject of a study by Earle Suydam Gregory.29 The research chronicled Hindsley’s significant career as a school and university band director, his contributions to band literature through transcriptions, his research into the construction of instruments, his influence as a music educator, his planning and leadership of the construction of the University of Illinois band building, his involvement as a charter member and president of the College Band Directors National Association, his presidency of the American Bandmasters Association, and the recording project of the 27

Calvin Earl Weber, “The Contribution of Albert Austin Harding and His Influence on the Development of School and College Bands” (EdD diss., University of Illinois, 1963). 28

Ibid., 7-8.

29

Earle Suydam Gregory, “Mark H. Hindsley: The Illinois Years” (EdD diss., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1982).

14 Illinois bands that resulted in fifty-nine recordings. Hindsley’s transcriptions and his modifications in instrument construction are considered major contributions to the band field.30 The early years of his career were marked by his innovations as a marching band director. When he served as assistant director, and later as only the second director of bands at Illinois, he gained national recognition as a skilled administrator, instrument researcher, transcriber, author, and conductor. Hindsley listed in order of importance, his greatest achievements while the director of bands at Illinois: 1. Conducting and recording the University of Illinois Concert Band for twentytwo years. 2. Scoring and publishing a large number of “Historical Masterpieces (transcriptions) for Concert Band” and selling them throughout the world. 3. Serving as President of the American Bandmasters Association and the College Band Directors National Association.31 Personal interviews with Hindsley, correspondence by Hindsley, teaching notes, syllabi, written reports of the University of Illinois Bands, articles in journals and periodicals, official transcripts of speeches, and personal memorabilia constitute the primary sources of Gregory’s research.32 Myron Delford Welch studied the life and career of Leonard Falcone with a focused examination of his years as director of bands at Michigan State University from 1927 to 1967.33 Mr. Welch used the following primary sources: interviews with Falcone; personal files of Falcone that contained programs, recordings, correspondence, tour

30

Earle Suydam Gregory, “Mark H. Hindsley: The Illinois Years,” 1.

31

Ibid., 88.

32

Ibid., 5.

33

Myron Delford Welch, “The Life and Work of Leonard Falcone with Emphasis on His Years as Director of Bands at Michigan State University, 1927 to 1967” (EdD diss., University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, 1973).

15 itineraries, and pictures of the band; official documents from Michigan State University; tapes and records of the MSU Band under Falcone’s direction; recordings featuring Falcone as euphonium soloist; and articles written by Falcone for professional journals.34 The rise of the MSU Band program to national recognition during Falcone’s tenure at Michigan State University was a source of great pride to the director. Falcone described his program’s acclaim and national recognition: The general public is better acquainted with the MSU marching band than the concert band. But the concert band, whose membership includes some of the finest instrumentalists in the country, has won national acclaim by superior musicianship and artistry in performance on annual concert tours and appearances at national music conventions. Leading band conductors in commenting on the band’s playing have used such adjectives as “very musical, polished, sensitive, and brilliant.”35 Not only was Falcone a prominent university band director, he was an accomplished euphonium soloist having recorded three albums of solo works for the Golden Crest label. William D. Revelli, director of bands emeritus at the University of Michigan, described Falcone “as a euphonium soloist, he simply is the greatest of our time, possessing a beautiful, vibrant, rich tone, impeccable technique, control, and sterling musicianship; a truly great artist.”36 Falcone viewed the role of the university band as twofold: “First it is an end to itself: a musical medium. Second, it is a means to an end: an important aspect in the training of music education majors.37

34

Myron Delford Welch, “The Life and Work of Leonard Falcone with Emphasis on His Years as Director of Bands at Michigan State University, 1927 to 1967,” 14-15. 35

Leonard Falcone, “My 40 Years at Michigan State University,” The School Musician 39 (December 1967): 51. 36

Myron Delford Welch, “The Life and Work of Leonard Falcone with Emphasis on His Years as Director of Bands at Michigan State University, 1927 to 1967,” 251. 37

Ibid., 263.

16 One of the most eclectic band directors of the twentieth century was Harold B. Bachman. In a study by Alton Wayne Tipps, the life and multi-faceted career of Bachman was examined and included: his appointment as director of the 116th Corps of Engineers Band (that became “Bachman’s Million Dollar Band”) in World War I; assignment to the Special Services section in charge of military music in the south pacific theatre in World War II; director of bands at the University of Chicago (1935 to 1942); formation of “Bachman’s Million Dollar Band” (1919 to 1942); director of bands at the University of Florida (1948 to 1958); his professional activities in the American Bandmasters Association, College Band Directors National Association, National Band Association, and Mid-West Clinic; and his personal contributions through profession writings.38 His exuberance for bringing band music to the forefront was exhibited by a life-long career associated with the American band movement. William D. Revelli commented on Bachman’s contributions to the band medium and his unique showmanship: “His bringing thousands of people to love and enjoy a band concert through his concerts in Florida and the Chautauqua39 is a profound contribution to the band movement. He made the lives of thousands of people more happy and enjoyable and developed within them an appreciation of music.40 In an address given to the College Band Directors National Association Convention in 1967, Bachman commented about the 38

Alton Wayne Tipps, “Harold B. Bachman, American Bandmaster – His Contributions and Influence” (PhD diss., University of Michigan, 1974). 39

Chautauqua is defined as “any of various traveling shows and local assemblies that flourished in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, that provided popular education combined with entertainment in the form of lectures, concerts, and plays, and that were modeled after activities at the Chautauqua Institution of western New York.” Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed., s.v. “Chautauqua.” 40

Alton Wayne Tipps, “Harold B. Bachman, American Bandmaster – His Contributions and Influence,” 67.

17 future of the American band movement and its music when he commented, “I look forward with anticipation and confidence to exciting new horizons in the expansion of music in which band music will play a more important role than ever before in the cultural life of the nation.”41 John P. Paynter was a classmate of WJ Julian at Northwestern University and both served as director of bands at major universities and impacted the American band movement. Richard Francis Piagentini wrote a biographical study of Paynter, who in 1954 became only the second director of bands at Northwestern University after serving one year as acting director.42 Following the first Northwestern University director, Glenn Cliffe Bainum, Paynter established himself as a leading figure of the college and university movement during the mid to late twentieth century. This study chronicled his life-long association with Northwestern University as a student, assistant director of bands to Bainum, then as director of bands until his death in 1996. Piagentini's study examined Paynter’s role as conductor, teacher, and leader, his philosophical approach to each area, and his predictions concerning the role of the university band in the future. His influence and standing among his peers was evident as he served as a president of the American Bandmasters Association and president and co-founder of the National Band Association. He was an active composer and arranger with more than four hundred works in print and manuscript. From 1956 to 1996, Paynter was the director of the Northshore Community Band, a leading adult community band that appeared at the Mid-West Clinic

41

David Whitwell and Acton Ostling, Jr. The College and University Band (Reston, VA: Music Educators National Conference, 1977), 42. 42

Richard Francis Piagentini, “John P. Paynter: A Biography of Northwestern University’s Second Director of Bands (1928-1996)” (DMA diss., Arizona State University, 1999), 14.

18 on multiple occasions, national band conventions, and toured Europe in 1975.43 His fortyfive years of teaching and conducting, all at Northwestern University, left an indelible mark on his university, his students, and his profession. Carroll Lewis Wallace studied the life and career of Harry Begian, who served as director of bands at Wayne State University (1964-67), Michigan State University (19671970), and the University of Illinois (1970-1984).44 Propelling Begian into the ranks of a university band director was his work at Cass Technical high school (1947-1963). His influence on the Cass students was evident with many becoming music educators and university band directors like Myron Welch, former director of bands at the University of Iowa. Wallace’s study revealed Begian’s unique gift of conducting and leadership. Enrollment in the band program at each university Begian was associated with increased usually with the addition of multiple concert ensembles. During his tenure at Illinois the student enrollment in band program increased from four hundred to seven hundred students that served five concert bands, a brass band, and the marching band.45 Begian’s greatest accomplishments at Illinois were the establishments of the Band Conducting Internship Program and the University of Illinois Recording Project. His peers recognized his contribution to the band movement with his election as president of the American Bandmasters Association in 1984. William D. Revelli, who was Begian’s college band director at the University of Michigan, highly complemented his former student and forecasted that “he will be recognized as one of the finest college band directors of this 43

Richard Francis Piagentini, “John P. Paynter: A Biography of Northwestern University’s Second Director of Bands (1928-1996),” 2-3. 44

Carroll Lewis Wallace, “The Life and Work of Harry Begian” (DMA diss., The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1994), 161. 45

Ibid., 155.

19 century, not just because of his conducting and musicianship, but because of what a wonderful person he is.”46 The two selected band histories that conclude this review of literature provide context for Julian’s career. Lamar Keith McCarrell's research examined: the early years of the college band movement before 1905 when A.A. Harding was named director of bands at Illinois that is considered to be first modern university band program; the period of time from 1905 through the end of World War I in 1918; the growth of the movement between the world wars; the impact of athletics upon the college band; the results of World War II upon the college band; the CBDNA (College Band Directors National Association) and its role in the college band movement; and the diversification of the college band after World War II to 1969.47 The author stated, “the amount of band research completed prior to the 1960’s was meager.”48 This study provided valuable information concerning prominent directors and their programs. The primary sources that were drawn from included: published books, periodicals, journals, unpublished theses, and dissertations. The researcher visited the American Bandmasters Association Research Center at College Park, Maryland and the Library of Congress. Personal interviews with prominent band directors such as Harold Bachman, William D. Revelli, Mark Hindsley, Glenn Cliffe Bainum, Raymond Dvorak, Leonard Falcone, John Paynter, Paul Yoder, and Manley Whitcomb, influenced the selection of events that were reported.49 The research

46

Carroll Lewis Wallace, “The Life and Work of Harry Begian,” 159.

47

Lamar Keith McCarrell, “A Historical review of the College Band Movement from 1875 to 1969” (PhD diss., The Florida State University, 1971). 48

Ibid., 2.

49

Lamar Keith McCarrell, “A Historical review of the College Band Movement from 1875 to 1969,” 4-8.

20 contained a vast and comprehensive bibliography that reflected the time period the research was conducted. The study revealed the diversification of the movement from primarily concert and marching bands, prior to World War I, to the inclusion of jazz bands, chamber ensembles, and the wind ensemble concept. Jerry Thomas Haynie’s historical research documented the role of the college and university band from 1900 to 1968.50 He examined instrumentation, repertoire, leadership, curriculum placement, and performance ensembles of university band programs. Haynie concluded that the development of the college and university bands was determined by the amount of emphasis given to each of the three roles identified and defined by the researcher: entertainment, education, and performance. College marching bands gravitated from the role of entertainment to an increased role of education through the choice of music, innovative drill, and technique of performance. College concert bands shifted to education and performance through the rehearsal and performance of original works for the medium with exact instrumentation. Haynie concluded, that “the potential educational and cultural influence of college bands is great” through the metamorphosis of these roles.51 Outline of Subsequent Chapters Chapter II outlines Julian’s early life in Tennessee, his formal education, his service in World War II, his appointment to the faculty at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute, and the musical influences that contributed to his appointment as director of bands at the University of Tennessee in 1961.

50

Jerry Thomas Haynie, “The Changing Role of the Band in American Colleges and Universities, 1900 to 1968” (PhD diss., George Peabody for Teachers, 1971). 51

Ibid., 315.

21 Chapter III details Julian’s tenure as director of bands at the University of Tennessee. His impact on the marching band and founding of the concert band program are major topics covered. The chapter begins with a brief history of the music department and band program before Julian’s arrival in 1961. Chapter IV contains information about Julian’s leadership role in national band associations and the resultant impact on his professional career. His role as a teacher, conductor, clinician, adjudicator, and his influence upon the music education program at the University of Tennessee are discussed in this chapter. Chapter V summarizes the study, states conclusions, and makes suggestions for further research.

22 CHAPTER II THE EARLY YEARS: 1922 – 1950 Silver Point, Tennessee WJ Julian was born on October 22, 1922 in Silver Point, Tennessee. He was the son of William James and Virginia Gertrude ‘Jennie’ Cantrell Julian and had two full siblings, Alan and Jennifer. Julian was given the unusual first name of "WJ." When asked about this curious name, he explained that the letters were not initials, but simply his name. Over the years Julian repeatedly explained this peculiarity. "Well, they gave me just the name of WJ - W, no period, and J, no period. I had to go through life explaining this to everyone. Sometimes it would be in quotation marks, W in quotation marks and J in quotation marks, but that is not how my name is spelled." [laughter]52 Though the proper way to spell Julian's first name was a point of confusion for many throughout his formative years and professional career, he always took the issue in stride and corrected the misinformed when possible. Julian had a close relationship with his immediate family and gave a brief description of the make up of the household: My parents weren't formally educated. I believe Papa, oh way back then, was in the Spanish-American War. He possibly went through the fourth grade. My mother went through the eighth grade. Of course, that wasn't bad in those days. Most people were in that category. I had one whole brother and one whole sister. My father's first wife died, but they had six children. Most of them had left before I was born though I knew them well.53 His parents were respected members of Silver Point and adequately provided for the family through his father's work and mother's care giving. William owned a grocery

52

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 13, 2011.

53

Ibid.

23 store and served as Postmaster of Silver Point, and Jennie was a housewife. Reflecting on his parents, Julian shared some insight: Well, papa did everything. He had a grocery store with produce. You know, in the early years, he would have a wagon with groceries and everything else going around all over the country. He later expanded the store to have shoes and clothes, and in Silver Point [Tennessee], it was the only store that had those items. I remember they carried J.C. Roberts shoes which are very good shoes. They still make them in St. Louis. When I was a little older I would clerk, and I enjoyed that. Then, he became the Postmaster of Silver Point and served until the Democrats took over in 1933. It's not as political as it was, but he was the Postmaster at Silver Point. He was also a great gardener. He had great orchards. We had peaches, apples, plums, pears, and strawberry patches. It was unbelievable what a gardener he was. He didn't do it all himself. He had people to come to do the hard work, but he was a great gardener. My mother was a very good housewife and a wonderful cook. Although, she did not own a cookbook, she was a great country cook. She would certainly always have great food on the table.54 His father instilled in Julian the importance of a high and disciplined work ethic early in his life and provided a model of entrepreneurship, community leadership, and personal interaction. His mother's homemaker qualities contributed to Julian's life-long love of great food and being the consummate host. These personal attributes served Julian throughout his life and were hallmarks that defined his persona. His earliest exposure to music was experienced in his home. Though his family was not musical, they provided the means for Julian to explore his musical proclivity. Julian elaborated about his early exposure to music in Silver Point: There was little music within the family to speak of. I guess I was the first one involved in music. Even in Silver Point, I was first involved in music. I was always interested in music. I listened to our radio, and we had a record player. The recordings that we had were very limited then. It wasn't until the long-playing records became available that it was more abundant. Even now you look at the Schwann catalog you can find twenty-five recordings of Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony, or maybe more than that. Today there is such an abundance of selections. We had a wind up Victrola phonograph and later an electric record player when electricity came to Silver Point. My father encouraged my 54

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 13, 2011.

24 listening. He bought a grand piano for the home when we were very young and that was quite unusual for our area. I took piano lessons, but I never cared for it. I guess I was the one crying about lessons, but stuck to the violin eventually.55 Baxter Seminary Music became very important to Julian at an early age and was nurtured as he entered his formative school years. After graduating from Burton elementary school, he entered Baxter Seminary in nearby Baxter, Tennessee. It was a private school established in 1908 by the Board of Education of the Methodist Episcopal Church and was admitted as a full member of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools in 1927.56 Julian detailed some of the history of Baxter Seminary and its rigorous curriculum: It is a public school now. It's called Upperman High School. Harry Upperman was President of Baxter Seminary and when they abolished it [Baxter Seminary], they named the current school Upperman. He was quite a person and scholar. They had some wonderful teachers at Baxter in math, English, and most subjects. It was a very demanding school. It had a great amount of discipline. I guess it was easier to have good discipline then than now due to present problems. There were mostly country people who went to that high school. Cookeville was nine or ten miles away. It was a big time school we thought.57 It was during his years at Baxter Seminary that Julian studied with Miss Constance Ohlinger (1901-1987) who was one of the most influential figures in his life (see Figure 2). She was a faculty member and directed the music program at Baxter. Ohlinger, earned a Bachelor of Music degree and artist’s diploma in piano from the University of Michigan, a Master of Music degree from Northwestern University with additional 55

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 13, 2011.

56

Mitchum, Anita, All Roads Lead To Baxter: A Story of Baxter Seminary, Baxter, Tennessee (Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2005), 26-28. 57

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 13, 2011.

25 graduate work at the University of Denver and Peabody College for Teachers in Nashville. In addition to her degrees obtained in the United States, she studied many subjects in Europe: piano, voice, and French in Paris; and piano, voice, Italian, and German in Vienna. Ohlinger, in addition to her service at Baxter Seminary, held faculty positions at Berry College (Georgia), and Berea College (Kentucky), Peabody College for Teachers (Tennessee), Sue Bennett College (London, England), and served as acting head of the music department at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute. Her parents, Rev. Franklin and Bertha Ohlinger, were Methodist missionaries who served in Foochow, China and Seoul, Korea. Constance, born in Foochow, China, was the youngest of four children.58

Figure 2. Constance Ohlinger, Julian’s music teacher at Baxter Seminary. Photograph from the Highlander Yearbook, Baxter Seminary, 1940. Julian, as a young student who had a marginal musical background, found in Ohlinger the teaching, life experiences, mentorship, and encouragement that propelled

58

Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center Administration, “Reverend Franklin Ohlinger, GA-36,” Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center, http://www.rbhayes.org/hayes/mssfind/487/Ohlingerwebpage.htm (accessed March 10, 2012).

26 him onto a career path of music, eventually becoming one of the great university bandmasters. Julian explained Ohlinger's significance to his life: After elementary school, I went to Baxter Seminary in Baxter, Tennessee. It was a very fine private school associated with the Methodists and had a wonderful faculty. The music teacher, Miss Constance Ohlinger, was a great influence on my life. Her influence was truly the beginning of music appreciation for me. Miss Ohlinger had the choral groups and was over the music department. She had a very fine choir. They would go to Nashville [Tennessee] and sing on the WSM radio station in Nashville. They were well trained. She was quite a lady. She was born in Foochow, China of Methodist missionaries. Her upbringing gave her the opportunity to travel all over the world. She was quite something; a great influence on my life.59 During his time at Baxter, Julian expanded his musical interests. He took violin lessons from a faculty member’s wife and trumpet lessons from Albert Brogden, a bandleader in nearby Cookeville, Tennessee. Julian was a left-handed violinist, or as he described “a left-handed fiddle player.” This unusual technique would be a point of interest and research later in his college years and career. Julian recalled these early musical experiences: I started studying violin there with the wife of a teacher at Baxter Seminary. I had a very good violin teacher. I never cared about piano though. I took private [piano] lessons, but I never cared for it. I took private trumpet lessons from Albert Brogden who was the leader of the community band of Cookeville that I thought at that time was a very good band. He would ask me to play in the band at the Cookeville county fair and the Dekalb county fair that has been going on for one hundred years. I enjoyed that.60 When asked if he participated in other activities, such as sports, while at Baxter, Julian declared: No, I was never interested in sports. [laughter] I guess I was too much of a coward. They did not have a good sports program, but they did have good coaches, but it was a smaller high school than those in the surrounding area. They 59

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 13, 2011.

60

Ibid.

27 had football, baseball, basketball, but I was never involved in that. I organized a band while I was at Baxter Seminary.61 With the encouragement and support of Miss Ohlinger and his participation in the Brogden’s ensemble, he formed his first band at Baxter seminary that initially consisted of fourteen or fifteen players. The ensemble grew to around twenty. Like himself, some of the players had taken lessons, but the majority was untrained. Julian stated that even with the mixture of different levels of musicianship "the group sounded good to me at that time."62 The positive experience of this endeavor forecasted Julian's strengths in regards to organization, administration, and leadership. The formation of the Baxter band, in a microcosm, represented how Julian developed band programs at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute and the University of Tennessee, Knoxville; he provided an opportunity for students from varied backgrounds to join an organization that melded into a viable performing ensemble under his direction. Fostered by his father's encouragement to listen to phonograph and the radio, Julian developed a keen appetite for music. His eclectic palette for various genres broadened his musical knowledge during these influential years. In addition to listening to music at home, Julian attended many concerts in nearby cities, such as Nashville, Chattanooga, and Knoxville. Primarily, the concerts featured orchestras that toured throughout the United States. One of his favorite touring orchestras was the Minnesota Orchestra, later renamed the Minneapolis Orchestra, with conductor Dimitri Mitropoulos. He recalled his experiences of traveling to hear the touring orchestras and his views on Mitropoulos:

61

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 13, 2011.

62

Ibid.

28 When I was in high school, I would go to Nashville to concerts. They would have community concerts in Nashville, Chattanooga, and all over the country. They were wonderful because you would have major orchestras touring. Orchestras don't tour anymore like they used to. You take the Vienna, London, and the symphonies that come to New York and occasionally one would go to Chicago, but don't go further west due to the costs. Back in those days they had community concerts in all the big cities like Nashville and Chattanooga. I would go to all of those for almost nothing. I heard great orchestras. The first I heard was the Minneapolis, called the Minnesota back then. It toured all over the country every year with their first conductor and one of the great conductors, Dimitri Mitropoulos. He was a great conductor and great scholar. He could look at a score and have it memorized. Phenomenal mind!63 Julian started attending orchestra concerts while in school at Baxter, and he vigorously continued this commitment throughout his life. During Julian’s formative years the encouragement and support to pursue his musical interests by his parents, and specifically Miss Ohlinger, coupled with his exposure to quality performing ensembles and multifaceted participation in bands, instilled within him the desire to make music his vocation. Growing up in Silver Point, Tennessee and its impact on Julian cannot be underestimated. The circumstances, timing, and learning experiences all combined to provide the unique environment that cultivated his personal characteristics, love of music, and decision to pursue a career in music. Julian referred to his adolescent years in Silver Point with great fondness and when asked if it was a positive experience he exuberantly commented: Oh yes! Though, I can’t imagine my grandchildren growing up in that situation since they aren’t accustomed to it. If you were born in that way, then you accept it. It was a big thing to go to Cookeville. It was a big town of three or four thousand. It's much bigger now with Tennessee Tech and all. All during my early years, I had good teachers and many of them were men. Of course, back in those days it was during the Depression and there was opportunity for a person to be a teacher. Most of the teachers were in fact men, which I think has a positive influence especially on male students. Today, the only male teachers one might 63

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 13, 2011.

29 have are coaches and band directors. There might be more discipline if there were more male teachers. All I can say is that I had a very pleasant young part of my life. I don't know if I would change any of that. I was very happy when I was growing up. I can never think of the World Series without remembering harvesting the sweet potatoes since they occurred at the same time. [laughter] We would listen to the games while in the garden. My father was a great gardener. Of course, we would have workers come in to do the plowing since we didn't have any horses. We did have a mule and a barn and all that. He'd kill the hogs. We had a huge cast iron tub that we would put the hams and the bacon in with the hickory wood smoke coming out of the barn. When the neighbors would see the fire and the smoke, they would bring their hogs to be killed too. Those were great country hams, not like the ones from West Tennessee. We would kill twelve to fifteen hogs since we had a big family. It was always a big day!64 He related several anecdotes about the uniqueness of this small rural town middle Tennessee during the interviews. The author traveled to both Silver Point and Baxter and examined the area where Julian spent his childhood and vividly spoke about. These towns are a few miles apart and are different from when he lived there. The seminary was closed in 1959 and sold to the Putnam County School system. It was renamed the Upperman High School in honor of Dr. Harry Lee Upperman, president of Baxter Seminary from 1923-1959. Construction on the new Upperman High School was completed in 1976, and the remaining buildings of the original seminary were razed.65 A historical placard was erected at the original site of Baxter Seminary that briefly described the school. The author asked Julian about the graveyard that was located behind the original seminary site. He related the following story with detail and humor that epitomized his well-known communicative skills: It was not a graveyard really since it only had two or three gravesites. The Braswell brothers were buried there. They were hanged, and it was a public hanging in Baxter, or I suppose it was in Baxter. They were buried there. They murdered the trustee of the county. I do not recall the trustee's name. It was quite 64

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 13, 2011.

65

Mitchum, Anita, All Roads Lead To Baxter: A Story of Baxter Seminary, Baxter, Tennessee, 23.

30 a scandal. This public hanging attracted the biggest crowd that had ever accumulated in the area. Back in those days, I guess that was a big occasion to go to a hanging. I don't think I would have gone to it, but maybe I would have. Boredom would encourage you to most anything, I suppose.66 College Years at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute and World War II After graduating from Baxter Seminary in 1940, he entered nearby Tennessee Polytechnic Institute (TPI) in Cookeville, Tennessee (later renamed Tennessee Technological University in 1965) and earned his Bachelor of Science degree in 1944. The life-long friendships he established during his years at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute served him personally and professionally. Julian was particularly impressed with university president William Everett Derryberry who served from 1940-1974. When Derryberry assumed leadership of Tennessee Polytechnic Institute, the school had 700 students, 31 faculty members and few buildings. By the time of his retirement, the school had been renamed Tennessee Technological University that reflected its academic transformation and boasted an enrollment of over 7,000 students with 276 faculty members and a campus that encompassed 225 acres.67 He transformed the struggling school into a comprehensive university by the end his tenure. Julian commented about Derryberry’s impact on the school: The one who made it a great university was Everett Derryberry. He came in as the fourth president and was a native Tennessean. He attended the University of Tennessee and was an All-SEC football player and Rhodes scholar. While at UT he met his wife, Joan, who was a student at the Royal College of Music in London. They became dear friends of mine. He was born in Columbia, Tennessee.68 66

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 13, 2011.

67

Tennessee Tech University, “Past Presidents,” Tennessee Tech University, http://www.tntech.edu/about/presidents (accessed March 10, 2012). 68

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 13, 2011.

31 Julian entered Tennessee Polytechnic Institute as an English major since a degree in music was not offered at that time. The music department consisted of three faculty members and offered a limited number of courses, but he took all of the music classes offered in preparation for a future career in music education and participated in various performing ensembles. Julian played trumpet in the concert and marching bands and violin in the orchestra. Enrollment in the university ensembles was limited due, in part, to the size of the school and its leadership. When asked about the performing ensembles, Julian responded: Oh yes! Mr. Maurice Hayes was the band director and the head of the department. He held the positions when I returned to teach at Tennessee Tech. I enjoyed playing in the bands. I played trumpet in the bands and violin in the small orchestra.69 Though the music department was small, it had historical notoriety. A prominent young American composer and Tennessee native, Charles Faulkner Bryan served as head of the music department from 1935-39. Though Bryan’s tenure was short, his leadership and influence laid a solid foundation and future expectation for the music department. Bryan was the first Tennessee composer awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship for musical composition in 1946-47. On March 27, 1942 at Alumni Memorial Auditorium in Knoxville, Tennessee, the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, under the direction of Eugene Goosens, premiered the second movement of Bryan’s White Spiritual Symphony (1937).70 Julian discussed with pride the significance of Bryan’s life and his impact on TPI and the music culture of Tennessee:

69

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 26, 2011.

70

Livingston, Carolyn, Charles Faulkner Bryan: His life and Music (Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 2003), 29-39, 85-122.

32 Even though he had left before I entered school at Tech, Charles Faulkner Bryan had served as head of the music department. He was one of the great musical talents of Tennessee. He was a wonderful teacher, composer, and musician. He died at a very early age though. He developed the music department and brought it to level of respectability. He was a Guggenheim Fellowship winner and composed works for all mediums. I believe that he wrote a folk song that used the story of the hanging of the Braswell brothers. He was quite an extraordinary individual and talent. It is a shame that the music community of Tennessee has not truly appreciated him.71 It was during his years at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute that Julian met Dr. Sidney McGee, head of the foreign language department. Dr. McGee was the second major influence on Julian’s life. Just as Ohlinger had encouraged and fostered his musical ambitions, McGee encouraged and mentored Julian to experience and aspire to the finer aspects of life. Julian recalled McGee’s impact on his life as mentor and friend: Yes, Sidney McGee, he was the head of the Foreign Language department. He was a dear friend and a great influence on my life. When he was there, he and his wife took me to the community concerts in Nashville, Chattanooga, and sometimes in Knoxville. Community concerts were a great thing during those years. Their kindness and encouragement meant a great deal to me. He was a mentor and friend who taught me how to broaden my life expectations. There was certainly more to life than just within the confines of Cookeville.72 On December 7, 1941, the Empire of Japan attacked the United States at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. The following day, the United States entered World War II. Julian enlisted in the United States Navy in 1943 at the age of 21 while a student at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute. Many of Julian’s peers in the band field served in World War II. They were members of what historians referred to as the “greatest generation” due, in part, to their sacrifice and service to their country. Their wartime experiences were vast and varied including the specter of death. The magnitude of the war affected the lives of

71

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 26, 2011.

72

Ibid.

33 all who served. Julian entered the war having spent his first twenty-one years of life sheltered in Silver Point, Tennessee. Like so many of the men and women who served in the war, Julian faced an uncertain future. He recalled his first months in service: I entered the B12 program, B7 or B12 program; it was one of them. Well, we went through the basics in Little Creek, Virginia, and then I went to Midshipman's school at Northwestern University. Actually, it was at Northwestern downtown. I stayed at the barracks across from the old Water Tower in Chicago. After several months I completed the training. We were called "ninety day wonders." After completing Midshipman's school I had the rank of Ensign. After all of that, I shipped out to the brutal war. I was commissioned at the rank of Ensign. It was the lowest officer rank in the Navy, like a second lieutenant in the Army.73 When he was sent to Midshipman School at Northwestern University in Chicago, Julian experienced his first extended stay in a major city outside of Tennessee. The attraction to Chicago and Northwestern was apparent due to the fact that he would return to the university as a student after the war. After he successfully finished his officer training, he embarked to join the South Pacific fleet on the LSM 318, a “landing ship medium” with a crew of fifty designed to transport cargo to beach landing areas (see Figure 3).

Figure 3. Julian in naval uniform, circa 1944. Photograph used with permission of WJ Julian.

73

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 26, 2011.

34 Julian explained his training and the subsequent trip on the LSM 318 to the Pacific: We got our ship in Chicago and did our training in Lake Michigan that can be mighty rough. After that we floated down the Chicago River to the Mississippi river. We stopped in Memphis and New Orleans. It was a great trip. We went through the Panama Canal and down to the Society Islands. That was a US Naval base during World War II. I have several pictures of the island. We were only there for a short time. It is now a great resort area.74 The LSM 318 took part in the Battle of Leyte Gulf in October of 1944, and then participated in the Battle of Ormoc Bay in December of 1944. These battles were part of the American strategy to re-capture Japanese occupied territory and mark the return of General Douglas MacArthur to the Philippine Islands. Julian declared, “It was the first invasion of the Philippine Islands by the Americans. We cleared the beach for him [MacArthur] to come in. Actually, we cleared the beach for the photographers so they could take a picture of him. [laughter]”75 The battle of Leyte Gulf marked the first time that the Japanese employed the use of kamikaze air attacks. On December 7, 1944, enemy airplanes attacked the LMS 318 after making a successful landing at Ormoc Bay. The following narrative by Julian recounted the engagement: We were stranded on the beach during the initial invasion. To get off the beach you have a bow anchor. Well, it didn't drop. We had to wait for the tide to come in. The convoy went off and left us and we were there on the beach by ourselves. The Japanese were waiting until we finally went out to sea. You could see them flying around. We went out to sea and a kamikaze hit our ship and sunk us.76 Author Robin Rielly authored a book detailing kamikaze attacks on American ships during World War II. The following is an excerpt of the attack on the LSM 318: LSM 318 had successfully discharged her cargo when she came under attack as she attempted to retract from the beach. Three Betty bombers and four Oscar 74

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 26, 2011.

75

Ibid.

76

Ibid.

35 fighters overflew the area and dropped some bombs, but they missed the ships. LSM 318 and 19 along with an LCI, were similar sitting ducks, but they all escaped damage. Once the ships had retracted from the beach they maneuvered to join their convoy. Army P-38s kept the enemy planes at bay until around 1525 when four Oscars went after the ships. As one Oscar attacked the LSM 18, two made a run on LSM 318 and were taken under fire. LSM 318’s gunners were on target and shot down one of the Oscars bound for her and also the one that was going after LSM 18. According to LSM 318’s action report: “the third OSCAR passed overhead [it appeared that they over estimated the height of the target and overshot]. He continued out over the water, flying low on a course that took him out on our Starboard beam for a distance of about 8000 yards [estimated]. He then went into a climbing turn to Port, apparently to gain altitude for his next attack.” As he turned a P-38 tried to shoot him down but missed. The Oscar came in low on the water, followed by the P-38. Gunners on the 318 tried in vain to shoot the plane down, but it crashed into the starboard side of the ship at the waterline. Its bomb penetrated the ship’s side and exploded in the engine room. LSM 318’s steering was disabled, along with her port engine and both generators. With her rudder jammed to full right, the LSM circled and attempted to put out her fires. As frequently happened with ships attacked in this manner, her fire-fighting equipment, lines, pumps and other apparatus were damaged, making effective fire-fighting problematic. Other ships attempted to assist in fighting her fires, but persistent enemy air attacks prevented their success. The order had to be given to abandon ship and, in the early hours of 8 December, she sank.77 Displayed in Julian’s home is a photograph of the horrific kamikaze attack on the LSM 318 (see Figure 4).

Figure 4. Explosion of LSM 318 after kamikaze attack on December 7, 1944. Photograph used with permission from WJ Julian. 77

Rielly, Robin L., Kamikaze Attacks of World War II: A Complete History of Japanese Suicide Strikes on American Ships, by Aircraft and Other Means, (Jefferson, NC: McFarland Publishers, 2010), 144.

36

Julian survived the attack and eventually made it to shore where he experienced enemy gunfire, and gave a description of the event: So, we abandoned ship. We were finally picked up and brought back to Leyte beach. We were scattered everywhere. We were about to be turned in and an enlisted man saw me and gave me his foxhole because he knew our condition. He knew we couldn't build a foxhole. The next morning, the seven others who were wounded, not seriously though, were dropped off at the hospital. I went right on hitchhiking across Leyte Gulf to Tacloban, the capital of Leyte. I met my captain later since he was not there yet, and reported to him. He went back to the states. Finally, the crew came to Leyte and we went down to New Guinea where we spent the Christmas holidays. We finally got a ship back to San Francisco. It was quite an ordeal.78 After Julian arrived in San Francisco, he attended performances of the San Francisco Symphony and enjoyed the city. Julian never waivered from his dedication to experiencing musical events and enriching his life, even while fighting in a world war. The time he spent in San Francisco was meaningful to Julian as he described: After we were brought back to San Francisco, which is when I feel in love with that city since we stayed there for a while, we had no uniforms. The Navy relief, not the Red Cross, gave me my uniform. All I had was dirty clothes when I made it to San Francisco. While I was there I went to hear the San Francisco Orchestra with Pierre Monteux, one of the great conductors of the world. The people in San Francisco were just so wonderful. You would think they would be tired of service people, but they were great. There was a lady who must have been very wealthy that we met at the symphony. She invited us to her home for tea. It was a fabulous home on Knob Hill where she had her servants bring out tea and all. It was people like that who were just so nice to us servicemen. I went back to the Pacific on another ship. One good thing about having your ship sunk, if you survived, you got a thirty day leave to go home. I was assigned to another ship in Honolulu, the LSM 367. I was on that ship the rest of the war.79 College Years at Northwestern University After his honorable discharge in 1946, Julian returned home to Silver Point. He decided to take advantage of the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944, or commonly 78

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 26, 2011.

79

Ibid.

37 known as the “GI Bill,” to complete his college education. After visiting several universities including Northwestern and Columbia, he wrote to the registrar at Northwestern and inquired about admittance. Julian described the process of selecting a school to attend after his service: I visited several different universities like Columbia and Northwestern. Mr. McClay, who was the registrar at Northwestern and became my friend later on, answered my letter about admission. They were so nice about it, and I went to Northwestern. I received three degrees from the most expensive school in America for free on the GI Bill. It was great! I would cut off my time at Christmas and the holidays. You had only so much time to finish your schoolwork on the GI Bill. It was the greatest thing in the world for people wanting to go to school after the war.80 Many historians credited the enactment of the GI Bill as a turning point in American social history that greatly affected the creation of the modern “middle class” in American society. Established to provide unprecedented benefits for returning veterans, it was comprised of four primary components: housing benefits, heath benefits, unemployment benefits, and education benefits. With regards to the education benefits, any veteran with ninety or more days of service were entitled to receive education and training for a period of forty-eight months with payments of $500 per year for tuition and a monthly stipend for other living expenses.81 Julian took advantage of the GI Bill and carefully planned his education path at Northwestern and methodically calculated the amount of time needed to accomplish his goals. He earned his Bachelor of Music, Master of Music, and Doctor of Philosophy degrees from Northwestern that were paid for by the GI Bill.

80

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 26, 2011.

81

Spaudling, Donald J., “The Four Major GI Bills: A Historical Study of Shifting National Purposes and the Accompanying Changes in Economic Value to Veterans,” (EdD diss., University of North Texas, 2000), 28-29.

38 As a student at Northwestern, Julian performed in the concert and marching bands playing trumpet and violin in the orchestra. His band director, Glenn Cliffe Bainum, was one of the early pioneers of the modern college band movement and the first director of bands at Northwestern (see Figure 5). Bainum transcribed numerous works for concert

Figure 5. Julian, left, with Glenn Cliffe Bainum, right, circa 1962. Photograph used with permission from the University of Tennessee band archive. band and was credited as an innovator of the charting system for marching bands. His bands were the first to use mimeographed charts for drill instruction. Julian used Bainum’s charting and teaching systems when he taught at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute and the University of Tennessee. Among some notable classmates of Julian at Northwestern were John Paynter, successor to Bainum and Ed Gangware, director of bands at Northeastern Illinois University. Both of these men and Julian were past presidents of the American Bandmasters Association among many other notable accomplishments. The music faculty at Northwestern included some of the finest teachers and musicians in the region. His applied study teachers were mostly musicians from the Chicago Symphony. He took violin from Victor Charbulak, Chicago Symphony member from 1922-1967, and percussion from Edward Metzenger, Chicago Symphony member

39 and principal timpanist from 1932-1963. Julian recounted his lessons with Metzenger at Symphony Hall. “Northwestern would have the top players from the symphony to teach. I took percussion lessons from Mr. Metzenger who was the timpanist with the Chicago Symphony. I took lessons from him for two or three years. I would go down to Orchestra Hall on Friday afternoon after their concert, and he would give me lessons.”82 Victor Charbulak and his wife, Kate, were major influences on Julian’s life. They joined the cherished inner circle with Constance Ohlinger from Baxter Seminary and Sidney McGee from Tennessee Polytechnic Institute as significant mentors, teachers, and friends. Julian described the Charbulak’s influence and their positions: Yes. I had great teachers. One of those teachers was Mr. Charbulak who was a great influence on my life. He was the Assistant Concertmaster for the Chicago Symphony. He and his wife, Kate, practically adopted me. They were great people. I was with them for years. Kate was the official timekeeper for the Chicago Symphony. I sat with her during the concerts. Her job was very important. They needed to know the time of each tune. It was a very important because time is so important. The concerts would start at 8:00 pm or 8:15 pm and needed to end by 11:00 pm or the audience could not get the elevators or subways to make it home. They took all of this into consideration. So, it was very important to know the timing of the concert.83 Julian’s academic course work was typical for those majoring in music. He took the required classes and progressed through the curriculum. His master’s thesis dealt with the topic of left-handedness. Since he was a left-handed violinist, this research was appropriate. In the acknowledgment of his thesis he thanked Mr. Traugott Rohner, founder of the Instrumentalist magazine and music faculty member at the Northwestern University for his “encouragement and assistance in the preparation of this unusual and

82

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 26, 2011.

83

Ibid.

40 seldom discussed study.”84 Though the subject matter was unusual, the exhaustive research was remarkable. Julian wrote letters to prominent musicians, teachers, and conductors concerning their views on this subject. He received replies from Eugene Ormandy, Bruno Walter, Leopold Stokowski, Fabien Sevitsky, Johnny Long, and representatives from the Buescher, C.G. Conn, and Martin instrument companies. Concerning the issue of left-handed violin playing, Julian commented: I have several articles on handedness. There was a great violinist whom I knew, Rudolf Kolisch who played left-handed. He was the brother-in-law of Arnold Schoenberg. At that time he had a great quartet, the Pro-Arte String Quartet. I visited with him and enjoyed the time we spent together. As I said he was the brother-in-law of Schoenberg, but he didn't care for his music. [laughter] He was quite a gentleman. Later, when the string quartet dissolved, he had another one at the University of Wisconsin. He was a string professor at Wisconsin. He would bring his string quartet to Chicago and perform at the music series at the University of Chicago. There were sixteen concerts given in the spring. I would take the elevator to the subway and go to the other side of the town [from Northwestern University] to hear the concerts. I remember hearing Segovia, Albert Spaulding, Adolph Busch, the great violinist, and Kolisch. That was quite an experience at the University of Chicago.85 Julian persisted in communicating with the most respected and informed in the music field. The pursuit of excellence in all areas permeated his life and impacted his students and those associated with him. Julian finished his doctoral dissertation in 1954 while teaching at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute. Entitled, “Improvability of Timbre Discrimination,” the primary purpose of the study was to determine whether or not timbre discrimination was subject to improvement and to determine whether or not the ear could be trained to analyze the component parts of a musical tone.86 84

Julian, WJ, “Handedness: A Concern for Instrumentalists,” (master’s thesis, Northwestern University, 1949). 85

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 13, 2011.

86

Julian, WJ, “Improvability of Timbre Discrimination,” (PhD diss., Northwestern University,

1954), 1.

41 As a graduate student at Northwestern, Julian started his teaching career at the National College of Education that was renamed in 1990 as the National-Louis University. From 1948 to 1950, he taught music appreciation and directed the children’s orchestra. During these formative teaching years at the National College of Education, he worked with two progressive pioneers in children’s education, Edna Dean Baker and her sister, Clara. Edna Dean served as the second president of the college following Elizabeth Harrison, founder and first president. The college was founded on a radical educational concept to train women to teach kindergarten. This concept grew in acceptance to the point that kindergarten became an accepted component of public school education in today’s society. Julian’s exposure to cutting-edge educational philosophies and the people whose tenacity promoted and implemented these concepts bolstered his pursuit of excellence in his career and life. Julian recalled his experience at the National College of Education: I did teach at the National College of Education in Chicago while I was attending Northwestern. I guess that is still a great school. It was a very expensive private school located just north of Evanston, Illinois. Edna Dean Baker and her sister, Clara, were great educators at that school and were well known throughout the world. I taught music appreciation and the children's orchestra. It was a great school with an outstanding faculty. It was really my first teaching experience.87 Julian’s association with Northwestern University as a student and graduate was a point of tremendous pride. One of Julian’s fondest memories during his time at Northwestern centered around a celebrated sporting event, the 1949 Rose Bowl football game when the Northwestern Wildcats upset the California Golden Bears by a score of 20-14. The Northwestern marching band made the trip to California by train, but on their return trip they were snow-bound outside of Cheyenne, Wyoming for several days. They 87

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 26, 2011.

42 were scheduled to arrive in Chicago before the football team, but the team and a large student contingency gathered to welcome the band. Julian, though a graduate student, marched with the band. He recalled the events of the Rose Bowl trip with great enthusiasm: We took the train to the game on a southern route, and took the train back to Chicago on a northern route. We were snow-bound in Cheyenne, Wyoming for four days due to a large snowstorm. Actually, there were several trains stranded there. We didn't arrive back into Chicago or Northwestern until the eighth of January. We had missed a whole week of school. [laughter] The band got more of a reception at our arrival than the team.88 At Northwestern, Julian received a disciplined and thorough education, experienced world-class musical concerts, interacted with some of the nation’s finest musicians, and formalized a teaching philosophy based on a demand for excellence, whether in the classroom, marching field, concert hall, practice room, or office that served him throughout his career. Teaching at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute Julian accepted the position of professor of music at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute in 1950. It marked a return to his home state, alma mater, and the area of his upbringing. He remained in Tennessee the rest of his professional career. The music faculty at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute consisted of four members. His responsibilities were varied, but did not include the band program at first. After the head of the music department, Maurice Hayes, left the school in 1952, Julian was named director of bands. During his first three years at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute, he concurrently served as the band director at Cookeville Central High School that concluded his public school teaching experience. He reflected on those early years and his teaching assignments: 88

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 26, 2011.

43 I did just about everything since there were only three or four faculty members in the music department at TPI. I taught strings and had a little orchestra. I did not have the band at that time, but I taught band at Central High School in Cookeville for two or three years. We had a concert band and marching band at Central. They were good bands. Then, Mr. Hayes left, and I took over the band at TPI.89 Julian continued his remarks about the state of the music program at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute and music education programs in Tennessee: It was pretty bad, but it was a very young program. You had the head of department, Mr. Hayes. Actually, Charlie Bryan taught at Tech a few years before that. He was a great composer and fine musician. In fact, there is a book that was written about Charles Bryan. It was a small faculty at Tech, but most schools had small music faculties at that time. The most impressive music school in Tennessee was the George Peabody College for Teachers in Nashville. It was a world-class school. I did attend Peabody during the summers. It was a great school especially in the summer. Peabody has a beautiful campus and buildings. You would have several thousand of teachers attend Peabody during the summer. It had great teachers like violinist Alexander Ponder. He was the assistant conductor of the Nashville Symphony. They had a very fine band and orchestra. Back then there were no teaching departments at universities or education departments. You had the teacher colleges like Peabody and many others. Peabody has a beautiful campus and buildings. Outside of Peabody College there were smaller programs at the state school, but all were young.90 In addition to his academic studies at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute and Northwestern University, Julian attended George Peabody College in Nashville, Tennessee, as previously noted, and Carson Newman College in Maryville, Tennessee for additional coursework. One of Julian’s accomplishments during his tenure at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute was the growth of the instrumental program. When he took over as director of bands, the marching band grew from eighty members to over one hundred forty members by his departure in 1960. Julian implemented the teaching and charting strategies he

89

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 26, 2011.

90

Ibid.

44 learned from Glenn Cliffe Bainum at Northwestern. Several prominent Tennessee band directors were students of Julian during these years who established and maintained highly successful band programs: Walter McDaniel (Lebanon and Lenoir City), Bill Hull (Columbia High School), Kenny Hull (McGavock High School), Harold Wilmoth (Tyner High School), Robert Johnson (Dickson High School), Norman Woodall (Knoxville Central), and Wayne Pegram (Murfreesboro Central and Tennessee Tech University). Julian commented about these graduates and their respective programs: They directed and built some of the best programs in Tennessee. Norman Woodall at Hixson and Knoxville Central, Walter McDaniel at Lebanon and Lenoir City, Bill Hull in Columbia, Kenny Hull at McGavock, Wayne Pegram in Murfreesboro, Robert Johnson in Dickson, Tennessee, Harold Wilmoth at Tyner in Chattanooga were all students of mine. Most did not go to the Nashville schools since they were "roving" teachers that would move from school to school. You cannot build a good program that way. Even today there are only a handful of truly successful band programs in Nashville. The Overton Band is one of them with Jo Ann Hood. She is a dear friend of mine.91 When asked about existing distinguished band programs in the State of Tennessee during these years, Julian reflected on several programs in the state of Tennessee: Mr. Ralph Hale at Christian Brothers in Memphis had a fine concert program. It is one of the oldest high school band programs in the United States. A. E. McClain's program at Memphis Central High School was excellent. It was a 100-piece concert band. A. R. Casavant's program at Central High in Chattanooga was very fine. I got most of his students at Tech. He was a fine teacher. He had a very fine concert band and marching band. Of course, he was heavily involved with the marching drills and wrote many books about precision drill. He offended a lot of people because he spoke the truth. O’Dell Willis at Knoxville Central had a good concert band and was a good friend of mine. We established the O’Dell Willis Instrumental Conducting Scholarship Concert at Tennessee in honor of him.92 The success of Julian’s tenure at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute was evident by the growth of the instrumental program and the quality of music education graduates. 91

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 26, 2011.

92

Ibid.

45 Specifically, the band program grew through unilateral hard work, discipline, and a constant demand for excellence required by Julian. His leadership, teaching, organization, and recruitment strategies laid a quality foundation for the band program for continued success. The current band program at Tennessee Tech University has two full-time faculty members who direct three concert ensembles, the marching band, and basketball pep bands. It is worthy to note that Julian fielded several of the largest marching bands at Tennessee Tech during his tenure between 1950-1960. He reflected about his tenure and time in Cookeville: I enjoyed being at Tech, but I had my conflicts with some administrators, and I let it be known. Of course, I had the president of Tech on my side, or I would have been fired. I was very fortunate to have taught at Tech at that time. I had the support of Everett Derryberry, our president, he was a very dear friend, and Mrs. Derryberry was a colleague and teacher at Tech. He was a brilliant man, Rhodes scholar, and an All-SEC football player at the University of Tennessee. He was a native of Columbia, TN. I did my best to ensure that we had the very best program and represented the school with excellence. Some students may have thought my methods were harsh, but I hoped they understood that excellence involves work and discipline. There were many challenges since recruiting fine musicians was, at times, difficult. I do believe that what was established during those years served the school and students in a positive way.93 Conclusion The success of the band program at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute garnered the attention of the administration at the University of Tennessee in 1960. Progressive changes initiated by university officials at Tennessee concerning the direction of the Tennessee band program resulted in Julian leaving Cookeville to become the first designated director of bands at the University of Tennessee. His tenure at Tennessee defined his career and, in reference to Churchill’s measurement, “made lasting impressions” as one of the significant individuals of the university band movement. 93

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 26, 2011.

46 CHAPTER III DIRECTOR OF BANDS, UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE, KNOXVILLE From 1961 until his retirement in 1993, WJ Julian served as professor of music and music education and director of bands at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. His vision, organizational skills, teaching abilities, verve, and unwavering pursuit of excellence enabled him to facilitate the transformation of a regional Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) sponsored marching band into a nationally prominent comprehensive university band program. Chapter III briefly outlines the history of the music and band programs at the University of Tennessee prior to 1961, Julian’s appointment as director of bands, his impact on the “Pride of the Southland” marching band and the development of the concert band program. Overview of Music Department and Band Program Prior to 1961 In 1947, the Department of Fine Arts was established within the College of Liberal Arts and encompassed both the music and art departments. Conductor, composer, flutist, David Van Vactor was named to lead the Department of Fine Arts while serving as the newly appointed conductor of the Knoxville Symphony. The Department of Music and Art Education remained in the College of Education and was administratively separate from the Department of Fine Arts though both departments shared facilities, personnel, and students. When Mr. Van Vactor assumed the position of department head, the music faculty consisted of two full-time faculty members, Van Vactor and pianist, Alfred L. Schmied, and several adjunct applied teachers. Van Vactor resigned as head of the Department of Music in 1952 and was replaced with Schmied who served as department head for the next twenty years. The Bachelor of Music degree program was

47 initiated in 1953. Concurrently, music education separated from art education and became a department within the College of Education with Dr. Erwin Schneider as departmental head. It is important to note that in 1991, the Board of Trustees approved the merger of the Department of Music Education and the Department of Music into one department in the College of Liberal Arts after forty-four years of co-existence and cohabitation that was at times contentious.94 The first band at the University of Tennessee was formed in 1869 as a component of the university’s cadet corps. The band would remain under the auspices of the cadet corps, later to become the Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC), until 1960. The cadet corps was established as a provision Morrill Act of 1862, or “Land Grant Act,” when the University of Tennessee was designated a “land-grant” institution by the Board of Trustees in 1869. The Morrill Act stated, in part: All moneys derived from the sale of lands as provided in section 302 of this title by the States to which lands are apportioned and from the sales of land script provided for in said section shall be invested in bonds of the United States or of the States or some other safe bonds; or the same may be invested by the States having no State bonds, in any manner after the legislatures of such States shall have assented thereto and engaged that such funds shall yield a fair and reasonable rate of return, to be fixed by the State legislatures, and that the principal thereof shall forever remain unimpaired: Provided, That the moneys so invested or loaned shall constitute a perpetual fund, the capital of which shall remain forever undiminished [except so far as may be provided in section 305 of this title], and the interest of which shall be inviolably appropriated, by each State which may take and claim the benefit of this subchapter, to the endowment, support, and maintenance of at least one college where the leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the legislatures of the States may respectively

94

University of Tennessee School of Music, “History of the School of Music,” University of Tennessee, http://www.music.utk.edu/history.html (accessed June 9, 2012).

48 prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life.95 Many university band programs throughout the country were established in the same manner. The initial instrumentation of the Tennessee band consisted of all cornets and was directed by a cadet. In 1892, the band was reorganized, and Ernest Garratt, an experienced musician who served as an organist and Glee Club director, was named as the first official bandmaster. William Knabe was appointed as the second bandmaster in 1901, and the band had grown to seventeen members. The first documented performance of the Tennessee band at a football game occurred on November 1, 1902 when Tennessee defeated Sewanee by a score of 6-0. There is no evidence that suggested the band marched at this performance. William Crouch was appointed as the third bandmaster in 1917. During Crouch’s tenure the band doubled in size, wore surplus WWI uniforms, performed at games (marching and playing), and included female sponsors. By 1925, the Tennessee band had an enrollment of forty-five members. In 1925, the fourth bandmaster appointed to lead the band was Ernest Hall. Under Hall the band achieved many accomplishments: enrollment grew to eighty-five members; established one of the longest surviving college marching traditions that consists of forming an inter-locking “UT” while playing Spirit of the Hill and concluding with the alma mater after each half-time performance; added female marchers, the “Volettes” who were non-playing members; introduced a new fight song, Fight, Vols Fight!, written by Hall and premiered at the 1940 Orange Bowl; named Mildred Alexander as the first majorette in 1939; and

95

Cornell University Law School, “Investment of proceeds of sale of land or script,” Cornell University, http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/7/304 (accessed June 10, 2012).

49 introduced the first female playing members into the band, Martha Carroll and Peggy Calloway, in 1940.96 Major Walter Ryba was appointed as the fifth bandmaster in 1941. He served as the properties master for the Army and Air Force ROTC at the Knoxville campus and was a former member of the famed John Philip Sousa Band as a French hornist. Under Ryba’s direction the band featured themed half-time shows with costumes, increased enrollment, and participated in the 1956 inaugural parade of President Eisenhower. During the 1949 season, Ed Harris, a sportswriter for the Knoxville Journal was credited with dubbing the University of Tennessee marching band, the “Pride of the Southland,” a title that has remained with the band to the present. Debate concerning the credit and creation of the name persists. In a letter dated August 13, 2006 to Dr. Gary Sousa, current director of bands at the University of Tennessee, from Mr. Bill Strange, member of the Tennessee band from 1946-1950, Mr. Strange recalled that the name of the “Pride of The Southland” was decided by a group of band members, including Strange, after they “had heard enough about Alabama’s ‘Million Dollar Band.’ Strange gave specific credit to Bob Cochrain for the moniker. In 1960, after ninety-one years of serving as a component of the ROTC program, the band was moved, administratively, into the Department of Music Education. The move made a significant impact on the band program in regards to student enrollment and its role within the university. The move signaled a positive shift in the attitude of the university administration towards the marching band. After serving nineteen years as the bandmaster of the “Pride of the Southland” marching band, Major Ryba retired at the conclusion of the 1960 football season. 96

University of Tennessee Bands, “Marching Band History,” University of Tennessee, http://www.web.utk.edu/~utband/content/bands/marching_history.html (accessed June 18, 2012).

50 Julian Appointed Director of Bands at the University of Tennessee In January of 1961, after a highly successful tenure at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute, Julian was hired as the sixth bandmaster, but was the first designated as “director of bands” at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Julian recounted the hiring process and the state of the band program when he arrived: I interviewed with Dr. Andy Holt, President of the University of Tennessee, and Dr. Herman Spivey, Provost. He [Holt] was a fantastic person with high standards. There were others from the athletic department, like Gus Manning. They were all present, and I started in January. I did not want to start in the fall since there was planning, recruitment, and general preparations to make before the summer began. The current band program was in somewhat of disarray. It was horrible, to be blunt. The program was under the auspices of the ROTC with Major Walter Ryba as the director. He wasn’t the best administrator. They had no organized concert band. The only real active part was the marching band. Ryba was actually the custodian of the ROTC program that included maintenance of equipment and uniforms. It was unbelievable that the university would have that kind of situation. He had already left when I arrived. The band room was under the stadium in the north end. It was a large space for rehearsal. There was an office area and storage for instruments and uniforms.97 Julian immediately began work in preparation for the 1961-62 school year. His unique ability to organize and administer served him well for the task of establishing the framework to build a comprehensive band program. Julian quickly replied when asked about his early short-term goals for the Tennessee band program: I guess just to survive [laughter]. I had the support from everybody. It was quite an exciting time actually. The administration led by Dr. Holt and Dr. Spivey, the athletic administration with Gus Manning and Coach Woodruff, the athletic director, were all very supportive. It was very pleasant from the beginning. The administration had made the decision to move the band program to the music education department, academically speaking. Dr. Schmied, the director of the music department at that time did not have anything to do with the move. I am not sure if he ever saw the marching band or concert band. Dr. Schmied was a pianist and had very little do with the band program. I was really free to do what needed

97

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

51 to be done to establish a university band program because of the backing from the university administration.98 University of Tennessee Emeritus President, Joseph Johnson, who worked in various administrative roles for the university from 1963 until 1991 when he was named president, commented about Julian’s hiring and its initial impact on the band program: I became acquainted with Jay when I was hired by President Andy Holt to be his Executive Assistant in 1963. Not long before that, Jay was hired from Tennessee Tech to come to Tennessee to replace Major Ryba. I worked with him as Executive Assistant, Vice President, and President at the University of Tennessee. I was president when he retired. I was in the UT graduate school in 1956, then in the military, then back in at UT in 1958 and 1959. I observed the band from a different perspective. The difference between the band before Julian and after he arrived was daylight and dark. I think part of it was, in Dr. Holt’s hiring Dr. Julian, that Dr. Julian set some standards for himself and the university. I imagine that Dr. Julian would have said, ‘if I am going to come to UT, then here are some things we have to do: we have to have a larger band, it has to look good, it has to be dressed better, we have to have excellent instruments,’ and so forth. I think he just came in and said ‘what you’ve had before maybe was all right with you, but it is not all right with me. I am not going to direct a band on the field anywhere that the university can’t be proud of, and I can’t be proud of.’ I saw the former band, and it was a need for major improvement. Ryba was not a band director in the sense of the term. I don’t blame it all on Ryba because we accepted it. Dr. Julian would not have taken the job if it were going remain the same. There are several things that impressed me about Dr. Julian, and I always knew him as an administrator in some role: number one, his high standards for the members of his band. He had very high standards. He did not accept second rate. That is a quality of any outstanding faculty member, or anybody else. You have to have high expectations. He also had high expectations of himself. He set high standards. He was creative. He desired to be the best and worked hard at it. He didn’t say I am going to be the best, then except the mediocrity. We are representing, I am representing, and you are representing the University of Tennessee. So, I guess setting high standards, commitment to being the best, and never accepting second best are wonderful characteristics. As tough as he could be, and he was, on his band members, the affection that a lot of them have thirty or forty years later is impressive.99 The administration of the University of Tennessee made a significant decision to cultivate the development of the band program with the selection of Julian in 1961. The swift and 98

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

99

Joseph Johnson, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, May 25, 2011.

52 progressive strides that occurred during his career were extraordinary. Julian finished his remarkable career at the University of Tennessee in 1993 after guiding the Tennessee band program from a regional existence to national acclaim. His accomplishments as the director of bands established him as one of the significant figures in the university band movement (see Figure 6).

Figure 6. Julian conducting the “Pride of the Southland” marching band, circa 1987. Photograph used with permission from the University of Tennessee band archive. “Pride of the Southland” Marching Band By 1961, many college marching bands flourished throughout the country due, in part, to the aforementioned “GI Bill,” television exposure, university funding and support, general interest of students who wanted to extend their marching opportunities in college, and effective directors of bands. Julian explained his philosophy concerning the Tennessee marching band when assumed leadership:

53 First of all, it was important to survive and keep the resources available to advance and continue the marching band. It was to entertain the fans and to support the football team and represent the university on all levels. There wasn’t much tradition at UT when I arrived. There were very few good marching bands in the country for that matter. It was very limited.100 The Tennessee program had an influential leader and administrator with Julian and his 1961 “Pride of Southland” marching band was a dramatic contrast to the prior Tennessee bands. Notable changes included: an immediate increase in enrollment to 128 members that represented the largest marching band in their history; new uniforms were introduced; the pregame and halftime shows were based upon current drill writing techniques; the music was custom arranged by assistant band director Barry McDonald; meticulous organization, discipline, and adherence to excellence was instilled; and a new system of learning shows was adopted that required each member to use drill charts and were individually responsible for their position on the field at all times. John Culvahouse, Tennessee band member from 1971-74 and president of the National Band Association, remarked about Julian’s leadership and organization abilities: He had vision and passion to produce a good product. He placed emphasis on a concert and marching program. Everything was dealt with in a serious, if not vehement manner. I am sure that he could be heard throughout the campus at marching rehearsal without the help of any sound system. He was an effective director of bands with a complete program. He placed great importance on everything he did, and those of us who followed as band directors used his model. Everything is important. Organization was great and down to the smallest detail. You arrived early to go on a trip to get your money from him, sign for it and take it out of his hand, then you had time to go have the doughnuts, milk, and apples that were there for us. If he did not do it himself, then he surrounded himself with those that knew how to do it and done the right way. Just look at what happens every Saturday on a game day. Everything is ordered, scheduled, and runs like a machine. It is still basically the same today.101

100

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

101

John Culvahouse, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

54 It is important to note that Julian had the foresight and organizational skills to establish an archival system for marching band. The archive, organized by year, includes pregame and halftime scripts, pregame charts, halftime charts, and videos of pregame and halftime shows. It documents the history of the Tennessee marching band from 1961 to the present. The archive was an invaluable tool for the author’s research. Establishing Traditions After ninety-one years of existence, the Tennessee marching band’s enrollment did not exceed 100 members. Due to Julian’s leadership and persuasive recruiting abilities, the band’s membership rose from 128 students in his first season to 250 students by 1969, to over 300 students by 1992. The sweeping changes that took place throughout Julian’s early years at Tennessee led to the creation of enduring traditions of the program. The distinctive uniform of the current marching band was the first such tradition established by Julian. After his arrival at Tennessee, Julian contacted Fruhauf Uniforms about designing a new uniform for the Tennessee band. Since its introduction in 1961, the uniform has remained the same. Julian reminisced about the uniform change and the poor condition of the existing uniforms: The old uniforms were not in good condition and were poorly designed. They consisted of white pants, an orange jacket, and white hats. You could distinguish the year the pants were bought due to the amount of wear and the “yellowing” of the color. I am not like some band directors who think they can design a uniform. I left that to the professionals. Mr. Fruhauf and his company designed the uniform. That was their job and they designed a great uniform for the band. The uniform design is still used today and is still bought from Fruhauf. It is one of the highest quality uniforms in the country. There have been no changes made to the design since we first introduced them.102

102

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

55 John Culvahouse referred to a discussion that occurred during his student years at Tennessee when a uniform change was considered, “I was in the band when there was talk of changing parts of the uniform. Helmets, like those of the Phantom Regiment, were considered. We all were adamant for not changing. So, nothing changed and the uniform is the same today as when it first appeared with Dr. Julian.103 Other traditions established during Julian’s tenure that enhanced the aura of the “Pride of the Southland” included: the development of the “circle drill” halftime shows, the establishment and innovation of the pregame show, the opening of the large “T” for the football team entrance; the introduction of Rocky Top to the Tennessee fan base; the autonomous role of the drum major, the excellence and collegiate standards set by the majorette line, the formation of the alumni band association, Presidential inaugural parade representation, the establishment of the band scholarship fund, and the close association with the University of Tennessee athletic department. Dr. Gary Sousa, current director of bands at the University of Tennessee, commented on the traditions of the Tennessee marching band and Julian’s impact: A priority of mine has always been to try to find our history and preserve it. One of the things that we do in our program, the Tennessee band program is over one hundred forty years old, is with the freshman. The night the upper-classmen arrive, we send them to the field and bring the freshman inside alone, and I give a presentation on the total history of the Tennessee band program. This includes pictures and videos about when events happened, then they receive an orientation about the uniform and its history. It really is a history of the program and traditions of the band. Everyone who comes through here, even though they have never had any interaction with Dr. Julian except when he directs the alma mater at homecoming, know who he is and exactly what he did. The students realize that much of what happens currently was because of him. The fact that they get treated so well, the expectation of the quality of travel, the amount of money they receive for a trip, are all because of this man. Many of the current student’s

103

John Culvahouse, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

56 parents were in the band and marched under Dr. Julian. There are many legacies that happen that make them realize what Dr. Julian did for this program.104 When asked to comment on Julian’s contributions to the Tennessee marching band traditions, Wayne Tipps, University of Tennessee professor of music education from 1972-1999 and colleague, provided some insightful remarks about Julian and his impact at Tennessee: In my opinion, the traditions that Dr. Julian started with the marching band are definitely visible. When the Tennessee band started making changes away from the pageantry shows to precision marching was a tremendous shift. His shows at Tennessee Tech were predominantly pageant shows week after week. The shift away from the tradition of pageantry shows was gradual. It did not happen over night. This shift was occurring nationally, not just at Tennessee. During the 1960s there was an incredible amount of change occurring concerning the drill work of college bands and bands; bands were in great transition. I remember teaching a grad class where we were trying to figure out how to chart the new drill. I had fourteen or fifteen high school band directors in the class. The drill prior to this shift usually involved a sketch of a form on a piece of paper, and the director would spend thirty minutes placing students into the form. That type of learning was not what Dr. Julian wanted. He insisted that every move be scripted and diagramed with instructions so every member knew exactly where they would be at every moment and how they got there. Everybody got his or her own chart book. As you well know, sometimes those chart books would be a half or quarter inch thick. His system of charting shows and the learning process involved is something that is still visible today. He brought in many country music stars to perform with the marching band like, Lee Greenwood, Charlie Daniels, and Roy Acuff. That was something that was not heard of nationally. He brought in the Atlanta Pipe Band to perform. I remember getting chills when they ended with “Amazing Grace.” He had a great vision about what kind of shows would entertain the crowds. Other traditions that he established was the opening of the “T” for the football team, the band uniform, the complex circle drill shows, and the pregame show that has been virtually the same for many years. I would say that any director who came to Tennessee and changed any of these great traditions would not be there long. The most impressive tribute to what he established with the marching band is the fact that the public demands and expects all of these traditions now. You can go to a Tennessee football game and if they announce that the band is doing a circle drill, the audience goes crazy. What a wonderful influence he had! I believe those contributions are with the university forever.105 104

Gary Sousa, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 29, 2011.

105

A. Wayne Tipps, interview by author, Ten Mile, TN, July 29, 2011.

57

Julian’s version of the “Pride of the Southland” became a modern and exceptional marching band that personified his innate characteristics and was bolstered by the support from the university. Tennessee President Joseph Johnson capsulized Julian’s characteristics: Those three or four characteristics, I think were commit to the institution, commitment to excellence, and doing everything the very best it could be done. It had to do with uniforms, it had to do with drill, it had to do with behavior, and it had to do with decorum, the whole work from beginning to end. As an administrator, whatever role I was in, I admired that. Having been here at Tennessee before he came and having watched our band in faded, old orange uniforms marching up and down Shield-Watkins field, we have come a long way.106 The “Tennessee Sound” Coinciding with the change of the uniform design was the development of the “new sound” of the band. Former members, peers, and colleagues have referred to it as the “Tennessee sound.” Barry McDonald, who followed Julian from Tennessee Polytechnic Institute to Knoxville, wrote the vast majority of the custom arrangements for the Tennessee marching band during Julian’s tenure (see Figure 7).

Figure 7. Julian, left, with Barry McDonald, right, circa 1965. Photograph used with permission from the University of Tennessee band archive.

106

Joseph Johnson, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, May 25, 2011.

58

McDonald served as the assistant band director and arranger from 1961-68 and continued as arranger until 1978. He was a highly skilled jazz trumpeter and studio musician who worked with many recording artists that included: Floyd Cramer, Boots Randolph, and Johnny Cash. He served as assistant music director for The Johnny Cash television show from 1969-1971.107 His skills as an accomplished trumpeter influenced his unique arranging style that gave the Tennessee band a distinctive sound. Typically, his arrangements were placed in a higher key than the original music and contained sophisticated chordal transitions to intensify the music. The instrumentation was generally divided as follows: piccolo, 1st - 2nd clarinet, 1st - 2nd alto saxophone, tenor saxophone, 1st - 2nd F horn, 1st - 2nd - 3rd trombone, baritone, tuba, snare drum, tenor drum, bass drum, and cymbals. The trumpet parts were unusual since he arranged for essential five parts: solo trumpet, 1st trumpet that divided, 2nd trumpet, 3rd trumpet, and Eb cornet.108 The Eb cornet part would enhance the end of musical lines or highlight important passages. The piccolo, clarinet, and baritone parts were frequently independent parts that required advanced playing technique in the upper ranges of the instruments. The overall sonority achieved was predominantly treble with distinct, independent, and challenging part writing. The lasting imprint McDonald left on the music program at Tennessee was undeniable with over thirteen hundred custom arrangements in the marching band library. The University of Tennessee School of Music established the Barry McDonald Scholarship in honored of McDonald, who died in 1989 at the age of 107

Obituary of Barry McDonald, Sarasota Herald-Tribune, February 4, 1989, 5BM.

108

Research was conducted by comparing the instrumentation of selected arrangements by Barry McDonald from 1962 to 1978 located in the University of Tennessee band music library. The research concluded that McDonald utilized a custom instrumentation for the arrangements used by the University of Tennessee marching band.

59 fifty-five. The annual scholarship is awarded to juniors or seniors in the studio music and jazz program.109 Julian commented about his association with McDonald and his talent as an arranger: Barry graduated from Central High School in Chattanooga under A.R. Casavant. I think he was in the service before he came to Tennessee Tech. He was a great talent. Boots Randolph, the great musician and a dear friend, always said that Barry McDonald was the finest musician and talent in Nashville. He was just unbelievable. He did all the music arrangements for the marching band. I was not an arranger, and I knew it. That is something that some band directors fail to recognize themselves. It is important to know what you don’t know. Barry knew how to arrange, and he was the best.110 Walter McDaniel, assistant band director at the University of Tennessee from 1968-1988, commented further on the impact of McDonald with the Tennessee band: Barry was a very fine musician and arranger. He was the arranger at Tennessee Tech and followed Dr. Julian to Tennessee as the arranger. He did a lot of his arrangements one step higher which gave them a brighter sound. He also wrote chordal changes that really made the music pop. Those were not easy arrangements to play. The band had to grow into the music and the style of playing that Barry wanted.111 Due to the difficulty of the McDonald arrangements and his demand for excellence, Julian insisted that every member play continually to achieve the level of music performance he expected. There was little tolerance and subsequent consequences for members not participating at all times. Since the band typically rehearsed four hours per week (Tuesday and Thursday from 7:50-8:40 am and 1:15-3:10 pm) during his tenure, his demand for total involvement from every member maximized the limited rehearsal time.

109

School of Music, “Studio and Jazz – Scholarships,” The University of Tennessee, http://www.music.utk.edu/jazzscholarships.html (accessed September 30, 2012). 110

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

111

Walter McDaniel, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 29, 2011.

60 His expectations for the band were always the same in rehearsal and the actual performance. John Culvahouse elaborated about Julian’s demands: He was a revered figure. I never feared him, but I revered him. You always would sit up and take notice when he entered the room. I never feared asking him a question. The people who did not revere him would fear him. Those people were probably misinformed or shallow. When he would stand up on the ladder giving announcements, he would say that the crowd is going to love “us,” and he meant that. He would go over the tape with us after the game in the band room. He would look for mistakes while sitting there with some charts. He would call out, “who is E-2 or B-15?” He would call out people, but he was not mad. Certainly those individuals would not make those mistakes again. He respected those that worked hard. If you made a mistake, but earned his respect, then he could live with that.112 The Pregame Show The first edition of Julian’s “Pride of the Southland” marching band debuted on Saturday, September 30, 1961. Boasting new uniforms, McDonald’s arrangements, and a commitment to performance excellence instilled by Julian, the band unfurled from tightly wound spirals on each sideline into unified ranks in the north end zone of Neyland stadium and introduced an innovative pregame show that signified a new era of the Tennessee marching band. Although the pregame show has retained most of the marching and musical elements from the 1961 show, several notable modifications occurred during Julian’s tenure. The first major and most famous addition to the pregame show was presented on Saturday, September 18, 1965 when the marching band formed a giant “T” for the entrance of the University of Tennessee football team at the end of the pregame show. It initially spanned from the east to west sidelines and opened to form a tunnel while the band played the official fight song, Down the Field. In 1983, the football team’s locker rooms were moved to the north end of the stadium, and the giant “T” was re-charted to span from the north end zone to the 50 yard line. Coach Doug Dickey, 112

John Culvahouse, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

61 University of Tennessee Head Football from 1964-69 and Athletic Director from 19852002, collaborated with Julian to create this enduring Tennessee tradition. Julian recalled the experience of working with Dickey: Coach Dickey and I talked about the entrance for team. After we had planned the opening of the “T” at the end of the pregame show, Coach Dickey had the team practice with the band. At that time, the team practiced at the stadium after our rehearsal, so they came in early to practice running through the “T.” The practice also was needed for the timing factor involved. The band used to form the “T” from the east to west sidelines for twenty or so years. It was formed from the north to south end zones starting around 1983 due to the new locker room location. It has certainly become one the most exciting parts of the pregame show for the fans, band, and team.113 President Johnson gave insight concerning the relationship between Coach Dickey and Julian: He and Doug Dickey did a grand job of creating the entrance of the football team coming through the giant "T" formed by the band. That was another aspect of Dr. Julian, in that he cooperated with Coach Dickey. Both of them are pretty much alike in that they are perfectionists. Dr. Julian made the band a part of game day. It was a football game, but it was what went on around it that made it an all afternoon or all evening event. He raised it to a different level.114 Timing was an integral part of all Tennessee band shows and to Julian. It was an important lesson he learned from his friend, Kate Charbulak, the timekeeper for the Chicago Symphony. Julian explained the importance of timing: Timing was crucial in the way events happened on game days. I always ran the band on a strict schedule and it influenced the over-all game day timings. Say for instance, the pregame show started at a specific time each game day. This meant the National Anthem was played at a specific time. This was important for the TV networks to carry the playing of the anthem. The team entrance finished the show at a specific time when we opened the “T” that was also aired by the networks. There was never unaccounted time or standing around of the band. The importance of timing was the same with the half time shows.115 113

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

114

Joseph Johnson, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, May 25, 2011.

115

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

62

The show-stopping spectacle of the giant “T” opening, the football team exploding through the formed tunnel, and the cheers of over 52,000 fans (Neyland Stadium’s capacity in 1965 and expanded to 92,000 in 1991) has evolved into an iconic moment in college football lore. A surprise addition to the pregame show occurred in 1973, when Julian invited George Bitzas, voice professor and colleague, to sing the National Anthem with the Tennessee band. An accomplished tenor, Bitzas ended the anthem on a high Bb with bravado, and the response from the crowd was “thunderous” according to Julian. He sang the national anthem at every home game from 1973 until 2000 and became known as the “Anthem Man” to the Tennessee faithful. UT President Johnson commented about the addition of Bitzas in the pregame show and its significance to the Tennessee fan base: Another game day tradition he [Julian] established was bringing in George Bitzas to sing the National Anthem. That added pure class and that exemplifies what Julian wanted for the band and the fans. Before we didn't have anyone from the music department to sing, I don't think. It made the game day experience better with a professionally trained tenor, and a pretty good one at that, singing the anthem. Today, you even have people doing their imitations of Bitzas like those that do their imitations of Dr. Julian.116 Other notable modifications to the pregame show included: the floating “UT” sequence, added in 1971; the “Power T” formation, first added in 1978, then removed in 1979, added again in 1982, and then removed in 1983. The 2012 pregame drill routines include (the date indicates the year the marching element was first added to the pregame show): marching elements of the 1961 show, the opening of the giant “T” (1965), the floating “UT” sequence (1971), the “Power T” formation (1978), the “USA” formation and animation (2002), and the “VOLS” pullout sequence (2007). The music played 116

Joseph Johnson, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, May 25, 2011.

63 during the pregame show changed more frequently than the marching elements. The musical elements that have remained intact since 1965 include: Fanfare and TN Waltz March, Alma Mater March, Star Spangled Banner, Fight, Vols Fight!, and Down the Field. The most significant music addition to the pregame show occurred in 1979 when Rocky Top was added during the floating “UT” sequence. The 2012 pregame show musical selections include (the date indicates the year the music element was first added to the pregame show): Fanfare (1965), Star Spangled Banner (1961), TN Waltz March (1965), Tennessee River (2007), Alma Mater March (1965), Visiting Team’s Fight Song, Rocky Top (1979), Spirit of the Hill (2011), Chromatic Spellout (1993), Mountain Music (1993), Stars and Stripes Forever (2002), Fight, Vols Fight! (1965), and Down the Field (1965). An index that lists the myriad of changes to the pregame show and provides detailed information concerning the individual halftime shows is located in Appendix C.117 The index spans Julian’s tenure from 1961-1993 and includes: the year, football game date, name of opponent, home or away game, music in pregame show, music of alumni band show, music of halftime show, number of members charted for shows, drum major, majorettes, circle drill indication, description of alumni band drill, description of pregame drill, description of halftime drill, notable guests, soloists, and staff members. Halftime Shows and the “Circle Drill” The halftime shows of the Tennessee band during the Julian years were designed to entertain the fan base at all home games and away games the full band attended. From 117

Appendix C contains a chart that includes the following: the year, date of individual game, pregame music performed, halftime music performed, number of marchers charted, drum major, majorettes, number of circle drills performed, pregame drill formations, halftime drill formations, and guests/honorees/soloists/ staff changes for each performance of the University of Tennessee marching band at home or away football games. The research utilized existing scripts and drill charts located in the University of Tennessee band archive to create the final document. Some games or years were omitted due the absence of information.

64 1961-66, the marching shows combined pageantry designs with precision maneuvers. Precision marching was the current marching trend for this era, and bands were making the transition from pageantry, or “picture” shows to complex precision, or military drill. A. R. Casavant, director of bands at City High School in Chattanooga, Tennessee from 1950-1959, was the innovator of the Precision Drill method and authored forty books on precision drill technique. A personal friend of Julian, Casavant was one of the significant individuals of the gridiron marching band movement and influenced a generation of marching band directors with his drill writing concepts. The halftime music used by Julian’s marching band throughout his tenure generally consisted of popular songs, classical works, show tunes, and marches. A small minority of halftime performances was theme-based, with the exception of the election, patriotic, choral, and guest soloist shows. Julian preferred to perform music the audience would want to hear and not obligated to a theme. Julian explained his rationale about music selection and aversion to themed shows: That’s right. They were good tunes. It was a matter of programming. I had very few theme shows, but there were a few like an election show or a patriotic show. The shows had to connect to the average fan, and this included the drill and music. There was always a sense of showmanship.118 In 1966, Julian introduced a new drill concept based on circles to the Tennessee audience. The first “circle drill” presented at Tennessee debuted on October 1, 1966, and it consisted of four concentric circles that rotated in opposite directions to the tune, On A Wonderful Day Like Today. It was the first of over one hundred forty circle drills the

118

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

65 “Pride of the Southland” would perform during Julian’s tenure.119 Julian readily admitted that he wrote very little drill, but was fortunate to have an undergraduate trombonist and engineering major, Ken Landgren, in the marching band who designed the circle drills while a student, then later as the drill designer for the Tennessee band from 1974-77. Jim Idol replaced Landgren as drill designer in 1978, and continued the tradition of innovative circle drill design. Concurrently, Idol introduced corps-style drill writing to the Tennessee band during the late seventies and throughout the eighties. He remained the drill designer until 1995. Julian commented about Landgren and Idol and their innovative process with the circle drills: It was a great time, as far as, experimenting with new drill design. We were very fortunate to have some great minds working with our band, like Ken Landgren and Jim Idol. I wrote very little drill. Ken Landgren wrote so many of the circle drills. He was very talented. Many were so complicated we couldn’t do them [laughter]. Some of those instructions were like “take 3 steps or take 7 steps” and the like. They were not possible in the time we had to learn a show.120 Julian continued as he explained the factors that led to the use of the circle drill at Tennessee: There were several factors really. The stadium was expanding during those years, and the circle drill played to every side of the stadium. I saw a drum and bugle corps competition in the northeast during the mid-1960s. One of the groups formed a circle, but they did nothing with it. After seeing their show, I got the idea that there were many possibilities for a circle like the possibilities with a straight line. Our early shows just rotated the circles. Ken Landgren took the drill to new level and created some of the most wonderful shows. He had a very fine mind for those things.121

119

The number of circle drills performed was determined from the research document contained in Appendix C. 120

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

121

Ibid.

66 John Culvahouse commented about Julian’s impact on the Tennessee program and gave insight about the history of the circle drill usage: Dr. Julian is the University of Tennessee band program. While we all do things differently or decide to do things differently while respecting the past, what is there today is because of Dr. Julian. There was not a concert program before him, and the marching program was a military unit. The program before Julian did not grab the attention like the one Dr. Julian established and has been going strong for fifty years. When one sees the opening of the “T” on television or watches a circle drill, Dr. Julian was responsible for these. Actually, he got the idea of circle drills from going to drum corps shows. The Casper Troopers did many shows involving circles. Ken Landgren, and later Jim Idol, wrote those shows for Tennessee. Ken was charting shows on computer before there was an actual drill writing software available. Casper Troopers did not call it a circle drill; they called it their “sunburst.”122 The Tennessee band and Julian were not the first to utilize circles in performance, but were innovators of the drill concept. Other major university bands performed intricate circle drills in the early 1970s. The most notable were the Texas Tech “Goin’ Band from Raiderland” with director, Mr. Dean Killion and the University of Alabama “Million Dollar Band” with director, Dr. James Ferguson. The Tennessee circle drill shows evolved with more intricate drill that included, but not limited to: kaleidoscope animation; formation of spirals and their inversions; manipulation of star formations; five-petal flower animation; rotating inverted diamonds, hexagon and parallelogram formations, and double-circle formations that utilized elements of the aforementioned elements on both sides of the 50 yard line. Julian was keenly aware of his performance surroundings and since Neyland stadium was expanding and eventually became a bowl configuration, he wanted his band to perform to all fans; hence, the circle drill, or 360º show.123

122

John Culvahouse, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

123

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

67 The circle drill halftime shows did not exclusively contain circle formations sequences, but were a segment of the full show. The circle drill shows generally consisted of the following format in varying degrees: an entrance drill that covered the majority of the field, a precision drill or line drill, a circle drill, and a concert set. Every halftime show ended with the “UT Sequence” that consisted of the band forming the interlocking “UT” while playing Spirit of the Hill, followed by the playing of the University of Tennessee Alma Mater with obbligato trumpet soloists, then exited the field with the Tennessee Waltz March. Introduction of Rocky Top and Use In 1972, Barry McDonald and Walter McDaniel, suggested to Julian to add an obscure country tune by Felice and Boudleaux Bryant to the halftime show for the home football game against the University of Alabama on Saturday, October 21, 1972.124 The title of the song was Rocky Top, and it ended a country medley containing Columbus Stockade Blues and Wabash Cannonball that were used in the double-circle drill segment of the halftime show.125 Though only used sparingly between 1972-78, Julian decided to incorporate the song into the pregame show in 1979. The addition and constant use of the tune in the pregame show provided the necessary exposure to embed it into the fabric of the University of Tennessee football and sporting events. Julian cleverly placed Rocky Top in the floating “UT” sequence that occurs immediately after the band plays the opposing team’s fight song. The effect achieved is overwhelming with the vast majority in attendance singing the chorus, “Rocky Top, you’ll always be, home sweet home to me.

124

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

125

The music and the drill formations performed were determined from the research document contained in Appendix C.

68 Good old Rocky Top, Rocky Top Tennessee, Rocky Top Tennessee.”126 Rocky Top, written in ten minutes at the Gatlinburg Inn in room 388, captured the spirit of the Volunteer nation, but it was the scorn of opposing football teams throughout the nation. Described as “simple and clever,” the song uses only five chords, and the title is repeated nineteen times throughout the lyrics. There are more than one hundred renditions recorded by individuals, country and bluegrass groups, and rock bands. It was adopted as an official state song of the state of Tennessee in 1982 (Chapter 545 of the Public Acts of 1982).127 Wayne Tipps commented about Julian’s contribution of Rocky Top to the Tennessee fan base: Another example of his contributions was the introduction and use of “Rocky Top.” He secured the use of that tune from Felice and Boudleaux Bryant for the university. It became an official state song of Tennessee and became the unofficial and rally-cry for Tennessee athletics and the university. What an incredible impact Dr. Julian had on all Tennessee fans. It is amazing to think that when “Rocky Top” is played across the nation, many people associate it with the University of Tennessee! That is all attributed to WJ Julian.128 Soloists with Marching Band Julian’s vision for creating exposure for his program included the appearances of performing artists with the band. Throughout his tenure, over twenty guest soloists performed with the Tennessee marching band at halftime. Julian recalled many of the artists who performed with the Tennessee marching band: We enjoyed many soloists with the band program over the years. Guest soloists with the marching band included: Charlie Pride, “Tennessee” Ernie Ford, Dottie West, Dr. Isaac Greggs, Roy Acuff, Charlie Daniels, Lee Greenwood, Don Neuen and the UT Concert Choir, Osborne Brothers, the Atlanta Pipe Band, United 126

University of Tennessee Athletics, “Tennessee Traditions,” The University of Tennessee, http://www.utsports.com/fans/traditions.html (accessed June 20, 2012). 127

Ibid.

128

A. Wayne Tipps, interview by author, Ten Mile, TN, July 29, 2011.

69 States Army Herald Trumpets, Archie Campbell, and Boots Randolph. They were wonderful performers, and the crowd always enjoyed these shows. We took Lee Greenwood with us to the 1991 Sugar Bowl, and “Boots” Randolph appeared with us at several bowl games.129 University of Tennessee Emeritus President Joseph Johnson commented on Julian’s incorporation of guest artists and subsequent importance of having the legendry “King of Country Music,” Roy Acuff as a soloist: I've heard people say that we might not win the ball game, but we will win the band shows both pregame and halftime. We knew this because Dr. Julian will put the best out there in terms of the quality of the music and the creative marching routines. Another aspect was the people he would invite to perform with the band. He invited Roy Acuff to come perform. That was a little risky, but he did it and that performance lead to Roy Acuff making some significant gifts to the University of Tennessee. Our initial contact was Dr. Julian. The same can be said of Boudleaux and Felice Bryant and the success with "Rocky Top." My view is that he raised the program to a national level of acclaim and before him we were just another band. He could go on the field with the other SEC bands and hold our own and excel in terms of quality and professionalism. This is something we were and are very proud of. He was a competitor and that was evident since he wanted to have the best. I think that was his impact. The other impact was that since the band was so good, the talented young students wanted to come to the university to be a part of it. They wanted to march with the "Pride."130 Television Exposure Exposure of the Tennessee band to a national audience during the Julian years was achieved primarily through television broadcasts. Between 1961 and 1980, halftime shows were generally broadcasted at bowl games and at featured regular season football games throughout the nation. Due to the success of the Tennessee football team during Julian’s tenure, the band appeared on television more than fifty times.131 The sheer amount of television exposure created the venue by which the band gained national 129

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

130

Joseph Johnson, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, May 25, 2011.

131

WJ Julian, “Vitae,” September 1987. Julian’s vitae listed over forty television performances in 1987. Research confirmed ten additional televised performances from 1987 to 1992 that included eight football games and two presidential inaugural parades.

70 acclaim. The band has performed at over forty bowl games including the Rose Bowl, Cotton Bowl, Sugar Bowl, Orange Bowl, Citrus Bowl, Gator Bowl, Liberty Bowl, Sun Bowl, Hall of Fame Bowl, Garden State Bowl, Peach Bowl, Chick-Fil-A Bowl, Bluebonnet Bowl, Outback Bowl, and the 1998 National Championship Fiesta Bowl.132 Julian, acutely aware of the importance national exposure, always contacted the respective network that carried the broadcast of the respective game to ensure television coverage for the Tennessee band: We always made contact with the networks that would carry the games. We had very good relations with most of the networks. That was very important. I believe that ABC did a special on the UT band back in the early 1970’s. During that time the networks carried most of the half time shows of the bands especially at the bowl games.133 Audiences of all kinds were reached through television broadcasts. The indirect sharing of ideas became easier as marching band directors from all levels of instruction could watch shows by other schools and determine what drill concepts were being used. Paula Crider, Past President of the American Bandmasters Association and Professor Emerita at the University of Texas, described her first association with the Tennessee band: My first introduction to Dr. Julian was via a televised halftime of the University of Tennessee Band. [This was back in the days when collegiate halftime shows were not preempted by commercials.] The band performed a circle drill. To my knowledge, UT was the first University band to perform such a drill. Seeing this performance served as a real eye-opener for me. At the time, most of us were still using the "step-2" drill format. Dr. Julian's drill design was truly ‘cutting edge,’ and it opened worlds of possibilities for a young generation of would-be drill designers.134

132

University of Tennessee Bands, “Marching Band History,” University of Tennessee, http://www.web.utk.edu/~utband/content/bands/marching_history.html (accessed September 30, 2012). 133

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

134

Paula Crider, e-mail to author, July 25, 2010.

71 Dr. Al G. Wright, director emeritus of bands at Purdue University and close friend of Julian, clarified the importance of television exposure: When television came along, then marching bands started gaining national exposure. Jay’s marching band received as much or more than most of the college programs. Dr. Julian’s band received national exposure through television and was one of the first programs to garner a national reputation due to television.135 Presidential Inaugural Parades Another extraordinary tradition was the representation of the state of Tennessee by the Tennessee marching band in every Presidential Inaugural parade since Johnson. The band under Ryba represented the state in Eisenhower’s parade. The “Pride of The Southland” marching band’s thirteen appearances is a record unmatched by any civilian organization. Julian explained the process of being selected and what it meant for the program: I contacted the politicians who represented Tennessee in Washington D.C. when we first thought of trying to receive the official invitation. Major Ryba took the UT band for the Eisenhower parade. My first Inaugural parade was Johnson in 1964. The folks in D. C. decided who would receive the invitations. After receiving the invitation, we began the process of securing the funds needed to travel from the university and state. Ever since 1964, it has become a tradition for the UT band to march in the inaugural parade. We have always had good friends in D.C. that cared for the band like Howard Baker, Lamar Alexander, Albert Gore, John Duncan, and Governor Winfield Dunn. We had great support from republicans and democrats. It was always great exposure for our band.136 Recruitment The success of the Tennessee marching band was due to Julian’s leadership and his ability to recruit students for the program and university. Julian replied when asked about his recruiting strategy:

135

Al G. Wright, interview by author, West Lafayette, IN, August 2, 2011.

136

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

72 Not only was recruitment important, but also fielding a band that was disciplined and exciting to watch was very important to recruitment. I made it a point to visit the high school programs in area each year. The great many number of students of the Tennessee band came from programs across the state of Tennessee. It was invaluable to keep in contact with band directors across the state. There were many fine band programs in East Tennessee. You want directors to encourage their students to enroll at Tennessee and be a part of the band program. Some became music education majors, but the vast majority was in other majors.137 “You can find them in your own backyard,” is a phrase Julian often used concerning the recruitment of local talent for his program. Wayne Tipps went into great detail as he described the recruiting efforts of Julian: I think he learned a lot from athletics, I am not sure if he would admit to that, in regards to the value of recruiting. At least during the early years when he was trying to build a program within the state and not nationally, he kept Walter McDaniel on the road visiting almost every school in east Tennessee certainly and many in middle and west Tennessee on a regular basis. I did many visits during the 1970’s and 1980’s. He began to move nationally through the contacts of people from other states who were area directors or faculty members. The exposure of the marching band on television helped with recruiting on a national level. I believe that all these efforts helped to establish a pretty good network both in the state and regionally throughout the southeast and east coast. There was a very good recruiting base in the Washington D.C. area when Roy Holder and Denny Stokes began teaching and establishing fine programs in that area. Jeff Richardson’s program in Raleigh, North Carolina was another fine program. All of these contributed to a good regional network. It all started here in the state of Tennessee and worked outwards. One of my responsibilities at Tennessee was the placement of student teachers. During my last two years at Tennessee, we placed student teachers in the Atlanta and Fairfax County, Virginia areas. This directly and indirectly benefited the recruitment for the UT band and music programs. This was really all possible through the early recruitment process that Dr. Julian established. It was a critical factor in his success at Tennessee.138 Julian wanted the best for his students in the marching band, concert band, or classroom. He succeeded in providing experiences that were meaningful for all who participated in his ensembles. He demanded the maximum effort from his students, and in return, he

137

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

138

A. Wayne Tipps, interview by author, Ten Mile, TN, July 29, 2011.

73 ensured they were rewarded through varied ways: respect from an appreciative fan base; scholarships for those who earned them; a healthy per diem for trips; exposure on television; and free trips to away games or to the inaugural parades. Arguably, the greatest reward was that Julian instilled in his students a profound sense of pride, discipline, and expectation of excellence in their performance. “Branding” of the Marching Band The impact Julian had on the Tennessee marching band is quite evident. He transformed a mediocre marching band into an elite university program. Julian created a “brand” with the Tennessee marching band. The Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary defines the word brand as “a characteristic or distinctive kind.”139 The level of excellence the Tennessee band attained and consistently performed with for the thirtytwo years under Julian was a “brand” characteristic. The discipline and work ethic of the students that were instilled by Julian are “brand” characteristics. Gary Sousa discussed Julian’s “branding” of the Tennessee marching band: The whole aura that the Tennessee band is going to have a level of excellence that is unmatched and doing things the right way is always going to be a part of this program. This is due to the fact that it is what Dr. Julian established and that we are so much alike. The most lasting impression that is still evident today is that he established a “brand” of the “Pride of the Southland” band and what it meant. That brand meant integrity, discipline, excellence in rehearsal and performance, and a hard work ethic. The band represents the State of Tennessee. It is like an icon in not only east Tennessee, but in the whole state. He built that brand, and people still believe in it. We work hard to make sure that people still believe in that brand and still profess exactly the same thing. We know that the brand is great and special part of our program. What he did to establish that brand and all it affords to the students and university is very special. There are very few programs in the country that have this status. If he had not established it or fought for it, we would not have it today. Everyday I work hard to maintain that

139

Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed., s.v. “brand.”

74 privilege because if I did not, then it would be gone tomorrow. His influence was huge and is alive today.140 Julian was keenly aware of the importance of having a nationally acclaimed marching band and the exposure it provided for the total band program and to the university. He used the marching band as a valuable recruiting tool for both entities and established a performing ensemble based on a standard of excellence, discipline, and high work ethic. The aforementioned “branding” of the Tennessee marching band is significant since it gave a unique identity to the marching band. The long-standing commitment to this “brand” is a testimony to the vision and leadership of Julian, the support of the university, and the expectations of all those who view the band each season. Development of the Concert Band Program Julian’s first significant action in developing a comprehensive band program at Tennessee was not associated with the marching band, but the establishment of a concert band program. Upon his arrival in January of 1961, Julian organized the first official concert band as part of the music education curriculum.141 Prior to Julian, this ensemble was non-existent and any concerts that were organized used members of the marching band. Julian corroborated, “It is my understanding that there were very few concert band performances. Members of the marching band would rehearse tunes for specific occasions or performances. There was no organized concert band program as far as I know.”142 On Thursday, April 19, 1956, under the direction of Walter Ryba, the University of Tennessee Band (“Pride of the Southland”) performed a concert at Alumni

140

Gary Sousa, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 29, 2011.

141

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

142

Ibid.

75 Memorial Auditorium that was representative of those given before the establishment of the concert band program in 1961. It consisted of an overture, marches, novelty works, popular selections, medleys, and band accompaniments that included: Star Spangled Banner Texidor - Amparita Roca Goldmark – Sakuntala Anderson – Bugler’s Holiday Anderson - The Typewriter Gass – Tribute to Glenn Miller and Selections from South Pacific Rodgers – Victory at Sea Morrisey – Ceremonial March Bennet – The Four Horsemen Morrisey - Bayou Beguine, and Louisiana Hayride Skinner – The Shawl Dance Yoder – Salute to Grofe Rodgers – Selections from South Pacific University of Tennessee Alma Mater143 Consisting of eighty-eight members with standard instrumentation, the newly formed University of Tennessee Concert Band gave two concerts in the spring of 1961 that featured original band works, transcriptions, and marches.144 From a programmatic standpoint, the selections represented quality band repertoire and introduced the students to several of the great composers of original band music including Gustav Holst, Vincent Persichetti, Frank Erickson, Percy Grainger, Howard Hanson, Alfred Reed, and Clifton Williams. These programs represented a dramatic contrast from the concerts organized by previous bandmasters. The first concert took place at Memorial Auditorium on Friday, March 3, 1961, and the program was as follows:

143

Information documented from “Pride of the Southland” concert program dated April 19, 1956. The original program is housed in the University of Tennessee band archive. 144

Information documented from the University of Tennessee band programs dated March 3, 1961 and May 7, 1961. The original programs are housed in the University of Tennessee band archive.

76 *Overture for Winds *First Suite in Eb *Pageant Mannin Veen

Charles Carter Gustav Holst Vincent Persichetti Haydn Wood Intermission

*Intrada from Symphony No. 2 Flower Drum Song Selection *Irish Tune from County Derry *Beguine for Band

Frank Erickson Richard Rodgers Percy Grainger Glenn Osser145

Note. * = original band work

The second concert took place at Memorial Auditorium on Sunday, May 7, 1961, and the program was as follows: Overture and Allegro from La Sultane San Francisco el Grande Divertissement Suite *Dramatic Essay Ode for Trumpet Barry McDonald, soloist

Francois Couperin Ernesto Lecuona Jacques Ibert J. Clifton Williams Alfred Reed

Intermission Overture to Nabucco *Chorale and Alleluia Allerseelen *Holiday for Winds *Here Comes the Band (March)

Giuseppe Verdi Howard Hansen Richard Strauss Glenn Osser George Willcocks146

Note. * = original band work

Addition of the Wind Ensemble The following year Julian established the University of Tennessee Wind Ensemble. It comprised the best musicians of the concert band, but did not meet at a different time. Julian typically rehearsed the wind ensemble after the concert band to 145

University of Tennessee Concert Band program dated March 3, 1961. Original program housed in the University of Tennessee band archive. 146

University of Tennessee Concert Band program dated May 7, 1961. Original program housed in the University of Tennessee band archive.

77 allow those not in the select group to leave.147 The “wind ensemble” format was a new concept that swept through college and university band programs throughout the 1950s and 1960s. One of the leading advocates of the wind ensemble concept was Frederick Fennell, former director and founder of the Eastman Wind Ensemble. Fennell believed there was a need for wind medium that combined the characteristics of a symphonic orchestra, military band, and concert band. He did not prescribe to the notion that his wind ensemble was simply a “band.” Composer W. Francis McBeth commented on Fennell’s sentiment: When Frederick Fennell created the wind ensemble and chose the name, he performed one of the ingenious acts of the twentieth century. Fennell saw into the future. He saw a coming repertory for winds. He was aware that the name band was a four-letter word to many serious musicians. He wanted to present serious wind literature to audiences, but realized that the term wind band was an albatross around the neck of many people because of the past.148 For a movement steeped in tradition, the wind ensemble concept was a radical change. It challenged directors, performers, and composers accustomed to established performance practices to view the band medium in a fresh and innovative perspective. In a program note for a concert given on March 20, 1960, Fennell gave his reasoning for the establishment of the Eastman Wind Ensemble: Our decision to establish this new group was made after twenty years of careful study and performance by the Eastman School Symphony Band of the significant musical literature for the wind band, both original and transcribed. In establishing the Wind Ensemble as an adjunct to the Symphonic Band, it has been our desire to strike out in new directions which would begin from the premise that we could make music with the minimum rather than the maximum number of players, that we would confine our rehearsals and performances to the study of the original music written for the massed wind medium, and that we should embark upon a 147

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

148

W. Francis McBeth, “Assessing the Wind Ensemble,” The Instrumentalist 46 (March 1982): 28.

78 most active program to simulate the composition of music for the Wind Ensemble by contemporary composers everywhere. We do not call our group a band simply because we do not believe that it is a band. To qualify for that distinguished classification a group should be uniformed in the tradition of the band, should be able to march and perform in the open air in the tradition of that band, should perform the tradition musical literature of the band, and maintain those timehonored traditions and associations to which the public and its institutions have become so rightfully accustomed. With full knowledge of what has gone before in the history of composition and performance, and with due respect for the existence of the symphony orchestra, military band, and concert band, there is validity in the premise that their contributions to the arts of public performance, composition, and musical education may be supplemented by an ensemble which combines the appropriate features of those three established mediums of musical art.149 The instrumentation employed by Fennell for his new ensemble included: 2 flutes and piccolo and/or alto flute 2 oboes and English horn 2 bassoons and contrabassoon 8 Bb clarinets or A clarinet (divided per composer) 1 Eb alto clarinet 1 Bb bass clarinet 2 alto saxophones 1 tenor saxophone 1 baritone saxophone

3 cornets in Bb or 5 trumpets in Bb 2 trumpets in Bb 4 French horns 3 trombones 3 euphoniums 1 Eb tuba 1 BBb and 2 BBb tubas, if desired Other instruments – percussion, harp, celesta, piano, organ, harpsichord, solo string instruments, and choral forces, if desired150

Fennell encouraged composers, who wished to write music for the Eastman Wind Ensemble, to use his instrumentation as an available sound palette. He advocated for the composition of new music by prominent composers that was not restricted by traditional band instrumentation mandates in existence. In 1952, Fennell sent out approximately four hundred letters to composers explaining his new ensemble concept. Among the first to reply were Percy Grainger, Vincent Persichetti, and Ralph Vaughn Williams, and each

149

Richard Franko Goldman, The Wind Band (Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1961): 138-139.

150

Frank L. Battisti, The Winds of Change: The Evolution of the Contemporary American Wind Band/Ensemble and its Conductor (Galesville, MD: Meredith Music, 2002): 54.

79 expressed interest in the new model. Fennell used a simple formula for concert programming: one-third for woodwinds, one-third for brass, and one-third for reed-brasspercussion combination. The first concert of the Eastman Wind Ensemble represented his programming formula: Mozart – Serenade No. 10 in Bb, K. 370a, Reigger – Nonet for Brass, and Hindemith – Symphony in Bb. The Eastman Wind ensemble produced twentytwo recordings under Fennell.151 A comparison of the instrumentation between the 1962, 1972, 1985, and 1993 University of Tennessee concert bands and wind ensembles (see Table 1) indicated that Julian subscribed to Fennell’s idea of making music with the minimum rather than the maximum number of players. Table 1 Instrumentation of Select University of Tennessee Concert Bands and Wind Ensembles

______________________________________________________ Instrument

1962 CB

1962 WE

1972 CB

1972 WE

1985 CB

1985 WE

1992 CB

1992 WE

______________________________________________________ Piccolo

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Flute

7

3

10

4

10

3

8

3

Oboe

2

2

3

3

2

2

2

2

English Horn

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

Bassoon

1

2

4

3

3

2

2

2

Contrabassoon

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

Eb Clarinet

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

_____________________________________________________ 151

Frank L. Battisti, The Winds of Change, 58.

80 Table 1 (continued).

______________________________________________________ Instrument

1962 CB

1962 WE

1972 CB

1972 WE

1985 CB

1985 WE

1992 CB

1992 WE

______________________________________________________ Bb Clarinet

16

7

17

9

14

9

11

6

Alto Clarinet

0

0

2

1

0

0

1

1

Bass Clarinet

3

1

1

1

2

2

3

2

Bb Contrabass

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

Alto Saxophone

3

1

3

3

3

2

2

2

Tenor Saxophone

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Baritone Saxophone

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Cornet/Trumpet

13

6

9

5

16

6

8

7

French Horn

6

5

4

5

8

5

7

6

Trombone

8

3

7

3

9

4

6

5

Euphonium

2

1

4

2

4

3

5

2

Tuba

3

1

5

1

8

3

4

2

String Bass

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

Percussion

5

3

7

5

7

5

7

7

Total Members

74

40

81

50

92

52

74

55

______________________________________________________ Note. CB = Concert Band; WE = Wind Ensemble

The addition of the English horn, contrabassoon, contrabass clarinet, and alto clarinet to both groups is attributed to the acquisition of instruments for the concert program and student recruitment within the respective instrumental studios. The increase of

81 percussionists to the wind ensemble indicated the scoring demands for contemporary wind compositions. The overall comparison shows that the instrumentation between the two ensembles remained consistent throughout his tenure. Julian differed with Fennell on programming since he preferred to feature his select ensemble on the same program with the concert band. There were no separate concerts dedicated solely to the wind ensemble and the music programmed was for full instrumentation, or the “reed-brass-percussion combination.” Julian commented about the wind ensemble and the growth of the concert band program at Tennessee: We played a variety of band literature. On many performances I would select the top players from each section to form a wind ensemble to play the new and older literature for that type of ensemble. When we had more students in the concert program, an additional concert band was added that was called the Campus band. We performed some of the new literature being written at the time, as well as, the older works and transcriptions.152 The works performed by the wind ensembles compared in Table 1 are representative of the literature programmed by Julian during his tenure at Tennessee and include: 1961 Wind Ensemble Barber – Commando March Persichetti – Psalm for Band Sullivan – Pineapple Poll von Weber – Concertino for Clarinet Jacob – An Original Suite Miller – Procession and Interlude Bennett – Suite of Old American Dances

1972 Wind Ensemble Creston – Concerto for Saxophone Persichetti - Pageant King - Excursions von Weber – Second Concerto for Clarinet

1985 Wind Ensemble Smith – Eternal Father, Strong to Save Persichetti – Divertimento Mailman – Decorations Vaughn Williams – Sea Songs

1993 Wind Ensemble Grainger – Duke of Marlborough Fanfare Grainger – Lincolnshire Posy Creston – Celebration Overture153

152

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

153

Selected programs of the University of Tennessee Wind Ensemble from 1962, 1972, 1985, and 1993. Original programs housed in the University of Tennessee band archive.

82 Growth of the Concert Band Program The concert band program’s growth in enrollment mirrored that of the marching band. With the influx of students into the revitalized music education program, recruitment of non-music majors, and increased exposure provided by concerts and the marching band performances, the total band program benefited with substantial growth. Julian briefly commented regarding the mirrored growth aspect, “Yes, that is a fair statement. I would add that those early years the music education program was growing rapidly as well, and it contributed to the growth of the all band ensembles.”154 Growth in quality, as well as quantity, improved as an expectation of excellence was established and demanded by Julian. A comparison of the selected programs by the concert band indicates the programming of quality band repertoire: 1966 Concert Band Bach – Toccata and Fugue in D minor Sessions – The Black Maskers Suite Alford – The Vanished Army March Osser – Beguine for Band Shostakovich – Festive Overture

1969 Concert Band Giannini – Symphony No. 3 for Band Bach – If Thou Be Near Schuman - Chester Holst – Fist Suite in Eb Dello Joio – Fantasy on Theme by Haydn

1972 Concert Band Grafulla – Washington Grays March Jacob – Concerto for Band Wagner – Overture to Rienzi Grainger – Austrailian Up-Country Tune Gould – American Salute

1979 Concert Band Fletcher – Vanity Fair Persichetti – Symphony for Band Giannini – Dedication Overture Giordano – Andrea Chenier Arnold – For Scottish Dances

1984 Concert Band Strauss – Fierlicher Einzug Husa – Music for Prague 1968 Verdi – Overture to Nabucco Delle Cese – L’Inglesina

1993 Concert Band Van Vactor - Passacaglia Rachmaninoff – Italian Polka Grainger – Lincolnshire Posy Cronin – A Soldier’s March155

154

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

155

Selected programs of the University of Tennessee Concert Band from 1966, 1969, 1972, 1979, 1984, and 1993. Original programs housed in the University of Tennessee band archive.

83 When Walter McDaniel was hired as the assistant band director in 1968, the growth of the concert band program expanded to the point that the “campus band” was permanently added as the second concert band. As its title suggests, the band’s membership was eclectic and included music majors and non-music majors from across the campus.156 Between 1968 and 1993, the campus band’s enrollment fluctuated between seventy to eighty-five members and originally shared concerts with the concert band and wind ensemble before performing independently.157 Dedicated to performing standard works of the band repertoire, the members of the campus band had the opportunity to perform significant works from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as indicated by selected programs: 1969 Campus Band Griffith – The Courier Journal March Miller – Procession and Interlude Grainger – Irish Tune from County Derry Gliere – Russian Sailor’s Dance

1971 Campus Band von Blon – The Light Horse March McBeth – The Seventh Seal Bilik – American Civil War Fantasy

1974 Campus Band Bach – Chorale and Fugue in G minor Nelhybel – Symphonic Movement Sousa – El Captain March

1983 Campus Band Alford – Eagle Squadron March Curnow – Collage for Band Williams – Symphonic Suite158

Recruitment Strategies The recruitment of talented high school musicians for all aspects of the band program heavily relied on public exposure of the performing ensembles. Unlike the marching band, the concert band did not have television or stadium exposure. Julian used

156

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

157

Walter McDaniel, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 29, 2011.

158

Selected programs of the University of Tennessee Campus Band from 1969, 1971, 1974, and 1983. Original programs housed in the University of Tennessee band archive.

84 several recruiting strategies to provide exposure for the Tennessee concert band program and the University of Tennessee that included: the annual senior high and junior high honor band weekends, tours of the concert band, hosting district festivals, and public concerts. The senior high and junior high honor band weekends were a highly effective recruiting tools that brought twelve hundred to thirteen hundred students to the campus every year. Julian sent mass mailings to virtually all the schools east of the Mississippi river that contained information concerning the respective honor band weekend. Each weekend featured six auditioned and ranked bands that were conducted by respected band directors in the region. The director for the top band was usually a prominent conductor with a national reputation. The bands rehearsed on a strictly timed rotation schedule since only three bands could rehearse at one time. The final concert on Sunday featured all of the bands.159 The organizational feat was a testament to Julian’s skills as an effective administrator. Julian commented on the organization, execution, and recruitment value of the honor band weekends: Those were very fine opportunities for upwards to twelve hundred students each weekend. We ran six concert bands each weekend. These bands were conducted by some of the finest conductors in the public schools. It was quite a challenge to organize and run those weekends due to scheduling sufficient rehearsal time for each group. I believe we ran three concert bands at a time and then changed over to the other three bands. This went on all day. The end result was a final concert on Sunday with all six bands performing. This was a great recruiting tool for the UT band program and gave students from all over the southeast and east coast an opportunity to visit the university. We were one of the very few universities that had a junior high honor band weekend as well.160

159

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

160

Ibid.

85 Each spring the concert band toured selected high schools in the Knoxville area and gave concerts to entire student bodies. Julian programmed works that appealed to the high school audience and featured concert band members as soloists. After each concert Julian and select members of the concert band would meet with prospective students to answer questions about the band program and the university. The concert band toured outside of the Knoxville on many occasions that included trips to Chattanooga where they performed in the Tivoli Theatre and to Nashville where they played in the famed Ryman Auditorium, home of the original Grand Ole Opry.161 The most effective recruitment tool that Julian possessed was he, himself. Since Julian taught many of the Knoxville area band directors either at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute, known as Tennessee Tech University today, or at Tennessee, he established an indirect recruiting network through his former students. Julian’s life-long association to the state of Tennessee as a music educator significantly impacted his ability to recruit within the state. Wayne Tipps addressed the issue of Julian’s exclusive career in the state of Tennessee: That is absolutely correct. He was a “home grown” product. He was born twenty miles from his first public school and college job, and then moved one hundred miles to the east to finish out his career. That is an amazing fact. He gave his life to teaching in his home state. The same can be said of the majority of his students. In general, we did not get the great players at Tennessee coming from other states. These students were developed locally or regionally. He took those students and made good musicians out of them. I certainly give him credit for that.162 Julian identified prospective students through their band directors and made a point to meet these students personally. Many of these meetings occurred at the district concert

161

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

162

A. Wayne Tipps, interview by author, Ten Mile, TN, July 29, 2011.

86 festival of the East Tennessee Band and Orchestra Association (ETSBOA) hosted by Julian on the campus of the university. John Culvahouse, who attended Knoxville’s Holston High School in the late 1960s, related his first meeting with Julian and the importance of his recruitment process: I first encountered Dr. Julian in 1968 during my sophomore year in high school at the spring concert festival on the stage of the UT music hall. He was always there and always came through to say hello to the band that was performing. This was a form of recruitment and exposure for the university. I used that model at my former institution as well. It was a smart thing to do. Dr. Julian was a smart man and still is. By that time he had been at UT for seven years and had turned things around pretty quickly. The marching band was already over two hundred members at that time. I did not meet him then, but that was my first encounter with Dr. Julian. I sold cold drinks at the UT football games and would see conducting the band at half time and pregame. I did not see rehearsals. My association with Dr. Julian spanned from 1968 until the present. I have taught for thirty seven years plus four years of college and two pre-college, so that adds up to forty three years I have known or been associated with Dr. Julian.163 Concert Band Appearances and Guest Composers, Conductors, and Soloists The dramatic rise of the concert band program in both quality and quantity was evident by February 12, 1969 when the concert band performed at the national convention of the College Band Directors National Association (CBDNA) in Knoxville. Subsequent concert band performances at national conventions included: the 1975 American Bandmasters Association (ABA) convention in New Orleans, the 1977 Music Educators National Conference (MENC) Southern Conference in Atlanta, the 1979 ABA convention in Montgomery, and the 1987 ABA convention in Knoxville. The concert band also performed three times at the Tennessee Music Educators Association convention. All of these performances provided exposure of the Tennessee concert band program to a state and national audience (see Figure 8).

163

John Culvahouse, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

87

Figure 8. Tennessee concert band at MENC convention in Atlanta, GA, April 28, 1975. Photograph used with permission from the University of Tennessee band archive. Throughout his tenure at Tennessee, Julian invited composers, guest soloists, and prominent conductors to work and perform with the concert band. Many of these individuals were personal friends of Julian and his wife, Faye. He recalled a list of musicians who worked with his ensembles: There were several composers that came to UT to work with the students in their classes and in the ensembles: Vincent Persichetti, who was one of the great composers his generation and a very good person; Clifton Williams, a dear man and great composer. He directed the UT concert band at one of our ABA appearances the year before he died. He was very sick that year, but wanted to be with us; Norman Dello Joio, a wonderful man and composer; Karel Husa, a passionate composer and human being; Martin Mailman, a dear friend; Vaclav Nelhybel, who wrote many good band works, but didn’t get along well with the students; David Van Vactor, who was on faculty at Tennessee and directed the Knoxville Symphony; and some others. As far as conductors that came to work with the concert bands, we had: Sir Vivian Dunn, who was a dear friend of mine and former director of Royal Marine Band; Harry Begian; my dearest friend, Zeke Nicar, William Revelli; Col. John Bourgeois; Frank Wickes; Guy Lombardo, who directed the UT Marching Band; and several others who made guest appearances with the band at conventions. Some of the guest artists that appeared with the UT Concert Band included: Vincent J. Abato, the virtuoso clarinetist with the New York Philharmonic, Wynton Marsalis, Governor Lamar Alexander, UT faculty

88 members Don Hough, Cathy Leach, Bill Scarlett, and Gary Sperl, Jay Romines and many UT students over the years.164 The concert band program was overshadowed by the reputation of the marching band due, in great part, to the amount television exposure experienced by the “Pride of the Southland,” but it did not diminish the performance excellence of the concert ensembles. University of Tennessee President Emeritus Joseph Johnson readily admitted that he “forgot” Julian was not only the director of the marching band, but of the entire program: One thing that I always forget is that Dr. Julian directed the entire band program. He conducted the concert band. I have had the opportunity to listen to his concert band programs over the years. It is the same with Dr. Sousa. I forget that they are working with the outstanding concert bands as well. The fame and reputation of the marching band attracted excellent students to want to come to be a part of not only the marching band, but the other groups as well. It also played a part in attracting students to want to major in instrumental music at the University of Tennessee. I am sure that it had an impact. They are not only directing the "Pride of the Southland" marching band, but also directing other groups in the music department.165 Assistant Directors and Staff Julian surrounded himself with individuals who provided stability and consistency throughout his tenure at Tennessee: Barry McDonald, referenced in detail earlier in this study, served as the assistant band director and arranger from 1961-68 and continued as arranger until 1978; Gail Hunter, secretary to Julian from 1965 until her retirement in 1993; Walter McDaniel, Jr., assistant band director and associate professor of music education from 1968 until his retirement in 1988; Ken Landgren, drill designer from 1974-77, Jim Idol, drill designer from 1978-1995, Warren Clark, arranger from 19791982 and 1984-1995; Ed Gaston, arranger in 1983; James Sparks, assistant band director

164

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

165

Joseph Johnson, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, May 25, 2011.

89 from 1984-1989 and associate band director from 1989-1993; and Patricia Root, assistant band director from 1989-1993. Julian described the quality of his staff: It is important in any organization to have people who knew what there were doing. Barry McDonald was the arranger from 1961 to around 1978 or so. Walter McDaniel became the Assistant Director in the late 1960’s and remained for 20 years. We had Ken Landgren, an engineering major, writing drill in the late 1960’s and early 70’s. He really developed and expanded the circle drills. Jim Idol became the drill writer in the later 1970’s and remained until my retirement. Warren Clark replaced Barry McDonald as our arranger and wrote many fine arrangements. Gail Hunter was very important. She was the band secretary from the mid-1960s until my retirement. There was a woman before Gail that I had to dismiss. Gail still works for me with the Smoky Mountain Music Festival. Her responsibilities with the band program were very important. All of the staff over the years did help to provide stability and made the organization efficient.166 The “Director of Bands” Position The title of “director of bands” implies a position of authority and supervision for a program with multiple bands or ensembles regardless of the level of instruction. Julian’s role as director of bands at Tennessee was absolute. While other of his peers were not responsible for aspects for everyday operations or delegated to subordinates, Julian was always present and active. During the last thirty years, the director of bands role has shifted, in terms of absolute control. Traditional comprehensive university band programs generally have a director of bands, but they have other directors with specific titles that include, director of athletic bands, director of wind ensemble, or director of concert bands. While the shift may only be semantics in nature, it implies a move to decentralize power from one person. Julian commented about the nature of the director of bands title: There are some directors who fall into this category, but every school is different. Some directors are hired primarily as the artistic director or concert director who oversees the total program. Take for example William Revelli [University of Michigan], he went to every rehearsal whether it be concert or marching band. He 166

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

90 was in charge. Al Wright [Purdue University] was the same way. The Tennessee program was built along those lines as well. I was present at all rehearsals since it was my program. Today, there are specific titles applied to positions like Director of Bands, Director of the Marching Band, etc. within the same program. That set up is different from a Director of Bands who is directly involved in all facets of their program with the assistance of an associate or assistant director of bands. The primary difference is that with one side there are different people in charge of different areas as compared to one person in charge of all. I do not know if that is good or bad, it all depends on the direction the administration of the school wants for its program. The problem is that some people do not want to have anything to do with the marching band, but that is a big mistake since that is where the money and public support come from. The concert program is usually not known by the majority of the public. That was even the case at Tennessee. The other concern is that when a director of bands is not involved with all areas of their program, they do not know the students who make up the program and the students do not know the director of bands.167 His views underscored the notion that today’s band titles stem from a university administration’s desired direction for their respective program. Al G. Wright, director of bands emeritus at Purdue University, added additional comments concerning the shift from the traditional “director of bands” role: The title, “director of bands”, is a title like, “director of athletics” at the college. You can be a full professor, but you cannot be the director of bands. You are appointed as director of bands. In high school it is always director of bands. In college that is a designation and assignment of duties and responsibilities that eclipses that of full professor. Jay [Julian] was always the director of bands. The director of bands position is an umbrella position that oversees the entire program. Some of the older generation was directly involved in all facets of their program, but that is not necessarily the case anymore.168 The role of the “director of bands” is fundamentally important to the health and well being of any program. They are individuals who are generally tenured faculty, have access to university or school administration, and advocate for the program. Gary Sousa,

167

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

168

Al G. Wright, interview by author, West Lafayette, IN, August 2, 2011.

91 director of bands at the University of Tennessee, responded adamantly about the role and the perceived de-centralization nationally: The Jay Julians, the John Paytners, the William Revellis, the people of those generations were basically three things: strong musicians, great teachers, and strong administrators. I think that teaching was a major part of who they were because many started in the public schools. Their belief was that the band experience was comprehensive. In the end what you achieved musically on the marching band field should be no less than what you achieved in the concert band hall. Music is music, and you strive for excellence and a level of perfection in every situation. They were savvy enough to know that the people financially responsible for funding in the university were the people interested in the marching band. They realized if they limited themselves to just the concert area, then they would not have the support for the whole program. There would be no political support or financial. It would be comparable to most university orchestra programs that operate on a very limited budget for the school year. They were politically savvy enough to know that you had to build a power base because without it that would not be the finances to make the things work. Also, they were concerned about the comprehensive band experience. Even to this day, when you have a student who has the opportunity to march in a Presidential inaugural parade and perform in Carnegie Hall, you have given that student two lifetime experiences. Do you value one experience more than the other? No, they are both life experiences and change the individual. Because these men were such teachers, that comprehensive experience is what they valued. Are things changing? Yes, they are changing dramatically and the change is not for the better. We are close, maybe within the next ten to fifteen years, to witnessing a major catastrophe in the band field. This is due to several reasons: the economy, and director of bands divorcing themselves from athletics. They are giving a junior faculty member control over the marching band who has no political clout to enter an arena to demand financial support. Dr. Julian was able to do these things as director of bands. In a time where the economy is dictating cuts in all areas, especially in education, where do the cuts usually begin? The cuts begin with the marching band with regards to travel and expenses. Another area of concern the college marching band is the gradual descent to turning the college game day experience into a “pro” game atmosphere with band being replaced with amplified music. At many universities you do have a powerful director of bands involved in these decisions. You can see a gradual decline of the marching band. The current directors of bands who want to be just the artistic conductor are allowing this decline and it results ultimately in a reduction of financial support for the whole program. The marching band has historically brought in financial resources to band programs. Without that funding there will be no funding for commissions, scholarships, renting music, bringing in guest composers, or guest conductors. I foresee a real change very soon. The results of director of band searches demonstrate how universities are moving away from the old model for a director of bands position. It is a dying generation of what the

92 director of bands position used to mean and will have profound implications for the future of the band field.169 Conclusion It is difficult, if not impossible, to quantify a person’s impact on any situation without tangible evidence, but that is not the case with Julian and the Tennessee band program. Fulfilling Churchill’s definition of leadership, the “mark” that Julian left on the program at Tennessee unequivocally made “lasting impressions” on the students, the university, and those who witnessed his bands. His impact on the concert band program is unmistakable. The fact that he founded it in 1961 and performed at a national band convention only eight years later is substantial proof of his significance as an effective director. The momentous strides the marching band made under Julian are undeniable with regards to growth, performance excellence, and innovation. In 2010, Josh Pate, staff writer for the University of Tennessee Media Relations, wrote a series of articles entitled, “The Seven Pillars of Tennessee Football,” and his subjects included: former coaches Nathan W. Dougherty and Gen. Robert R. Neyland; former players Gene McEver, Peyton Manning, Bobby Dodd, and Herman Hickman; and Julian. The series of seven articles were based from a list submitted by Gus Manning, long-time University of Tennessee athletic department administer and one of the individuals who initially interviewed Julian in 1960. The following as an excerpt from Pate’s article about Julian: He was a perfectionist and he wanted perfection by others. He was very strict and a disciplinarian in his craft, but it paid off in the long run. Hew was always had a great show for the fans in Knoxville. Sure, it sounds like a good description of o ne of the legends cut from that same orange cloth, name s like Wyatt, Battle, Majors, Fulmer, and the General. But this man was a legend in his own. This man, no matter the score or wins or losses, constructed the framework of the Tennessee game day atmosphere before some of us knew what that meant. That’s why WJ 169

Gary Sousa, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 29, 2011.

93 Julian transformed Saturday into a Tennessee experience perhaps more than anybody.170 Julian set out, as director of bands, to create a comprehensive university band program at the University of Tennessee. In a state not known for its public school music programs, the fact Julian accomplished his goals at Tennessee is significant. Gary Sousa, who followed as director of bands four years after Julian’s retirement, iterated the point: When you think of the great band programs like those of the Big Ten, those kinds of programs were established around great high school programs in their respective areas that would feed them great players. The state of Tennessee did not have the amount of high caliber programs as other states. To establish a program that has a national reputation of excellence and to establish it in a state where there were not many high caliber programs was unusual. If it were not for Dr. Julian, this program would not exist in the form it is today. It be a mediocre regional program that you can find everywhere in the country. He made it happen. I think this is a very good point. Given the culture and the fact that he established this level of excellence within this culture is quite unusual.171 Dr. Al G. Wright further quantified Julian’s impact on the university band movement and, specifically, the Tennessee program: He helped to raise the standards of college and university bands. There are quite a few small colleges who do not have good band programs due to leadership or resources. Jay was in Tennessee, and that state is not known as one of the most generous states in the Union for music programs on any level. Just like Georgia is not like Massachusetts. He went into his jobs at Tennessee Tech and the University of Tennessee with standards and a behavior as a proper gentleman. He simply raised the standards. First, he raised the standards in his own bands by taking those Tennessee students and making them play better through proper teaching.172 The qualities of an effective director of bands are subjective, but leadership skills, conducting ability, and organizational aptitude represent core characteristics. Julian 170

Josh Pate, “The Seven Pillars of Tennessee Football: Julian Responsible for Creating Game Day Ambience,” The University of Tennessee, www.utsports.com/sports/m-footbl/spec-rel/091110aab.html (accessed June 30, 2012). 171

Gary Sousa, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 29, 2011.

172

Al G. Wright, interview by author, West Lafayette, IN, August 2, 2011.

94 possessed these traits and much more that helped him achieve a level of success at Tennessee and for himself. Wayne Tipps referred to Julian’s persona, organization, and savvy as important traits of Julian: Just the persona of the man is number one. He had a persona that made people take notice, listen, and attracted attention. You always take notice of the personality of anyone you meet. Secondly and more important, Dr. Julian possessed immense organizational skills. I believe that much of his success was due largely to the fact that the man was so organized. Whether he surrounded himself with organized people or that he was responsible for their organization, the fact remains that Dr. Julian got the tasks at hand accomplished. I believe that his skills as an organizer were paramount. I have said many times to our students that if you do not get anything from the University of Tennessee other than an observation of Dr. Julian's organizational skills on how to run a music program or a band program, then your have received your education already. Everything down to the last detail was scripted, and everybody knew what to expect. His organization was the second major point. The third major point was that he knew where the power was within the university structure that allowed him to be successful. He used that knowledge as well or better than anyone. He understood who made the decisions and how they arrived at those decisions. Using that knowledge, he understood where he could help his program. I am not sure if others could accomplish this, but it worked for him and for the betterment of his program and students. His base of power did not come from inside the music department, but came from the seats of power from with the university administration who allowed and gave him what he needed to function. This allowed him and his program to reach a level of visibility that it became the norm, and no one dared to challenge that. I am not sure if anyone has mentioned this, but I believe he was a master psychologist. Especially, not when he dealt with colleagues because it may have had a negative effect, but as it related to the students. He had the unique ability to harshly discipline a student, but at a defined moment, he would stop and tell a joke to relieve the stress of the moment and send everyone on his or her way. I saw many times when he would climb the ladder at marching rehearsal and admonish the students, then in a split second say something half-way funny. After that it was all over and everyone went back to work. This was just part of his persona.173 After he established a solid program at Tennessee in the 1960s, Julian focused his attention on ways he could personally contribute to his profession on a state and national level. He accomplished these broader goals by positioning himself as a leader within national band associations. Chapter IV discusses his leadership in these organizations and 173

A. Wayne Tipps, interview by author, Ten Mile, TN, July 29, 2011.

95 how it brought notoriety to the university, the band program, and him. His role as a teacher, conductor, clinician, and adjudicator, as well as, his influence upon the music education program at the University of Tennessee are also examined.

96 CHAPTER IV LEADERSHIP IN BAND ASSOCIATIONS AND MUSIC EDUCATION Through his work at the University of Tennessee and Tennessee Polytechnic Institute, Julian established himself as an effective director of bands by building successful comprehensive band programs, remarkably, in the same state. His leadership, organization, and administrative skills complemented his teaching and conducting abilities that made him a highly effective director of bands. The former attributes contributed to his ascent within national band associations to, ultimately, lead them in the role of president. This chapter examines Julian’s leadership and significance within the three major American band associations and discusses his impact on music education in Tennessee and at the University of Tennessee. National Band Association The National Band Association is the largest professional band organization in the world. Founded on September 11, 1960 by Al G. Wright, upon suggestion from Tragott Rohner, editor and founder of The Instrumentalist magazine, “it was organized for the purpose of promoting the musical and educational significance of bands and dedicated to the attainment of a higher level of excellence for bands and band music.”174 Julian joined in the mid-1960s and was an important early leader in the association. He served as first vice-president (1976-78) and as president (1978-1980). John Culvahouse, current president, explained Julian’s importance to the organization: Dr. Julian was responsible for streamlining the association in regards to its organization and administration. He made the convention really worthwhile, enjoyable, and memorable. The convention was in Knoxville more than any other venue. We do not have a convention anymore; it served its purpose. He had the 174

“About the NBA,” National Band Association, http://www.nationalbandassociation.org/about/ (accessed June 7, 2012).

97 conventions at its prime. The groups that were selected, the venues, the ‘headliners,’ the dinners, everything was done first rate. Including Gail [Hunter] and UT band workers, Jay surrounded himself with a good staff and always hosted a premier event. His mark was that the conventions were ultra enjoyable while still being professional and serving as a headliner in the profession.175 While not specific to any one association, Julian described his priorities as a president: The first priority was to keep the organization running and moving in the right direction. There was usually very little money to work with, but there did not have to be a lot of money to effectively do the work. The administrative tasks were very important. This included making sure that the organization was functioning in a manner that served the membership. If the association had a national conference or convention, then that was an important duty of the president to organize and attract as many attendees, quality performers, and presenters. It was always important to me that the associations were presented as the leaders of the band medium. It had to do with integrity and attracting new membership and emphasizing the importance of current members staying active. The strength of any association is the active role of the membership and leadership. Keeping the committees of the associations current and active was important since these groups did so much of the main body of legislative and external work.176 The importance he placed on national associations being at the forefront of the band medium was one of his over-arching concerns as an association leader. Julian continued as he described the qualities necessary for leadership: First of all, one should have a great deal of knowledge of music. That is number one. Another quality would be the ability to effectively deal with people. This would include a measure of disciple, but you cannot overdo it or underdo it. It is in between. I always tried to be fair in dealing with people, but at the same time I was responsible for the welfare of the organization I was representing. Many people in the different associations who held an office tended to overdo things that led to divisions within the organization. Others were benign leaders and past off their responsibilities to others and were just a figurehead.177 To achieve his goals for the organizations, Julian surrounded himself with capable individuals. The delegation of responsibilities to others was a trademark of Julian’s

175

John Culvahouse, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

176

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

177

Ibid.

98 administrative skills. He allowed others to do their assigned tasks, but supervised the overall process. Julian was not a “micro-manager,” but expected exceptional work from all subordinates. Deadlines were not a suggestion for completion of assigned duties, but were mandatory. Those who did not fulfill their obligation incurred Julian’s ire. His system of delegation was not confined just to personnel of national associations, but to any organization he lead. From fellow faculty members to his student band workers, Julian’s insistence for exceptional work was always consistent. Gary Sousa provided further insight into Julian’s organization qualities: I think that it goes back to what I mentioned before that if you are going to do it, then do it right, and it comes down to the smallest detail. Obviously, he would provide a structure for the process, and then he would let the people do their job. In the end, as long as the final product was what was expected, he satisfied. He was not necessarily a micro-manager, but there was an over-riding demand or expectation that it be done right. If it was not done right, then there were consequences.178 Six months before his retirement and after forty-three distinguished years as a director of bands, Julian was presented with the National Band Association’s “Academy of Winds and Percussive Arts” (AWAPA) award on December 16, 1992. Known as the “Oscar” of the band world, the award recognizes individuals who have made significant and outstanding contributions to furthering the excellence of bands and of band music. His enduring influence in the National Band Association was capped off on February 5, 1994, when the association honored Julian as the thirty-third individual inducted into its ‘Hall of Fame of Distinguished Band Conductors.”

178

Gary Sousa, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 29, 2011.

99 College Band Directors National Association The purpose of the College Band Directors Association (March 2005) states that its members “are devoted to the teaching, performance, study and cultivation of music, with particular focus on the wind band medium. CBDNA is an inclusive organization whose members are engaged in continuous dialogue encompassing myriad philosophies and professional practices. CBDNA is committed to serving as a dynamic hub connecting individuals to communities, ideas and resources.”179 Founded by William D. Revelli in December of 1941, the organization is primarily for active or former band directors from any level of instruction. Prospective members must meet general requirements for membership on either the active or associate level. Julian joined as an active member when he was director of bands at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute. A proponent of the ideals of the association, Julian upheld the purposes of the association that included: his continuous and active membership; attendance and participation at national conferences; his promotion of the organization in Tennessee; and hosting of the Fifteenth Biennial Conference on February 12-15, 1969 in Knoxville that included a performance by his concert band.180 Other prominent university ensembles that performed during the 1969 conference included: East Carolina University Symphonic Band, Herbert L. Clark, director of bands; George Peabody College Wind Ensemble, Henry J. Romersa, director; joint university bands from George Peabody College for Teachers and Vanderbilt University; North Texas State University Concert Band, Maurice McAdow, director of bands; Southeastern Louisiana College Symphonic Band, 179

CBDNA, “Statement of Purpose,” College Band Directors National Association, http://www.cbdna.org/cgi-bin/about5.pl (accessed June 10, 2012). 180

Music Educators Journal, “College Band Directors at Knoxville: February 12-15, 1969,” Music Educators Journal 55, no. 5 (January 1969): 95.

100 Robert Weatherly, director of bands; University of Southern Mississippi Symphonic Band, Alan H. Drake, director of bands; and Collegiate Neophonic Orchestra, Cerritos College, Don Erjavec, Bill Fritz, and Stan Kenton, conductors.181 Julian’s commitment to the association led to multiple leadership roles: marching bands committee chairman for the southern division (1973-75), vice president of the southern division (1975-77), president of the southern division (1977-79), and president of the national association (1987-89). Gary Sousa, current director of bands at the University of Tennessee, recalled the first time he met Julian: I first met him when he became president of CBDNA [College Band Directors National Association]. His conference was held at the University of Texas in Austin. I was teaching at Baylor University at that point. Everyone at the conference told me he was not only the director of bands at Tennessee, but that he was “governor” of Tennessee. [laughter] I was amazed at how impeccably dressed he was for the conference and the way manner he conducted himself and interacted with those around him. I did not have much of a relationship with him until I took the director of bands position at Tennessee. He was well known in the field. There was a scuttlebutt about his election at the time. He was running against Stan DeRusha, the director of bands at Michigan State at that time. People were concerned that this southerner was coming in to take over CBDNA. I think that my first impressions were that he was a class act and well spoken, but there was definitely a northern-southern issue about his election. I remember very vividly people discussing about what did this southern guy know about wind ensembles and the like.182 Julian possessed great self-confidence and eloquent speaking skills that enabled him to serve as an effective “face” of any organization. He did not seek attention as a leader; instead he wanted attention directed to the end product.

181

Music Educators Journal, “College Band Directors at Knoxville: February 12-15, 1969,” 95.

182

Gary Sousa, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 29, 2011.

101 Julian treated his presidency in the same manner he did with the National Band Association. Amidst his many contributions, organizational and administrative reforms of the association were priorities. In the spring 1987 edition of the association’s Report, Julian explained his goals for his presidency. The first administrative goal was to award conventions sites to cities for the next three to four years so advanced planning could be ensured. Since Julian hosted the association’s biennial conference in 1969, he understood the immense planning involved with national conventions and the need for advanced site determinations. He concluded his report by reiterating, “If you have suggestions for the betterment of our organization, please write me. Your ideas will be discussed at the board meeting as well as the open forum on Friday, December 18, 1987 [at the Mid-West Clinic in Chicago]. We need your participation, or it is a meaningless organization.”183 Julian’s sincerity of keeping the organization meaningful by active participation from its members harkened back to the general goals that were documented earlier. In the 1987 fall issue of the Report, he implored the membership to be cognizant of the of “critical” years ahead in regards to the nation-wide discussions that concerned the deficiency of the educational system in the United States: The next few years will be critical ones for our profession, as much is currently being discussed about the shortcomings in America’s educational system. It will be imperative that we college and university band directors keep our lines of communication open as we come to terms with changing admission requirements, the effects of increasingly part-time employment of high school and college band students, the apparent decline in the interest of freshmen in Music Education as a profession, and many other issues which may have an impact on the future status of our bands and wind ensembles.184

183

CBDNA, “Report: Spring 1987,” College Band Directors National Association, http://www.cbdna.org/pdf/Report1987sp.pdf#page=1 (accessed June 10, 2012). 184

CBDNA, “Report: Fall 1987,” College Band Directors National Association, http://www.cbdna.org/pdf/Report1987fl.pdf#page=1 (accessed June 10, 2012).

102 While some members possibly questioned the election of Julian as president of the association, it is apparent that his dedication as a leader to the advancement of the purpose and goals of the association was incontrovertible. American Bandmasters Association Founded on July 5, 1929, with John Philip Sousa as Honorary Life President, the American Bandmasters Association became the first and most prestigious band association in the United States, Since 1938, prospective membership is by invitation only. The objectives, stated in the association’s constitution, are as follows: the recognition of outstanding achievement in the field of Concert Band and its music; helpfulness and fellowship among members; an increasingly higher standards of artistic excellence for the Concert Band, its performers, conductors, and literature; and a constantly greater contribution through the Concert Band to the musical life and culture of all peoples.185 In 1967, the American Bandmasters Association voted to accept Julian along with Acton Ostling, William Schuler, and Kenneth Snapp into its membership. After serving the association as a dedicated member and active participant on many committees for twenty years, he was elected as vice president in 1987, the same year he hosted the joint convention of the American Bandmasters Association and Japanese Bandmasters Association in Knoxville. In 1989, Julian became the fifty-second president of the association. Dr. Al G. Wright commented on his friendship with Julian and their respective rise to the presidency: The 1979 Bluebonnet Bowl was the first time our bands had met each other. Fifteen years or so before, we were both in the American Bandmasters Association [ABA]. We are both a little bit "bull-headed." We are both very 185

“ABA Constitution,” American Bandmasters Association, http://americanbandmasters.org/pdfs/ABA_Constitution.pdf (accessed June 15, 2012).

103 forceful personalities. I was elected president thirty years after being inducted into the ABA, and Jay was elected president twenty years after being inducted. So, we both expressed our opinions in meetings too often. We always got along very well together, as did Gladys and Faye Julian. Jay was a man of great opinions. He was a republican and his wife was a democrat. There is a story that he let the air out of her tires, so she would not get to vote. [laughter] She made it to the polls anyway.186 In his presidential address to the association in 1990, after he humorously commented about the lengths of some past president speeches, Julian reported on items of business and the progress on-going committee work. He informed the members about the newly formed committee tasked with development of a new members handbook. The resultant comments reiterated his core belief concerning a member’s responsibility to an organization: The Board also recommended another committee of veteran members to develop a handbook for the orientation of new members. Those committee members are Mark Hindsley, Don McGinnis, with chairman Harry Begian. When the handbook is completed, it might be wise for all of us to read it, especially sponsors of candidates, to emphasize that being a good member of ABA is more than wearing a pin and printing ABA on one’s letterhead, program, and published articles – and that is basically the point I want to make. A pin or initials doesn’t mean anything – being an active of ABA does! A member of any organization, be it Rotary, CBDNA, NBA, or ABA means little if one is not active and doesn’t participate. Our privilege of membership entitles us to service. Dr. Revelli point out several years ago: ‘In no other organization – be it fraternal, civic, professional, or social - will we find a body of men and women with such loyalty, love, and faith as in our ABA.’187 At the 2010 convention held in Charleston, South Carolina, Julian was became the twenty-first “Honorary Life Member” in the history of the American Bandmasters Association. He joined the ranks of great bandmasters that included: Edwin Franko Goldman, Glenn Cliffe Bainum (Julian’s band director at Northwestern), Raymond

186

Al G. Wright, interview by author, West Lafayette, IN, August 2, 2011.

187

“ABA Memorials: Memorials (PDF),” American Bandmasters Association, http://www.americanbandmasters.org/memorials/ (accessed June 15, 2012), 199.

104 Dvorak, William Santlemann, George Howard, William Revelli, Mark Hindsley, Earl Slocum, Paul Yoder, Jack Mahan, Herbert Johnston, Milburn Carey, Frederick Fennell, George Wilson, Donald McGinnis, Harry Begian, Victor Zajec, Al Wright, Maj. John Yesulatis, and Richard Strange. The presentation was made Jerry Junkin, director of bands at the University of Texas, Austin. In his remarks he gave a brief biographical synopsis of Julian and characterized his contributions to the association. Excerpts from the speech are as follows: Distinguished colleagues and guests, it gives me great pleasure to make an introduction as our organization pauses to recognize one of our most outstanding members. Normally, in these cases, the person making an introduction such as this strives to keep the name of the honoree a secret until the end of the remarks. It has become clear to me, in preparing these remarks that in this case, it really is virtually impossible to accomplish that feat. I think that this demonstrates the level of connection between our honoree and the institution he served for so many years and in fact, the state and region with which his work has been so inextricably linked…He is a native of the only state in which he ever taught at the university level, and he received his university training from the school where he would later begin his university band conducting career…He was Director of Bands at Tennessee Tech University for ten years, after which time he moved to the University of Tennessee where he served as Director of Bands for thirty-three years. He is a native of Silver Point, Tennessee, whose billboard upon entering the town called itself ‘the last resort.’ He is, without question, the most impersonated band conductor who has ever lived. He also clearly serves as an example to others that all you can ever really imitate about a person is their mannerisms. There is no way to imitate their substance…One of our most welcoming, generous, witty, and illustrious members, the American Bandmasters Association is proud to announce that today, Dr. WJ Julian, becomes only the twenty-first person in the entire history of our organization to receive the high honor of ‘Honorary Life Member.’188 One of the themes that Julian reiterated throughout his presidencies concerned the active involvement of the members and leadership. It was vitally important to Julian that music educators should hold membership in associations:

188

Jerry Junkin, “Dr. WJ Julian: Honorary Life Member,” (Introductory address, 76th annual convention of the American Bandmasters Association, Charleston, SC, March 3, 2010).

105 It is very important! Just to share ideas. We all copy from each other and get ideas from each other. You do not find any outstanding band directors who do not go to conventions or meetings. I would say that is just as important that they join their state associations.189 Impact of Julian’s Leadership in National Associations Before Julian, only William D. Revelli, director of bands emeritus at the University of Michigan, served as president of the American Bandmasters Association, College Band Directors National Association, and National Band Association. Peers and colleagues elected Julian president of each association. His reputation as a leader in the band field was a key factor in his ascendency to leadership that brought immense national exposure to his band program, state, and the University of Tennessee. Wayne Tipps, professor of music education and colleague, provided personal insight into Julian’s significance as a national leader in the band movement: Jay’s leadership skills were the key qualities that allowed him to become a part of the interior structure of the band movement. I believe it started with the NBA [National Band Association] and moved to the CBDNA [College Band Directors National Association] and ABA [American Bandmasters Association]. It really started with the NBA where he met a lot of people and through his leadership and organization he was able to establish himself as a leader of the movement. He organized and hosted conventions where he was able to surround himself with quite competent people who did the work and allowed him to be the visibility of the particular organization he was representing at that time. He parlayed that into presidencies of all three major band associations. I believe that was his main claim that he was a leader and that he was able to unify, to some extent, the band movement through his presidency of the associations. I believe the only person to have served as president of all three before Jay was Dr. Revelli.190 Gary Sousa provided additional comments of how Julian impacted the national band landscape and to him personally: The reputation of the marching band probably had the greatest impact nationally. The fact that the University of Tennessee marching band was well organized, had 189

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

190

A. Wayne Tipps, interview by author, Ten Mile, TN, July 29, 2011.

106 good numbers, a large following, and its leadership was exemplary were all significant. He was president of all the major band associations, ABA, NBA, and CBDNA; this refers back to his political savvy that we had discussed earlier. His influences within those organizations were significant as well. I admired Dr. Julian always standing up for he believed. When the John Philip Sousa Foundation established the Sudler Trophy in the early 1980s, he refused to accept a nomination for the Tennessee marching band. This award was established to recognize university marching bands for their contributions to the field. He commented in CBDNA meetings that it promoted competitiveness among university marching bands. I believe that Tennessee was slated as one of the first programs to receive the award. I admired his conviction about that, and it represented what he was willing to do for something he thought was right. For a program like Tennessee that was so steeped in a great marching tradition, it was quite a stance to take.191 During his tenure Julian ably served as an ambassador for the University of Tennessee that included speaking at various alumni association sponsored events, recruitment of prospective students, and representing the university as a national leader in the band field. University of Tennessee President Joseph Johnson responded concerning Julian’s importance as a leader and representative of the university: Concerning the next question about his role as an ambassador of the University of Tennessee, he was a member of every significant band organization, not only in Tennessee, but also in the nation. He taught, lectured, gave talks, and people from all over came here. He did this as WJ Julian, director of bands at the University of Tennessee. That is a good impact to have, and it brought a level of recognition and attention, not only to him, but the university. There were a lot of people who were at UT that never got invited to a national band conference or international meeting of band directors. That brought acclaim to the university. The fame and reputation of that band helped us attract students and still does.192 Julian effected change as a multifaceted leader: he embodied the consummate administrator who efficiently organized, delegated, and supervised while maintaining control; he used the power of words to motivate subordinates and charm audiences; and he maintained and advanced his beliefs with conviction and persuasion. Julian led

191

Gary Sousa, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 29, 2011.

192

Joseph Johnson, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, May 25, 2011.

107 without bravado, but with a steeled determination that moved people to act with purpose, excellence, and aspire to higher standards. His presidential leadership in the national band associations was not remembered for sweeping changes of legislation, but rather in the manner that he led. His indelible imprint on people and organizations “made lasting impressions,” referring to the germinal Churchill quote in this study. Leadership Roles in Tennessee Band Associations Julian was an influential member of band associations, not only nationally, but also in Tennessee. His life-long commitment to his home state played an important role in his participation and service in state organizations. Though his standards remained the same, his leadership roles were varied, but remained significant. Tennessee Bandmasters Association In 1973, Julian met with several prominent band directors and suggested the idea of creating an association for band directors in Tennessee. Modeled after the Texas Bandmasters Association, the creation of the Tennessee Bandmasters Association in 1974 enabled Julian’s vision to become reality. Walter McDaniel, who was present at the initial meeting and served as the sixth president of the association, commented about the reasoning for the new association: He [Julian] was the founder of the TBA, the Tennessee Bandmasters Association. Back in mid-70s when we were talking about forming the TBA, Dr. Julian cited that the Texas Bandmasters were the important sponsors of all the things that go on in Texas like the All State band, orchestra, and chorus, and so forth. He wanted the TBA to do the same thing in Tennessee, or try to do it. At that time the TEA, or the Tennessee Educators Association, sponsored the All State events at their annual TEA convention. He wanted to see it become more musical and have a convention for just music educators. That is how the Tennessee Bandmasters got started. It did become an important association for the state. These days the TMEA, or Tennessee Music Educators Association sponsors the All State events

108 in Tennessee. The TBA does sponsor the state contests for bands and orchestras, and plays an important role.193 Wayne Tipps, seventh president of the Tennessee Bandmasters Association, provided additional information about the association’s beginnings and subsequent influence: Another great contribution he was responsible for was the formation of the Tennessee Bandmasters Association [TBA]. Dr. Julian used the Texas Bandmasters Association as a model. The TBA was a result of the lack of presence and leadership of the MENC [Music Educators National Association] in the band field in the state of Tennessee. After he had attended a convention of the Texas Bandmasters Association one year, he talked to a group of local band directors in Knoxville and described what he had witnessed. He told us that there were over twelve thousand band directors in attendance, and he wanted to get Tennessee’s association started. We all agreed. Dr. Julian laid the groundwork for our association by drafting the initial letter of formation. At our first meeting in Nashville, we elected Dr. Wayne Pegram as president of the Tennessee Bandmasters Association since Dr. Julian was moving into other arenas of leadership like the NBA. I served as vice president. This is just another example of the influence Dr. Julian had on music education in the state. He had the idea, planted it into those around him, and laid the groundwork. The association took root throughout the state. The association still exists today, but maybe not in the way that he had envisioned it. As times changed, so did the association. When I served as president of the TBA, we were organizing our state convention for the summer and had the Madison Scouts and the Spirit of Atlanta as guest performers. It was a highly publicized convention, but in the end we had only twenty-five band directors attend. It was a truly wonderful convention with great sessions, but all at once the notion of going to clinics or conventions was beginning to decline. It has steadily declined in our state over the past several years. The association still serves the band programs of the state in many ways. Dr. Julian has been a great model for the state, had a tremendous influence on the students at Tennessee and Tennessee Tech, and provided leadership, both regionally and nationally, in the organizations he headed.194 The process of the creation of the Tennessee Bandmasters Association demonstrated Julian’s innate sense of leadership through organization. As stated by Tipps, “he had the idea, planted it into those around him, and laid the groundwork.”195 Though Julian never

193

Walter McDaniel, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 29, 2011.

194

A. Wayne Tipps, interview by author, Ten Mile, TN, July 29, 2011.

195

Ibid.

109 served as president, he provided the initial leadership necessary to establish the organization. In 2006, the association inducted Julian into its “Tennessee Bandmasters Association Hall of Fame.” East Tennessee Band and Orchestra Association His involvement with the East Tennessee Band and Orchestra Association, an affiliate organization of the Tennessee Music Educators Association, encompassed hosting district festivals at the University of Tennessee to serving as an influential board member. The ever-present Julian attended regular membership meetings and was an active member throughout his career. In 2007, the association recognized his contributions and impact to the band medium in east Tennessee when they inducted Julian, along with prominent directors A.R. Casavant, Jack Connell, and O’Dell Willis, into the “ETSBOA Hall of Fame.” Impact on Music Education in Tennessee Julian was immensely concerned about the state of music education in the nation and his home state. His reputation of promoting high musical standards and advocating for music instruction in all levels of curriculum permeated throughout the state of Tennessee that began with his tenure at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute in1950 and continued throughout his career at the University of Tennessee. Tennessee Music Educators Association Julian’s resolve concerning the welfare of music education in Tennessee resulted, in part, to his election as president of the Tennessee Music Educators Association in 1974. The association is the state chapter of the National Association for Music Education (NAfME); formerly known as the Music Educators National Conference

110 (MENC). Julian was a stern proponent of the association’s mission: to promote the advancement of music education to all. The constitutional goals of the state association are as follows: encourage and provide students with opportunities for high quality music experiences; actively promote and provide the best resources and opportunities for professional development; provide opportunities for sharing and disseminating information, teaching strategies and resources; become the leading advocate for music education at the local, regional and state levels; and actively encourage lifelong learning.196 As president Julian served presided at meetings of the board of directors, the TMEA council, executive committee, and at all general meetings usually held at the annual state conference. In addition, he served as member of the executive board of the southern division of the National Association for Music Education and the state presidents national assembly. Julian also represented the association in Nashville when working with the Tennessee State Department of Education on issues that affected music education in the state. Two of the main responsibilities of the association that Julian supervised were the planning of the annual state music conference and the organization of the Tennessee All State ensembles. His presidency of the Tennessee Music Educators Association was significant as it represented: the acknowledgment of his peers in his ability to lead the most prominent music association in the state, it demonstrated Julian’s importance as a music educator, and it was his first presidency at a state or national level. In 2004, the Tennessee Music Educators Association presented Julian with association’s “Hall of Fame” award that is “given in recognition for exceptional support and

196

“TMEA Bylaws,” Tennessee Music Educators Association, http://www.tnmea.org/Bylaws.aspx (accessed June 25, 2012).

111 outstanding accomplishments by our members to the advancement of music education in the schools of Tennessee, both public and private.”197 Teaching at the University of Tennessee Julian served as a professor of music and music education and served as director of bands at the University of Tennessee. In addition to his responsibilities of administering a comprehensive university band program, Julian taught undergraduate conducting. His admiration of great conductors emanated throughout his life as discussed earlier. Julian explained his desire to teach conductors and described his varied course load: I taught conducting throughout my time at Tennessee and other music education classes in the earlier years. My teaching load was not as varied as when I was teaching at Tennessee Tech. I always enjoyed teaching conducting and working with the students. I gave the students a great deal of podium time with immediate feedback. I felt it was important to have the students conducting in front of their peers whether it was in class or with our laboratory band. At the end of the term, the conducting students directed one work with one of the concert bands on the ‘Student Conductor Concert.’ The students always enjoyed those concerts. In addition to the podium time and class work, I used my video library of some of great conductors to show technique. Many of the videos included the likes of Toscanini, Klemperer, Furtwangler, Stokowski, and many others. We would discuss the gesturing by the conductors and how it applied to what was performed. It was an intensive class, but it was necessary to prepare them for their conducting future. Some students excelled and others did not make it through.198 Julian’s conducting class was not for the “faint of heart” as a former student implored. There was an expectation of excellence in his classes and no excuse for unpreparedness. The conducting style of Julian, the band director, was unique, if not unorthodox. Julian was left-handed, but conducted with his right hand. His gestures were rigid, but understood. Though his conducting style left room for debate, his knowledge of the 197

“TMEA Award Recipients,” Tennessee Music Educators Association, http://www.tnmea.org/Awards_Recipients.aspx#Hall_of_Fame (accessed June 25, 2012). 198

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

112 music, his score preparation, and his ability to motivate student musicians to perform with excellence was absolute. Several observations made by Wayne Tipps concerning Julian, the conductor and teacher, suggested that he used his immense knowledge of music as an effective teaching tool to communicate to his students: He was a well-read man and loved the arts. I would not classify him as a great conductor, but he knew great music and what it took to make music. He used his skills that he was given to produce a product that everyone could be proud of. He had many students who could probably hear better and those around him who were better conductors, but there were not many people who could do the listening and bring background information on a piece of music to the table as Dr. Julian. He was able to translate, no matter what his conducting skills, to the students what the music should be and they responded. So was he an effective teacher, absolutely he was effective! He used what God gave him to be a wonderful band director.199 Impact of Julian’s Teaching The preparation of future band directors and the promotion of music education were extremely important to Julian as evidenced by his longevity as a professor. Wayne Tipps, who taught many of the same music education students at Tennessee, eloquently recognized Julian’s impact not only on the music education program at Tennessee, but at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute (currently know as Tennessee Tech): He provided a model. The state is quite regionalized. I grew up in middle Tennessee. There were two main groups east of the Tennessee river: the Tennessee Tech music education graduates and the University of Tennessee graduates. The older Tennessee Tech teachers were loyal to Dr. Julian since he taught there throughout the 1950s. The model that he provided at Tech was disseminated throughout many programs where these teachers worked. New generations of band directors were under the same model at Tennessee. These directors took that model to their programs, but it spread more regionally. I cannot attest to the exact things that made up Julian’s model since it is a very individualized thing. I do know that many of his students from both schools have commented to me about what Dr. Julian gave them. Sometimes they cannot put it into words. I believe that it was a model they could emulate. It was a matter of modeling how Julian organized his band and how he dealt with people. I would refer you to Ron Rogers. He did a wonderful thing as president of the Tennessee 199

A. Wayne Tipps, interview by author, Ten Mile, TN, July 29, 2011.

113 Music Educators Association when he wrote a testimony to Dr. Julian describing what he learned while at the university. Ron was just one example of the many successful students that were impacted by Dr. Julian. He took to heart the standard that Julian instilled and expected from his students, and that means doing your absolute best in everything relative to the band world. Though he did not teach a music education class during the twenty-seven years I was there, I am not so naïve to think that he did not have a great influence on the students in the music program. I think that the students learned how to do act as a band director and sometimes they learned, maybe as equally important, how not to do it. They had models both ways especially in relation to human interaction. In the long run, I think it goes back to what the student wanted to glean from their time at the university. I would certainly say from 1972 until my retirement in 1999; the university produced many very wonderful and successful band directors. Their successful completion of studies was due to a composite of teaching from all their teachers, but the band had a great impact. The many students who went on to have very successful band programs or music education careers in the public schools and higher education represent Dr. Julian’s greatest impact on music education in the State of Tennessee. His leadership as president of the Tennessee Music Educators Association played a significant role as well.200 Julian’s influence on his students can be measured, in part, to their success as music educators. Though “success” is a subjective term and defined in many ways, former students represented Julian’s standard of excellence both in their leadership and conducting. The task of listing the myriad of successful music educators and their accomplishments is beyond the scope of this study. The following list of former students represent those who impacted their programs locally and nationally, but is not inclusive: Roy Holder (Lake Braddock High School, Virginia), elected to American Bandmasters Association (1998), performance at American Bandmasters Association (2004), president of National Band Association (2012), three performances at The Mid-West Clinic, John Philip Sousa Foundation Legion of Honor and Sudler Flag of Honor; Denton Stokes (George C. Marshall High School, Virginia), elected to American Bandmasters Association (2005), president of Virginia Band and Orchestra Association (2004), John Philip Sousa Foundation Sudler Flag of Honor; Dr. John N. Culvahouse (professor of 200

A. Wayne Tipps, interview by author, Ten Mile, TN, July 29, 2011.

114 instrumental music education at Kennesaw University, Georgia), president of National Band Association, John Philip Sousa Foundation Sudler Flag of Honor and Sudler Trophy Laureate; Ron Rogers (William Blount High School, Tennessee), president of Tennessee Music Educators Association (2010), president of East Tennessee Band and Orchestra Association (2004), performance at College Band Directors National Association Southern Division conference (2010); and Lafe Cook (Dobyns-Bennett High School, Tennessee), elected to American Bandmasters Association (2008), presidentelect of East Tennessee Band and Orchestra Association (2012). John Philip Sousa Foundation Sudler Flag of Honor, performance at College Band Directors National Association and National Band Association Southern Division conferences, two performances at Tennessee Music Educators Association convention; two performances at the Mid-West Clinic. Julian provided a model of excellence to fourteen classes of undergraduates during his career. Though it was not always interpreted the same to each student, there were consistent components: discipline, high work ethic, commitment to excellence, and adherence to beliefs. On March 24, 2011, the University of Tennessee College of Education, Health, and Human Sciences inducted Julian into “The Educators Hall of Honor” that “praises professionals who already have established themselves in the field and helps students who one day will follow in their footsteps.”201 The evaluation criteria for the consideration of induction states: “Educators must have made unquestionable

201

College of Education, Health, and Human Sciences, “The Educators Hall of Honor,” The University of Tennessee, http://www.cehhs.utk.edu/alumni/hall_of_honor.html (accessed July 31, 2012).

115 contributions to teaching and/or other educational fields and have received school or community recognition for those contributions.”202 Julian offered worthy advice to students preparing for careers in music education: Listen to as much good music as you can. Current band directors fail to listen to good music. Being exposed to good music across all mediums helps any educator become a better musician. It promotes greater expressiveness and broadens knowledge. If one only listens to band music, then that is a very narrow view point to draw from since there is not a great deal of band music in existence compared to other areas. Limitations arise when band directors append their time finding the couple of works their marching band or concert bands are going to perform that year. It is important for the director to know their field’s music, but they need to continually stay abreast with the new music or outstanding recordings of other mediums. I will pose a question to you. If you go into a band director’s home, what would their record or CD collection contain? It would say a lot about the person and their understanding of music.203 Julian’s statement and concluding question revealed the depth of musicianship he aspired for music educators and the band profession; the unconditional exposure to a spectrum of music. Julian’s life exemplified his own advice. Beginning with the Victrola records he listened to in Silver Point and his trips to cities where he heard great touring orchestras, Julian continually exposed himself to diverse music throughout his life that broadened his musical palette. Continuing in the vein of musical exposure, Julian established a music festival where elementary and secondary school ensembles performed and were adjudicated by prominent conductors in the band and choral fields. His impact on music education extended beyond the boundaries of Tennessee as he maintained an active schedule as a clinician, adjudicator, guest conductor, and lecturer in the United States, Mexico, Europe, and Japan throughout his career. Notable were his appearances as a guest conductor with the all-state bands of Missouri (twice), Arizona, 202

College of Education, Health, and Human Sciences, “The Educators Hall of Honor,” The University of Tennessee, http://www.cehhs.utk.edu/alumni/hall_of_honor.html (accessed July 31, 2012). 203

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

116 Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Iowa. In the summer of 1986, he was the first wind ensemble conductor for the Tennessee Governors School of the Arts program where he premiered Jug Blues and Fat Pickings by Don Freund. Smoky Mountain Music Festival One of Julian’s personal musical accomplishments was the creation of the Smoky Mountain Music Festival in 1983. Held in Gatlinburg, Tennessee each spring, the festival has hosted more than 5,000 groups from 28 states and Canada in choral, band and orchestra events that are adjudicated by the most outstanding conductors in the United States.204 It has developed into one of the nation's finest educational festivals. Julian explained his reasons for establishing the annual festival: To make money! [laughter] I wanted to start a festival that used the top conductors in the band, choral, and symphonic fields as judges. It has been a great success over the years. I believe that over 5,000 groups from 28 states and Canada have performed. Close to fifty percent of the groups are repeat participants.205 The Smoky Mountain Music Festival is an independent organization that is not part of a chain or company. Julian manages his festival with the same quality of organization that he used with the band associations. The efficiency of the festival’s operation is attributed, in part, to the dedicated employees. Many were band workers during Julian’s tenure at Tennessee who take time off from their employment to work each year. Gail Hunter, secretary to Julian from 1965-1993, has served as the administrative assistant since 1983. The adjudicators represent a “who’s who” in the band and choral fields.

204

Smoky Mountain Music Festival, “Festival History,” WJ Julian, http://www.smmfestival.com/history.html (accessed July 25, 2012). 205

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

117 Julian commented about his festival and presented a partial list of the prominent adjudicators: That is correct. We have the top judges and a top staff. Some of the staff has worked the festival since the beginning. It is important to provide a festival that is punctual, top-rated, and one that attracts multi-year attendees. The judges have included: Roy Holder, William Revelli, Frederick Fennell, Col Arnald Gabriel, Col. John Bourgeois, Frank Wickes, Gary Sousa, Jerry Junkin, Al Wright, Johnny Long, Ken Bloomquist, Ray Cramer, Harry Begian, Jim Copenhaver, David Waybright, Stan Michalski, Tom Fraschillo, Paula Crider, William Moody, Richard Floyd, Bryce Taylor, Myron Welch, Zeke Nicar, Robert Foster, Michael Schwartzkopf, Charles Ball, Eric Thorson, Kirby Shaw, Angela Batey, Ken Fulton, Weston Noble, Craig Jessop, and many others. These are people with great reputations and who have earned it.206 Al Wright, who served as adjudicator for many years, described some to the unique qualities of festival that have contributed to its success: We have always had a good relationship. Over the past years, he has us down to his festival in Tennessee. He is a very meticulous person. His dress was meticulous, and his car was meticulous. I am sure he ran his band the same way, and that is why it was good. Regarding his festival, everything had to be right and punctual. He used his band staff to work, and they adored him. Every one of his workers wore a coat and tie including the guy meeting the buses! Nobody ever called him Jay. It was always Dr. Julian. That showed a great deal of respect for him; even my graduate students never called me Al. Jay’s demeanor was meticulous as well. He always knew when he could make something happen and knew when not to push.207 Conclusion Julian’s rise to leadership within the three most prominent national band associations was not a calculated strategic ascent, but rather was the result of his significant work as an effective director of bands, his reputation for excellence acknowledged by his peers and colleagues, and his desire to uphold the associations and the respective members as leaders in the band field. His lasting contribution to the 206

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

207

Al G. Wright, interview by author, West Lafayette, IN, August 2, 2011.

118 associations was unique; he raised their standards. Paula Crider explained that Julian’s standards were the same for both his program and band directors: He brought the UT Band into national focus and acclaim. The standards and creativity he displayed with his marching band served as an example for bands throughout the country. I should also mention that his exquisite tastes in music, in art, in the culinary arts, in international travel, etc. prompted many members of the "next generation" of Directors of Bands to aspire to emulate Dr. Julian. He also served as President of both the National Band Association and the prestigious American Bandmasters Association. His leadership in both of these organizations had a significant and very positive impact upon both the public school and university band worlds.208 Raising standards within a culture or organization is vital and significant. To accept a “status quo” level reflects an image of stagnation or an unwillingness to adjust to current trends. Al G. Wright, past president of the American Bandmasters Association and founder of the National Band Association, remarked how the standards that Julian instilled to the members of his university students were the same standards he set for bands nationally: He helped to raise the standards of college and university bands. There are quite a few small colleges who do not have good band programs due to leadership or resources. Jay was in Tennessee, and that state is not known as one of the most generous states in the Union for music programs on any level. Just like Georgia is not like Massachusetts. He went into his jobs at Tennessee Tech and the University of Tennessee with standards and a behavior as a proper gentleman. He simply raised the standards. First, he raised the standards in his own bands by taking those Tennessee students and making them play better through proper teaching.209 Julian was a significant figure in the university band movement both locally and nationally. His leadership in band associations brought national exposure to his program, the University of Tennessee, and his reputation. His teaching career impacted multiple generations of music education students in Tennessee, and resulted with the proliferation 208

Paula Crider, e-mail to author, July 25, 2010.

209

Al G. Wright, interview by author, West Lafayette, IN, August 2, 2011.

119 of the standards instilled by Julian to band programs throughout the region. The final chapter of this study contains a summary of Julian’s exemplary career as a significant figure in the American movement as a university director of bands, supporting conclusions, and recommendations for additional research.

120 CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS As previously stated, the purpose of this study was twofold: first, to compile a biographical sketch of WJ Julian prior to his appointment as director of bands at the University of Tennessee in 1961; and second, to examine his impact on the Tennessee band program and how both Julian and the Tennessee band program rose to state and national acclaim in the American band movement. Research has provided answers to the ensuing associated questions: 1. What were the major events and musical influences in Julian’s life from 1922 to 1960 that prepared him for his appointment at the University of Tennessee? 2. What was the significance of Julian’s role with the University of Tennessee band program’s rise to state and national acclaim? 3. How did Julian’s teaching impact the music education program at the University of Tennessee? 4. How did his affiliation and leadership in band associations contribute to state and national recognition for the Tennessee band program? Interviews with WJ Julian, three colleagues from the University of Tennessee, two professional colleagues, and one former student were the primary sources used to answer the associated questions. Additional material from the University of Tennessee band archive including programs, pictures, scripts, drill charts, and videos were carefully examined. The use of the Internet provided direction to supplemental materials that made reference to Julian, and these items were reviewed. An important component of this study

121 was the use and subsequent referencing of Winston Churchill’s quote previously stated in the first chapter. The answers to the guiding questions are framed in the context of Churchill’s quote. Answer to Question One Born on October 22, 1922 in Silver Point, Tennessee Julian was the son of an entrepreneur who owned a local grocery store, was an accomplished gardener, and served as Postmaster of Silver Point; his mother was a housewife and “excellent country cook.”210 Consequently, he developed a disciplined work ethic and love of great food. Though his immediate family, including a brother and sister, was not musical, his parents provided the means to expand Julian’s early interest in music. His father encouraged him to listen to records on their Victrola of varied genres of music and bought a grand piano for the family. Though Julian took piano lessons, he did not enjoy it, and eventually settled on learning to play the violin. After graduating from elementary school, Julian entered Baxter Seminary, a private Methodist Episcopal school in nearby Baxter, Tennessee. There he met Miss Constance Ohlinger, director of the music program, who was first great influence on his life outside of his parents. Ohlinger provided teaching, various life experiences, mentorship, and encouragement that influenced him to continue his music studies in college, and eventually becoming one of the great university bandmasters. Julian experienced a happy childhood in Silver Point and at Baxter Seminary and “would not change any of it.”211

210

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 13, 2011.

211

Ibid.

122 In 1940, Julian entered Tennessee Polytechnic Institute in Cookeville, Tennessee and graduated in 1944 with a Bachelor of Sciences degree since music was not offered as a degree program. During those years he met Dr. Sidney McGee, head of the foreign language department, who became the second major influence on his life. McGee served as mentor who encouraged him to aspire to the finer aspects of life that included his life long commitment of attending orchestra concerts. With the advent of World War II, Julian entered the United States Navy and earned the rank of Ensign in 1943. He served in the Pacific theatre aboard the LSM 318 and later on the LSM 367. During the battle of Ormoc Bay on December 7, 1944, a kamikaze plane sank the LSM 318. As part of “the greatest generation,” Julian, the officer, made his “mark” as leader of men. Julian entered Northwestern University in 1946 as a music major and completed his Bachelor of Music in 1948, Master of Music in 1949, and Doctor of Philosophy in 1954. The Serviceman’s Readjustment Act of 1944, or the “GI Bill” paid for all of his “free” education at Northwestern. His violin teacher, Victor Charbulak, was the third of the three great influential people in his life. Along with Charbulak’s wife, Kate, they brought Julian into their lives and continued the mentorship and encouragement that Ohlinger and McGee had fostered. His experience with Glenn Cliffe Bainum, band director at Northwestern was significant and influenced his organization and leadership of the band programs at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute and the University of Tennessee. His classmates at Northwestern included two leaders of the university band movement, John Paytner and Edward Gangware.

123 While a graduate student at Northwestern, Julian started his teaching career at the National College of Education in Evanston, Illinois. From 1948 to 1950, he taught music appreciation and directed the children’s orchestra. He worked with two progressive pioneers in children’s education, Edna Dean Baker and her sister, Clara. Julian’s exposure to the radical education methods of the Baker sisters made a lasting impression that influenced his teaching philosophy concerning the insistence and promotion of excellence in music education. Julian accepted the position of professor of music at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute in 1950 and marked a return to his home state and alma mater. In 1952 he was named as director of bands after the head of the music department, Maurice Hayes resigned. During his first three years at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute, he concurrently served as the band director at Cookeville Central High School that accounted for his public school teaching experience. The success of Julian’s tenure at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute was evident by the growth of the instrumental program and the “lasting impressions” he made on the graduates who entered the music education field in Tennessee. In 1961, he accepted the position of director of bands at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville. His tenure at Tennessee defined his remarkable career as one of the significant individuals of the university band movement and fulfilled Churchill’s characterization of a “great man.” Answer to Question Two Question two is answered by examining his significance pertaining to the two core elements of the overall band program, the concert band and the marching band.

124 Each element is reviewed individually, then collectively. This approach provides a clearer picture of how he impacted the total program on local and national levels. The Significance of Julian’s Role with the Concert Band Program When Julian arrived at the University of Tennessee in January of 1961, his first act as director of bands was the establishment of the concert band program. The following year Julian established the University of Tennessee Wind Ensemble; a select group of the most talented musician of the concert band. The dramatic rise of the concert band program in both quality and quantity was evident on February 12, 1969 when the concert band performed at the national convention of the College Band Directors National Association in Knoxville. Subsequent concert band performances at national band conventions included: the 1975 American Bandmasters Association convention in New Orleans, the 1977 Music Educators National Conference Southern Conference convention in Atlanta, the 1979 American Bandmasters Association convention in Montgomery, and the 1987 American Bandmasters Association convention in Knoxville. The concert band also performed three times at the Tennessee Music Educators Association convention during his tenure at Tennessee. All of these performances provided exposure of the Tennessee concert band program to a state and national audience. In 1968, the “campus band” was permanently added as the second concert band at Tennessee due to the growth of the program. Julian used recruiting strategies for the Tennessee concert band program and the University of Tennessee that included: honor band weekends, tours of the concert band to area schools, hosting district festivals, and public concerts. Since Julian taught many of the Knoxville area band directors either at Tennessee Polytechnic Institute or at the

125 University of Tennessee, he established a recruiting network through his former students. Julian’s life-long association to the state of Tennessee as a music educator significantly impacted his ability to recruit within the state for the total band program. Throughout his tenure at Tennessee, Julian invited prominent composers, guest soloists, and conductors to work and perform with the concert band. He exposed the students, university, and audience to national and international musicians that significantly impacted the prominence of the program. The five appearances at national conventions and three appearances at the state music convention combined with the growth of the program that included the permanent additions of the wind ensemble and second concert band are evidence of the profound impact of Julian on the concert band program at Tennessee both at the local, state, and national levels. The Significance of Julian’s Role with the Marching Band Julian’s first edition the “Pride of Southland” marching band was a dramatic contrast to the prior Tennessee bands. Notable changes included: an increase in enrollment that represented the largest marching band in their history; new uniforms; innovative marching shows; custom arrangements; meticulous organization, discipline, and adherence to excellence; and a new method of learning marching shows. Due to Julian’s leadership and persuasive recruiting abilities, the band’s membership rose from the initial 128 students in his first season to over 300 students by his retirement. Julian established lasting traditions during his tenure that are present today and include, but not limited to: the distinctive uniform, the development of the signature “circle drill” halftime shows, the establishment of the pregame show, the opening of the

126 large “T” for the football team entrance, the introduction of Rocky Top, the formation of the alumni band association, presidential inaugural parade representation, and the establishment of the band scholarship fund. Julian’s vision for creating exposure for his program included appearances of over twenty guest artists with the band and television coverage. The band appeared on television more than fifty times during his tenure and served as main vehicle by which the band gained national acclaim. Julian created a “brand” with the Tennessee marching band. The level of excellence, discipline, and work ethic the Tennessee band attained and consistently performed with for the thirty-two years under Julian were a “brand” characteristics. He transformed the marching band from a regional existence into a program with a local, state, and national reputation by establishing a structure of excellence, discipline, exposure, and recruitment. Summary The fact that Julian founded the concert program in 1961 and performed at a national band convention eight years later combined with the strides the marching band made in growth, performance excellence, and innovation is substantial proof of his significance as an effective director. Julian created a comprehensive university band program at the University of Tennessee. The fact that he accomplished his goals in the state of Tennessee is significant due to recruiting challenges. Answer to Question Three Julian’s reputation of promoting high musical standards and advocating music education in all levels of curriculum remained constant throughout his career. His

127 commitment to these ideals resulted in his election as president of the Tennessee Music Educators Association in 1974. His presidency represented: the acknowledgment of his peers in his ability to lead, demonstrated his importance as a music educator, and was his first presidency at a state or national level. In 2004, the Tennessee Music Educators Association presented Julian with association’s “Hall of Fame.” The teaching and molding of music education students were extremely important to Julian as evidenced by his longevity as a teacher. As a professor of music and music education at the University of Tennessee, one of his responsibilities included teaching undergraduate conducting. Julian’s influence on his students can be measured, in part, by their success as music educators. Former students represented Julian’s standard of excellence both in their leadership and conducting. Many held leadership in state and national band associations and their ensembles performed at state and national conferences. Julian provided a model of excellence to fourteen classes of undergraduates during his career. On March 24, 2011, the University of Tennessee College of Education, Health, and Human Sciences inducted Julian into “The Educators Hall of Honor.” Julian founded the Smoky Mountain Music Festival in 1983. Since its inception the festival has hosted over 5,000 groups from 28 states, including a majority from Tennessee, in choral, band and orchestra events. The educational aspect of exposing students from all parts of the country to prominent leaders in the band medium through the process of adjudication is significant. His teaching career and leadership in the state’s largest music education advocacy association ‘made lasting impressions” on generations of students in Tennessee and resulted in the proliferation of Julian’s standards to band programs throughout the region.

128 Answer to Question Four Julian served as president of the three major most prominent band associations in the United States. He placed a high priority on the associations and its members serving as the leaders of the band medium. Before Julian, only William D. Revelli, director of bands emeritus at the University of Michigan, served as president of the American Bandmasters Association, College Band Directors National Association, and National Band Association. Peers and colleagues elected Julian as president of each association. Factors that influenced his election to the respective presidencies included his organization and administrative skills and his reputation as a leader in the band field. His leadership in the national and state associations positions brought immense national exposure to his band program, state, and the University of Tennessee. The recognition and awards he received also contributed to the exposure of the Tennessee program that included: National Band Association’s “Academy of Winds and Percussive Arts” award (1992); National Band Association’s “Hall of Fame of Distinguished Band Conductors” (1994); American Bandmasters Association “Honorary Life Member” (2010); Tennessee Bandmasters Association’s “Hall of Fame” (2006); East Tennessee Band and Orchestra Associations’ “ETSBOA “Hall of Fame” (2007); and Tennessee Music Educators Association’s “Hall of Fame” (2004). Conclusion Throughout his career Julian maintained a standard of excellence. He expected, if not demanded, excellence from his students, colleagues, and the associations he ably served. Gary Sousa, current director of bands, characterized this standard:

129 He did what he believed was right. He did what he believed was right for the music, for the students, and he would not waiver from he believed. We all talk about his demand for excellence, but I think it is more than that. I think it was his belief that this was the right thing to do for the student; that they would have quality food, travel and the like. He just demanded it. Everybody talked about his demand for excellence and discipline and there is no doubt about it. It was a major part of his legacy. The band never did anything that was not first-rate. Underlying all of that was a belief, probably from his parents, that in your lifetime you do what is the right thing to do. That characteristic is very impressive. Many people in today’s society will settle for what is easier or because they do not want to fight or something. Dr. Julian said no; there is a bar here and there is no reason not to achieve that level. Whether it is someone that waits on him in a restaurant, the quality of the car he drives, or what he demands of people in their own performance that bar or level is high. The discipline and the level of excellence the he demanded from everybody, I think stems from this other ethical code that you do the right thing that this is the right thing to do. I have heard him say many times that if you are going to do something, then do it right or not at all. That was a very strong characteristic of Dr. Julian. I think he was very politically savvy. It was easier back then to be politically savvy. Since east Tennessee is predominantly republican and he is republican, he was politically smart enough to move within those circles of government to develop relationships. When there was a problem or when he needed help, those relationships he forged were people in positions to solve those problems. His relationships with Congressmen and Senators were very instrumental in keeping the Tennessee band in the inaugural parades since President Johnson’s parade. Many band directors are not that politically savvy. That political understanding on his part was huge in getting the band program to where it was. The combination of those things enabled him to do the right thing for the program and university by building a program that was respected. Having the political wherewithal to get the powers behind the program to protect it from anyone wanting to change it. He developed that ore. People nowadays call it “branding.” Having a brand is powerful and one does not change a brand. I think Dr. Julian was ahead of his times in developing a power base, politically and through traditions that could not be challenged by anybody.212 The standard of excellence was not only applied to his work, but also in his life. Julian set an example by the way he lived that enabled others to set expectations for themselves. Al Wright, director emeritus of bands at Purdue University commented about Julian’s example:

212

Gary Sousa, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 29, 2011.

130 Everything Jay did was perfect. He dressed right, his house was beautifully decorated, and he and his wife got along well. I am sure that some of the younger generation would think, “Here was a guy I would like to be when I grow up!”213 John Culvahouse, past president of the National Band Association and former student of Julian, expressed his opinion concerning Julian’s impact on him personally: Class. That is what I always told my high school bands; have a good time and have class. I would shout it to my bands on the field or tell my bands on the concert stage. He left his mark on me in many ways, but I will always be grateful for giving me a model of how to be an effective band director.214 His peers described Julian, as an effective director of bands who strove to raise the standards of his students and his program. Paula Crider, past president of the American Bandmasters Association whom Julian sponsored for membership, commented about his effectiveness with sincerity and humor: He was (is) a visionary with high standards. He expects his students to strive for excellence, and leads by example. He is also a consummate politician, a very necessary attribute for a successful director of bands. He always saw to it that his band program was well-funded, and that his students were treated in a first class manner by athletics and by university officials. Dr. Julian does not suffer fools gladly and many of the stories have become legend in the band world. My favorite is the story about the UT band marching to the stadium for the first game of the season, and a new and very self-important (but not too bright) gatekeeper refused to allow the band to march into the stadium because he did not have the UT Band on his approved list. Dr. Julian's now famous command: "Come on band, he's only got six bullets!"215 Gary Sousa’s overall assessment of Julian’s impact on his students corroborated Crider’s remarks: The level of excellence he demanded of his students was the biggest influence. Those students are now teachers. They took what Dr. Julian modeled for them in terms of expectation of excellence and discipline to their programs.216 213

Al G. Wright, interview by author, West Lafayette, IN, August 2, 2011.

214

John Culvahouse, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, September 11, 2011.

215

Paula Crider, e-mail to author, July 25, 2010.

216

Gary Sousa, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 29, 2011.

131

Comments by University of Tennessee President Emeritus Joseph Johnson summarize the impact he made on his students and the university he served: He was bigger than life, but a wonderful human being. His first priority was having a program that UT could be proud of and inspired a lot of students. You had to perform well in his bands. He taught his students great lessons in desiring the best, performing with excellence, punctuality, and representing the university with distinction.217 Today, Julian lives with his wife Faye, who was associated with the University of Tennessee for over forty years as a student, professor, administrator, and dean. They live in Knoxville and have a beloved golden retriever, Sam. He and his wife celebrated their fiftieth wedding anniversary in 2010. He continues his work with the Smoky Mountain Music Festival, directs the University of Tennessee alumni marching band every homecoming, attends band concerts at the university, travels with his family, cooks, and enjoys time with Sam. Julian commented on his current activities and his devotion for his family: Whenever I am in a big city, I always go to the concerts of the symphonies: Chicago, New York, Philadelphia, Vienna, Berlin, St. Petersburg, etc. Unfortunately, so many band directors to not get to go to concerts of large symphonies. I enjoy cooking and going to great restaurants. I have a great family who I care for very deeply. My granddaughter is going to attend Tennessee this fall, and my grandson is quite a Tennessee fan.218 In the final analysis, WJ Julian was a significant figure in the American band movement as a university band director, association leader, and representative of his university (see Figure 9). He impacted generations of music educators, peers, and those who witnessed his band’s performances either in the concert hall or on the marching

217

Joseph Johnson, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, May 25, 2011.

218

WJ Julian, interview by author, Knoxville, TN, July 13, 2011.

132

Figure 9. Julian honored with family for fifty years of association to the University of Tennessee at Neyland stadium on November 5, 2011. Front, Jay Nelson; back row, Mike Nelson, Jeff Julian, Claire Nelson, WJ Julian, Jennifer Julian Nelson, Faye Julian. Photograph by Betty Myers and used with permission. field, by maintaining and never sacrificing his commitment to a standard of excellence. Julian fulfilled Churchill’s characterization of a “great man,” and it is appropriate to restate his quote with Julian’s life and career in mind: One mark of a great man is the power of making lasting impressions upon people he meets. Another is to have handled matters during his life that the course of after events is continuously affected by what he did.219 The history of the American movement is important and significant. Continual research and investigation are required to evaluate and comprehend the rich history of the band medium. Without knowing the past of a subject, it is difficult to determine the progression to its current state, and the direction it is heading. With the maturation of the band movement, the opportunity for historical and biographical research increases. The previously cited dissertations in chapter one represent the small amount of research conducted on significant individuals who impacted the university band movement. Future

219

Winston Churchill, “Joseph Chamberlain,” in Great Contemporaries (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973), 61.

133 studies are recommended for Al G. Wright as director of bands at Purdue University band; William D. Revelli as director of bands at the University of Michigan; William P. Foster as director of bands at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University (FAMU); and Glenn Cliffe Bainum as director of bands at Northwestern University.

134 APPENDIX A INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD FORM

135 APPENDIX B TRANSCRIBED INTERVIEWS Interview with Dr. WJ Julian - Wednesday, July 13, 2011 JM:

Dr. Julian, I want to thank you for this opportunity to interview you for my dissertation research. I would like to start with your family history and growing up in Silver Point, TN.

JM:

Your father's name?

WJJ: William J. Julian JM:

William J. Julian. Were you named after your father?

WJJ: Well, they gave me just the name WJ - W, no period, and J, no period. JM:

I appreciate you telling about the “WJ” because everyone either asks about it or assumes they are initials.

WJJ: Yes, just W, no period, J, no period. I had to go through life explaining. Sometimes it would be in quotes, W in quotation marks and J in quotation marks. JM:

Your mother's name?

WJJ: Jennie JM:

Jennie

WJJ: Jennie Cantrell JM:

They weren't formally educated. I think Papa, oh way back then, was in the Spanish-American War. He possibly went through the fourth grade. My mother went through the eighth grade. Of course, that wasn't bad in those days. Most people were in that category.

JM:

Your siblings?

WJJ: I had one whole brother and one whole sister. My father's first wife died, but they had six children. Most of them had left before I was born though I knew them well. My brother was Alan Julian and my sister was Jennifer Julian. JM:

Your father's occupation?

136 WJJ: Well, he did everything. He had a grocery store with produce. You know, in the early years, he would have a wagon with groceries and everything else going around all over the country. He later expanded the store to have shoes and clothes, and in Silver Point [Tennessee], it was the only store that had those items. Then, he became the Postmaster of Silver Point and served until the Democrats took over in 1933. It's not as political as it was, but he was the Postmaster at Silver Point. He was also a great gardener. He had great orchards. We had peaches, apples, plums, pears, and strawberry patches. It was unbelievable what a gardener he was. He didn't do it all himself. He had people to come to do the hard work, but he was a great gardener. JM:

It sounds like when you were describing the grocery store and how he expanded that it became a modern day department store almost.

WJJ: Almost. It had a few clothes and shoes. I remember they carried J.C. Roberts shoes which are very good shoes. They still make them in St. Louis. When I was a little older I would clerk, and I enjoyed that. JM:

Your mother was a housewife?

WJJ: Yes. She was a very good housewife and a wonderful cook. Although, she did not own a cookbook, she was a great country cook. JM:

Is this where you developed your love of cooking?

WJJ: Well, I don't know about that, but she would certainly always have great food on the table. JM:

Could you describe a normal day growing up in Silver Point?

WJJ: We would walk to Burton School that was about a half-mile away. After elementary school, I went to Baxter Seminary in Baxter, Tennessee. It was a very fine private school associated with the Methodists and had a wonderful faculty. The music teacher, Miss Constance Ohlinger, was a great influence on my life. Her influence was truly the beginning of music appreciation for me. I started studying violin there from a wife of a teacher at Baxter Seminary. I had a very good violin teacher. I never cared about piano though. I took private [piano] lessons, but I never cared for it. JM:

Were there any other music activities you took part of while at Baxter or helped to organize?

WJJ: Well, Ms. Ohlinger had the choral groups and was over the music department. She had a very fine choir. They would go to Nashville [Tennessee} and sing on the WSM radio station in Nashville. They were well trained. She was quite a lady. She was born in Foochow, China of Methodists missionaries. Her upbringing

137 gave her the opportunity to travel all over the world. She was quite something; a great influence on my life. JM:

What was your first band experience?

WJJ: I took private trumpet lessons from Albert Brogden who was the leader of the community band of Cookeville that I thought at that time was a very good band. He would ask me to play in the band at Cookeville county fair and at the Dekalb county fair that has been going on for one hundred years. I enjoyed that. JM:

While at Baxter were you involved in any other activities, such as sports?

WJJ: No, I was never interested in sports. [laughing] I guess I was too much of a coward. They did not have a good sports program, but they did have good coaches, but it was a smaller high school than those in the surrounding area. They had football, baseball, basketball, but I was never involved in that. I organized a band while I was at Baxter Seminary. JM:

You organized a band?

WJJ: Yes. JM:

Do you recall the size?

WJJ: We started out with 14 or 15, but it grew a little bit. JM:

Did you give lessons or did they have training?

WJJ: Most of the students had taken lessons. JM:

That's great.

WJJ: And unfortunately some of them hadn't taken lessons, but at the time, the group sounded good to me. JM:

Baxter Seminary no longer exists?

WJJ: No, it is a public school now. It's called Upperman High School. Harry Upperman was President of Baxter Seminary and when they abolished it [Baxter Seminary], they named the school Upperman high school. He was quite a person and scholar. They had some wonderful teachers at Baxter in math, English, and most subjects. It was a very demanding school. It had a great amount of discipline. I guess it was easier to have good discipline then than now due to the present problems. There were mostly country people who went to that high school. Cookeville was nine or ten miles away. It was a big time school we thought.

138 JM:

Could you describe the musical experiences you had within your family?

WJJ: There was little music within the family to speak of. I guess I was the first one involved in music. Even in Silver Point, I was first involved in music. I was always interested in music. I listened to our radio, and we had a record player. Of course, records were quite different then than now. My father encouraged my listening. He bought a grand piano for the home when we were very young and that was quite unusual for our area. I took piano lessons, but I never cared for it. I guess I was the one crying person about lessons, but stuck to the violin eventually. Later on, I became a member of the Cookeville band, an independent band organized by Mr. Brogden. It wasn't a school band. JM:

Concerning your violin playing, I understand that you played left-handed.

WJJ: Yes, left-handed. In fact, I have several articles on handedness. There was a great violinist whom I knew, Rudolf Kolisch who played left-handed. He was the brother-in-law of Arnold Schoenberg. At that time he had a great quartet, the ProArte String Quartet. I visited with him and enjoyed the time we spent together. As I said he was the brother-in-law of Schoenberg, but he didn't care for his music. [laughing] He was quite a gentleman. Later, when the string quartet dissolved, he had another one at the University of Wisconsin. He was a string professor at Wisconsin. He would bring his string quartet to Chicago and perform at the music series at the University of Chicago. There were sixteen concerts given in the spring. I would take the elevator to the subway and go to the other side of the town [from Northwestern University] to hear the concerts. I remember hearing Segovia, Albert Spaulding, Adolph Busch, the great violinist, and Kolisch. That was quite an experience at the University of Chicago. JM:

When you were growing up listening to records, were there any particular recordings that you enjoyed?

WJJ: The recordings that we had were very limited then. It wasn't until the long-playing records became available that it was more abundant. Even now you look at the Schwann catalog you can find twenty-five recordings of Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony, or maybe more than that. Today there is such an abundance of selections. We had a Victrola wind-up phonograph and later had an electric record player when electricity came to Silver Point. JM:

Are there any stories about growing up in Silver Point you wish to share? Childhood friends? I will share with you that there is a gentleman from my hometown of Dickson, Tennessee who grew up in Silver Point.

WJJ: Oh really. Who is that? JM:

Warren G. Medley

139 WJJ: Oh yes, I remember Warren G. There were several Warren G.'s in Silver Point named after Warren Gamalia Harding. Perhaps the worst U.S. President we ever had. Some families would name their children Warren G. or Gamalia. Silver Point was an extremely republican community. JM:

Every time that I visit Mr. Medley, he recalls knowing you.

WJJ: Where is he now? JM:

He is still in Dickson. He is a retired radio figure in Dickson.

WJJ: There were three Warren G.'s in Silver Point. I am sure that he is one of them. Please ask him about that when you see him next. The last time I saw him was at my first cousin's funeral. He preached the funeral, though he wasn't a preacher, he was very cordial. JM:

I went to Baxter, Tennessee to find where the seminary stood. I took pictures of the placard that marked where the seminary stood. There was a story about a graveyard behind the seminary at one time.

WJJ: It was not a graveyard really since it only had two or three gravesites. The Braswell brothers were buried there. They were hanged, and it was a public hanging in Baxter, or I suppose it was in Baxter. They were buried there. They murdered the trustee of the county. I do not recall the trustee's name. It was quite a scandal. This public hanging attracted the biggest crowd that had ever accumulated in the area. Back in those days, I guess that was a big occasion to go a hanging. I don't think I would have gone to it, but maybe I would have. Boredom would encourage you to most anything, I suppose. JM:

Do you remember attending any musical events or going to hear a band coming through the area?

WJJ: No, not in Cookeville, Baxter, or Silver Point. When I was in high school, I would go to Nashville to concerts. They would have community concerts in Nashville, Chattanooga, and all over the country. They were wonderful because you would have major orchestras touring. Orchestras don't tour anymore like they used too. You take the Vienna, London, and the symphonies that come to New York and occasionally one would go to Chicago, but don't go further west due to the costs. Back in those days they had community concerts in all the big cities like Nashville and Chattanooga. I would go to all of those for almost nothing. I heard great orchestras. The first I heard was the Minneapolis, called the Minnesota back then. It toured all over the country every year with their first conductor and one of the great conductors, Dimitri Mitropoulos. He was of the greatest conductors and possessed one of the greatest musical minds, although he was practically crucified in New York when he went there. Bernstein didn't like him because, I think, he wanted that position. Mitropoulos was a great conductor

140 and great scholar. He could look at a score and have it memorized. Phenomenal mind! JM:

I have an autobiography of Mitropoulos.

WJJ: Do you? I would like to read it sometime. JM:

I will send the book to you. The book chronicles the time he spent in New York, and the pain he went through during that time.

WJJ: Just terrible. JM:

According to the book, the critics and others turned the community against him. When he first arrived in New York, he well received.

WJJ: They said that one problem was he wasn't Jewish. No, that's true. There was both elements of anti-Semitic and pro-Jew. The Minneapolis was a great orchestra and still is a good orchestra. It was one of the first touring orchestras. Wonderful. JM:

How would you describe the influence of growing up in a small Middle Tennessee town? Was it a positive experience?

WJJ: Oh yes! Though, I can’t imagine my grandchildren growing up in that situation and since they aren’t accustomed to that. If you were born in that way, then you accept it. It was a big thing to go to Cookeville. It was a big town of three or four thousand. It's much bigger now with Tennessee Tech and all. All during my early years, I had good teachers and many of them were men. Of course, back in those days it was during the Depression and there was opportunity for a person to be a teacher. Most of the teachers were in fact men, which I think has a positive influence especially on male students. Today, the only male teachers one might have are coaches and band directors. There might be more discipline if there were more male teachers. JM:

Was TPI [Tennessee Polytechnic Institute] open during your childhood?

WJJ: It was beginning at that time. The one who made it a great university was Everett Derryberry. He came in later. He was a Rhodes Scholar and native Tennessean. He went to the University of Tennessee and was an All-SEC football player and Rhodes Scholar. While at UT he met his wife, who was a student at the Royal College of Music in London. They became dear friends of mine. He was a native of Columbia, Tennessee. JM:

Dr. Julian, would like to add anything else concerning this part of your life?

WJJ: All I can say is that I had a very pleasant young part of my life. I don't know if would change any of that. I was very happy when I was growing up. I can never

141 think of the World Series without remembering harvesting the sweet potatoes since they occurred at the same time. [laughing] We would listen to the games in the garden. My father was a great gardener. Of course, we would have workers come in to do the plowing since we didn't have any horses. We did have a mule and a barn and all that. He'd kill the hogs. We had a big scalding box. When the neighbors would see the fire and the smoke, they would bring their hogs to be killed too. That was always a big day. JM:

A similar event would happen in my hometown. When people would see the smoke coming from barns as farmers were curing tobacco, they would thinking that the barn was on fire.

WJJ: In Silver Point, we had a huge cast iron tub that we would put the hams and the bacon in with the hickory wood smoke coming out of the barn. That would happen many times as well with people stopping. Those were great country hams, not like the ones from West Tennessee. We would kill twelve to fifteen hogs since we had a big family. JM:

Thank you Dr. Julian for your time today.

142 Interview with Dr. WJ Julian - Tuesday, July 26, 2011 JM:

Dr. Julian, thank you for the opportunity to continue our interviews. Today is July 26, and I am conducting this interview in the home of Dr. WJ and Faye Julian. Dr. Julian, I would like to backtrack just a little bit concerning a couple of items. First, I wanted to clarify the year you were married. Was it 1961?

WJJ: Faye would know. I believe it was 1961. JM:

This year would mark your fiftieth anniversary?

WJJ: Yes, in a few weeks. JM:

After you graduated from Baxter Seminary....

WJJ: Which was a great school. You know back then during the Depression, some of the greatest teachers I ever had were at Baxter Seminary. One of them was Constance Ohlinger, she was born in Foochow, China. Her parents were Methodist missionaries. She got her Bachelor's and Masters degrees years ago from the University of Michigan. JM:

After you graduated from Baxter, you entered Tennessee Polytechnic Institute?

WJJ: Yes. Tennessee Tech. JM:

What was your major?

WJJ: It was English. They didn't have a music degree at that time, but I took all the music courses. JM:

So you earned your Bachelor of Science degree in English?

WJJ: Yes. They only had three music teachers at that time. JM:

Was there a marching band?

WJJ: Oh yes! Mr. Maurice Hayes was the band director and the head of the department. He held the positions when I returned to teach at Tennessee Tech. I enjoyed playing in the bands. I played trumpet in the bands and violin in the small orchestra. JM:

Who were other members of the music faculty?

WJJ: Even though he had left before I entered school at Tech, Charles Faulkner Bryan had served as head of the music department. He was one of the great musical talents of Tennessee. He was a wonderful teacher, composer, and musician. He

143 died at a very early age though. He developed the music department and brought it to level of respectability. He was a Guggenheim Fellowship winner and composed works for all mediums. I believe that he wrote a folk song that used the story of the hanging of the Braswell brothers in Cookeville. He was quite an extraordinary individual and talent. It is a shame that the music community of Tennessee has not truly appreciated him. JM:

What other ensembles were available at that time?

WJJ: They had a marching band, concert band, and small orchestra. JM:

Did you play trumpet in the concert and marching bands?

WJJ: Yes, and I played violin in the orchestra. JM:

After reading Paula Crider's interview with you, I understand that you met another person who was a great influence on your life, Dr. Sidney McGee.

WJJ: Yes, Sidney McGee, he was the head of the Foreign Language department. He was a dear friend and a great influence on my life. WJJ: When he was there, he and his wife took me to the community concerts in Nashville, Chattanooga, and sometimes in Knoxville. Community concerts were a great thing during those years. Their kindness and encouragement meant a great to me. He was a mentor and friend who taught me how to broaden my life expectations. There was certainly more to life than just within the confines of Cookeville. JM:

Really?

WJJ: Oh yes. The major orchestras would tour. Dimitri Mitropoulos came to Nashville with the Minneapolis Symphony. It was a touring orchestra. Dr. McGee was a great influence on my life. JM:

Tennessee Polytechnic Institute, which was later renamed Tennessee Technological University was one of the state universities in Tennessee.

WJJ: Yes, that is correct. JM:

During your time at Tennessee Tech, the US had entered World War II.

WJJ: Yes. JM:

You entered the Navy as a student?

144 WJJ: Yes. I entered the B12 program. B7 or B12 program, it was one of them. I was at Tennessee Tech for three years and earned a degree. I was in the Navy for three years. JM:

Concerning your service in the US Navy, what did your training consist of?

WJJ: Well, we went through the basics in Little Creek, Virginia, and then I went to Midshipman's school at Northwestern University. Actually, it was at Northwestern downtown. I stayed at the barracks across from the old Water Tower in Chicago. After several months I completed the training. We were called "ninety day wonders." After completing Midshipman's school I had the rank of Ensign. After the all of that, I shipped out to the brutal war. JM:

The rank of Ensign is considered an officer?

WJJ: Yes, it was the lowest officer rank in the Navy, like a second lieutenant in the Army. JM:

Your deployment was in the South Pacific Theater?

WJJ: Yes. Actually, we were assigned to ships at Little Creek, Virginia. We boarded the ship in Chicago where it was built. JM:

Was that ship the LSM 318?

WJJ: Yes, the one that was sunk. JM:

I did some research concerning the ship and it was a "medium landing ship?"

WJJ: A "landing ship medium," a flat-bottom. JM:

It had a crew of fifty?

WJJ: Yes, around fifty. JM:

The history of that ship listed participation in several battles.

WJJ: We got our ship in Chicago and did our training in Lake Michigan that can be mighty rough. After that we floated down the Chicago River to the Mississippi river. We stopped in Memphis and New Orleans. It was a great trip. JM:

This ship joined the US fleet in the South Pacific?

WJJ: Yes. We went through the Panama Canal and down to the Society Islands. That was a US Naval base during World War II. I have several pictures of the island. We were only there for a short time. It is now a great resort area.

145

JM:

On December 7, 1944........

WJJ: My ship was sunk. JM:

That was during the Battle of Leyte?

WJJ: Yes, Leyte. JM:

That was one of the greatest naval battles of World War II.

WJJ: It was the first invasion of the Philippine Islands by the Americans. JM:

It was also the famous return of General MacArthur to the Philippines.

WJJ: Yes, that is correct. We cleared the beach for him to come in. [laughter] Actually, we cleared the beach for the photographers so they could take picture of him. [laughter] JM:

There is a very dramatic story how a kamikaze sunk your ship in Leyte.

WJJ: We were stranded on the beach during the initial invasion. To get off the beach you have a bow anchor. Well, it didn't drop. We had to wait for the tide to come in. The convoy went off and left us and we were there on the beach by ourselves. The Japs were waiting until we finally went out to sea. You could see them flying around. We went out to sea and they sunk, destroyed us. JM:

I did not know that.

WJJ: So, we abandoned ship. We were finally picked up and brought back to Leyte beach. We were scattered everywhere. We were about to be turned in and an enlisted man saw me and gave me his foxhole because he knew our condition. He knew we couldn't build a foxhole. The next morning, the seven others who were wounded, not seriously though, were dropped off at the hospital. I went right on hitchhiking across Leyte Gulf to Tacloban, the capital of Leyte. I met my captain who was not there yet, and reported to him. He went on back to the states. Finally, the crew came to Leyte and we went down to New Guinea where we spent the Christmas holidays. We finally got a ship back to San Francisco. It was quite an ordeal. JM:

It is hard to imagine what you and your fellow shipmates went through during that time.

JM:

I understand that you organized a yearly reunion of your shipmates.

146 WJJ: That was a reunion of the second ship. After we were brought back to San Francisco, which is when I feel in love with that city since we stayed there for a while, we had no uniforms. The Navy relief, not the Red Cross, gave me my uniform. All I had was dirty clothes when I made it to San Francisco. While I was there I went to hear the San Francisco Orchestra with Pierre Monteux, one of the great conductors of the world. The people in San Francisco were just so wonderful. You would think they would be tired of service people, but they were great. JM:

Can you describe an instance of the kind of generosity you experienced?

WJJ: There was a lady who must have been very wealthy that we met at the symphony. She invited us to her home for tea. It was a fabulous home on Knob Hill where she had her servants bring out tea and all. It was people like that who were just so nice to us servicemen. JM:

After your discharge, you went back to Tennessee?

WJJ: Well, now after my ship was sunk, I went back to the Pacific on another ship. One good thing about having your ship sunk, if you survived, you got a thirty leave to go home. I was assigned to another ship in Honolulu, the LSM 367. I was on that ship the rest of the war. JM:

At the end of the war, did you back to Tennessee or enter Northwestern for school?

WJJ: I visited several different universities like Columbia and Northwestern. Mr. McClay, who was the registrar at Northwestern and became my friend later on, answered my letter about admission. They were so nice about it. So, I went to Northwestern. I received three degrees from the most expensive school in America for free on the GI Bill. It was great! I would cut off my time at Christmas and the holidays. You had only so much time to finish your schoolwork on the GI Bill. JM:

So, the GI Bill allowed servicemen to go to school, but you only had set amount of time of finish your work.

WJJ: Yes, I used it diligently. That is how I got the three degrees from Northwestern because I would cut off the time at Christmas and in the holidays. It was the greatest thing in the world for people wanting to go to school after the war. JM:

You entered Northwestern in 1946 as an undergraduate.

WJJ: Yes. I already earned a degree from Tennessee Tech as an undergraduate.

147 JM:

At Northwestern you completed an undergraduate degree in music and took the regular music class curriculum that one would expect.

WJJ: Yes. I had great teachers. One of those teachers was Mr. Charbulak who was a great influence on my life. He was the Assistant Concertmaster for the Chicago Symphony. He and his wife, Kate, practically adopted me. They were great people. I was with them for years. JM:

He was a teacher at Northwestern and played in the Chicago Symphony.

WJJ: That was his main job. Northwestern would have the top players from the symphony to teach. I took percussion lessons from Mr. Metzenger who was the timpanist with the Chicago Symphony. I took lessons from him for two or three years. I would go down to Orchestra Hall on Friday afternoon after their concert, and he would give me lessons. JM:

Mr. Charbulak's wife, Kate, held what capacity with the Chicago Symphony?

WJJ: She timed the orchestra. I sat with her during the concerts. She was the official timekeeper for the Chicago Symphony. JM:

Why was her position important to the symphony?

WJJ: It was so important for the future. They needed to know the time of each tune. It was a very important because time is so important. The concerts would start at 8:00 pm or 8:15 pm and needed to end by 11:00 pm or the audience could not get the elevators or subways to make it home. They took all of this into consideration. So, it was very important to know the timing of the concert. JM:

Some of your classmates at Northwestern became very important figures in the American band world.

WJJ: Yes. John Paynter was at Northwestern. He later became the assistant to Mr. Bainum at Northwestern. Mr. Bainum was not treated very well in his last years of life. He ended up living in the dorms having to climb up several flights of stairs with heart problem. JM:

Was Ed Gangware a student at Northwestern during your years?

WJJ: Yes, Ed was a student and John Paynter. I am not sure if they were there as students at the same time or not. I was at Northwestern for seven or eight years, off and on. I got three free degrees during those years at Northwestern that was one of the most expensive schools in America. JM:

Your band director at Northwestern was Mr. Glenn Cliffe Bainum?

148 WJJ: Yes. JM:

Mr. Bainum was a student of Mr. A.A. Harding.

WJJ: He was a legend up there. JM:

Mr. Bainum was largely responsible for the modern drill charting system.

WJJ: Yes, he was very bright and created the system that evolved into what we use today. At that time there were no scholarships available for band members, but I was fortunate to have been on the GI Bill. JM:

What instruments did you play in the ensembles at Northwestern?

WJJ: I played trumpet in the concert band and the marching band, and I played fiddle in the orchestra. JM:

Were you a part of the 1949 Rose Bowl trip that the Northwestern made to Los Angeles?

WJJ: We took the train to the game and took the train back to Chicago. We were snowbound in Cheyenne, Wyoming for four days due to a large snowstorm. Actually, there were several trains stranded there. We didn't arrive back into Chicago or Northwestern until the eighth of January. We had missed a whole week of school. [laughter] The band got more of a reception at our arrival than the team. JM:

I visited the Northwestern Library Archives to research Mr. Bainum's tenure at Northwestern and to find some details about the time you attended. They had just received a scrapbook from a lady who was a member of the band during that trip. It was a scrapbook of the 1949 Rose Bowl band trip.

WJJ: I wish I could see it. JM:

The staff at archives was very helpful with my research and wanted me to have the opportunity to view the scrapbook. It was a wonderful book that had pictures and details of the trip.

WJJ: Are they going to make the scrapbook available? JM:

It is my understanding that they are going to photocopy the pages of the scrapbook. I will make sure to check on obtaining a copy for you.

WJJ: Well, they better hurry and get it finished since most of the members of that band are dead.

149 JM:

The head of the Northwestern Archives is a graduate of Grand Valley State University where I teach.

JM:

I am familiar with another one of your classmates, Mr. Mannoni. He was instrumental in developing the music department at the University of Southern Mississippi.

WJJ: He was there as graduate student while I was a graduate student. He was not well respected. He enjoyed being in-charge of things, but he was not well liked. On the trip to the Rose Bowl, he would buy silver dollars and sell them for two dollars. JM:

You received your undergraduate degree in music and your Masters degree in music at Northwestern. I have a copy of a research paper you wrote concerning left-handed fiddle playing.

JM:

You finished you PhD at Northwestern as well.

WJJ: I finished the PhD while I was teaching at Tennessee Tech. JM:

We will go ahead and move to your tenure at Tennessee Tech. Was there a formal search for your position?

WJJ: No, there was not a search like you have today. JM:

What were your teaching responsibilities at Tennessee Tech?

WJJ: I did just about everything since there were only three or four faculty members in the music department. I taught strings and had a little orchestra. I did not have the band at that time, but I taught band at Central High School in Cookeville for two or three years. Then, Mr. Hayes left, and I took over the band at Tech. JM:

So, you taught at Central High School in Cookeville while you were a faculty member at Tech?

WJJ: Yes, that is right. JM:

What ensembles did you have at the high school?

WJJ: We had a concert band and marching band. They were good bands. JM:

Your teaching career has been in the State of Tennessee?

WJJ: I did teach at the National College of Music in Chicago while I was attending Northwestern. I guess that is still a great school. It was a very expensive private school located just north of Evanston, IL. Edna Dean Baker and her sister, Clara, were great educators at that school and were well known throughout the world.

150

JM:

What were your teaching duties?

WJJ: I taught music appreciation and the children's orchestra. It was a great school with an outstanding faculty. It was really my first teaching experience. JM:

The rest of your teaching career was in the State of Tennessee.

WJJ: Yes, that is correct. I taught at Tennessee Tech and the University of Tennessee. JM:

So, outside of your experience at Northwestern, you lived and taught in Tennessee.

JM:

What was the state of the band program at Tech when you joined the faculty?

WJJ: It was pretty bad, but it was a very young program. You had the head of department, Mr. Hayes. Actually, Charlie Bryan taught at Tech a few years before that. He was a great composer and fine musician. In fact, there is a book that was written about Charles Bryan. WJJ: It was a small faculty at Tech, but most schools had small music faculties at that time. The most impressive music school in Tennessee was the George Peabody College for Teachers in Nashville. It was a world-class school. I did attend Peabody during the summers. It was a great school especially in the summer. You would have several thousand of teachers attend Peabody during the summer. It had great teachers like violinist Alexander Ponder. He was the assistant conductor of the Nashville Symphony. They had a very fine band and orchestra. JM:

I had several family members attend Peabody.

WJJ: Back then there were no teaching departments at universities or education department. You had the teacher colleges like Peabody and many others. Peabody has a beautiful campus and buildings. JM:

When you took over the bands at Tech....

WJJ: That was about two years after I arrived at Tech. JM:

Do you recall the size of the band at the time you took over?

WJJ: It was around 80 members and grew to around 130 - 150 members along with the growth of the school itself. JM:

While you at Tech, many students became very influential band directors in the State of Tennessee.

151 WJJ: They directed and built some of the best programs in Tennessee. Norman Woodall at Hixson and Knoxville Central, Walter McDaniel at Lebanon and Lenoir City, Bill Hull in Columbia, Kenny Hull at McGavock, Wayne Pegram in Murfreesboro, Robert Johnson in Dickson, Tennessee, Harold Wilmoth at Tyner in Chattanooga were all students of mine. Yes, that is why most did not go to the Nashville schools since they were "roving" teachers that would move from school to school. You cannot build a good program that way. Even today there are only a handful of truly successful band programs in Nashville. The Overton Band is one of them with Jo Ann Hood. She is a dear friend of mine. JM:

Was Barry McDonald a student of yours at Tech?

WJJ: Barry graduated from Central High School in Chattanooga under A.R. Casavant. I think he was in the service before he came to Tennessee Tech. He was a great talent. He did not take care of himself health-wise. He died to early. JM:

I look forward to discussing Barry's influence on the University of Tennessee marching band as the arranger.

WJJ: Boots Randolph, the great musician and a dear friend, always said that Barry McDonald was the finest musician and talent in Nashville. He was just unbelievable. JM:

What was your perspective about the state of music education in Tennessee during your years at Tech?

WJJ: Outside of Peabody College there were smaller programs at the state school, but all were young. JM:

What were some of the more outstanding high school band programs in Tennessee during those years?

WJJ: Mr. Ralph Hale at Christian Brothers in Memphis had a fine concert program. It is one of the oldest high school band programs in the United States. A. E. McClain's program at Memphis Central High School was excellent. It was a 100-piece concert band. JM:

What were some programs in East Tennessee?

WJJ: Casavant's program at Central High in Chattanooga was very fine. I got most of his students at Tech. He was a fine teacher. He had a very fine concert band and marching band. Of course, he was heavily involved with the marching drills and wrote many books about precision drill. He offended a lot of people because he spoke the truth. JM:

What about bands in the Knoxville?

152

WJJ: O’Dell Willis at Knoxville Central had a good concert band and was a good friend of mine. We established the O’Dell Willis Instrumental Conducting Scholarship Concert at Tennessee in honor of him. JM:

Would you reflect on your overall experience at Tennessee Tech?

WJJ: I enjoyed being at Tech, but I had my conflicts with some administrators, and I let it be known. Of course, I had the president of Tech on my side, or I would have been fired. I was very fortunate to have taught at Tech at that time. I had the support of Everett Derryberry, our president, he was a very dear friend, and Mrs. Derryberry was a colleague and teacher at Tech. He was a brilliant man, Rhodes scholar, and an All-SEC football player at the University of Tennessee. He was a native of Columbia, TN. I did my best to ensure that we had the very best program and represented the school with excellence. Some students may have thought my methods were harsh, but I hoped they understood that excellence involves work and discipline. There were many challenges since recruiting fine musicians was, at times, difficult. I do believe that what was established during those years served the school and students in a positive way. JM:

Dr. Julian, I want to thank for your time today. I look forward to our next interview concerning your tenure at the University of Tennessee.

153 Interview with Dr. WJ Julian – Sunday, September 11, 2011 JM:

Dr. Julian, this is the last scheduled interview for my research, and it will focus on your tenure at the University of Tennessee. When did you begin at the University of Tennessee?

WWJ: 1961 JM:

Did you begin in January or later in the year?

WJJ: Yes, I started in January. I did not want to start in the fall. There was planning, recruitment, and general preparations to take of before the summer began. The current band program was in somewhat of disarray. JM:

Do you recall the hiring process? Was there a committee that you interviewed with?

WJJ: I interviewed with Dr. Andy Holt, President of the University of Tennessee, and Dr. Herman Spivey, Provost. He was a fantastic person with high standards. There were others from the athletic department, like Gus Manning. They were all present. JM:

What was the state or organization of the band program when you arrived as the new Director of Bands?

WJJ: It was horrible, to be blunt. The program was under the auspices of the ROTC with Major Walter Ryba as the director. He wasn’t the best administrator. They had no organized concert band. The only real active part was the marching band. Ryba was actually the custodian of the ROTC program that included maintenance of equipment and uniforms. It was unbelievable that the university would have that kind of situation. He had already left when I arrived. JM:

When you arrived where did the band rehearse? I am assuming that the current music building had not been built.

WWJ: That is correct. The band room was under the stadium in the north end. It was a large space for rehearsal. There was an office area and storage for instruments and uniforms. JM:

After your arrival at UTK, what were some of your short-term goals for the band program?

WJJ: I guess just to survive (laughter). I had the support from everybody. It was quite an exciting time actually. The administration led by Dr. Holt and Dr. Spivey, the athletic administration with Gus Manning and Coach Woodruff,

154 the Athletic director, were all very supportive. It was very pleasant from the beginning. JM:

When I interviewed Dr. Joseph Johnson, who started working at UTK in 1963, he recalled the time when the band was purchasing new uniforms. He said that the university did not have the money for the uniforms, but that a call to Coach Woodruff was made and that the athletic department helped to purchase the new uniforms. After the initial purchase there was a plan put into place to buy a certain amount each year to build the inventory.

WJJ: I do not remember the exact process, but the university had money and the uniforms were purchased. The old uniforms were not in good condition and were poorly designed. They consisted of white pants, an orange jacket, and white hats. You could distinguish the year the pants were bought due to the amount of wear and the “yellowing” of the color. JM:

Was the movement of the band program from ROTC to the Music Department a part of your goals?

WJJ: The administration had made the decision to move the band program to the music education department, academically speaking. Dr. Schmied, the director of the music department at that time did not have anything to do with the move. I am not sure if he ever saw the marching band or concert band. Dr. Schmied was a pianist and had very little do with the band program. I was really free to do what needed to be done to establish a university band program because of the backing from the university administration. JM:

I am going to divide the following questions into two areas: marching band and concert band. Describe some changes you instituted for the marching band.

WWJ: One of the first changes made was the uniform. It had to be a uniform that was functional for marching and for concert events. JM:

Did you design the uniform?

WWJ: Oh no…I am not like some band directors who think they can design a uniform. I left that to the professionals. Mr. Fruhauf and his company designed the uniform. That was their job and they designed a great uniform for the band. The uniform design is still used today and is still bought from Fruhauf. It is one of the highest quality uniforms in the country. There have been no changes made to the design since we first introduced them. JM:

The design is still used today by the Tennessee band.

WJJ: Yes. There have been no changes made to the design since we first introduced them.

155

JM:

Were there any band scholarships in place when you started?

WJJ: There were none when I arrived. Actually, Dr. Andy Holt gave the first one. It was important to begin a program of offering band scholarships to the members. Many have contributed to this including the great support of the UT Athletic department, alumni, and the university. JM:

Did the marching band travel?

WJJ: Yes. We traveled to most away games. The UT Athletic Association was very good to us that included staying at good hotels and providing spending money for the students. JM:

During my research, I had the opportunity to go through the impressive library that you began that contains the past scripts, charts, and videos of the halftime and pregame shows since your arrival at UTK.

WJJ: Is all of that still there? JM:

Yes sir, it is. It is a wonderful historical account of the evolution of the Tennessee marching band program. I went through and catalogued all of the shows since 1961. This index includes information on the songs and drill design of the halftime and pregame shows, the number of members charted, the drum major, the majorettes, and guest soloists and honorees for each year.

WJJ: That is something I would like to see. JM:

I will have a copy for you. It shows the individual games of each year and gives the information associated with the marching band’s show for that game. I was quite a revelation to see the amount and diversity of the songs played and the drill executed over those thirty-two years. One can certainly see how the Tennessee band evolved with the changes in drill design.

WJJ: Barry McDonald did all the music arrangements for the marching band. He was a great talent. I was not an arranger, and I knew it. That is something that some band directors fail to recognize themselves. It is important to know what you don’t know. Barry knew how to arrange, and he was the best. JM:

The growth of the marching band was very significant during the 1960’s. It grew from 128 members in 1961 to over 240 by the end of the decade. Your ability to recruit was the main reason for this growth. How did you approach recruitment?

WJJ: Not only was recruitment important, but fielding a band that was disciplined and exciting to watch was very important to recruitment. I made it a point to visit the high school programs in area each year.

156

JM:

You once told a group of music education students that the majority of the band members could be found “in your own backyard.” I assume that you meant that the members could be founds in the area program in the Knoxville region.

WJJ: That is very true… The great many number of students of the Tennessee band came from programs across the state of Tennessee. It was invaluable to keep in contact with band directors across the state. There were many fine band programs in East Tennessee. You want directors to encourage their students to enroll at Tennessee and be a part of the band program. Some became music education majors, but the vast majority was in other majors. JM:

Another component of the success of the marching band was the stability and longevity of your staff.

WJJ: It is important in any organization to have people who knew what there were doing. Barry McDonald was the arranger from 1961 to around 1978 or so. Walter McDaniel became the Assistant Director in the late 1960’s and remained for 20 years. We had Ken Landgren, an engineering major, writing drill in the late 1960’s and early 70’s. He really developed and expanded the circle drills. Jim Idol became the drill writer in the later 1970’s and remained until my retirement. Warren Clark replaced Barry McDonald as our arranger and wrote many fine arrangements. JM:

I found a photograph of you in the 1966 Volunteer with a clipboard and whistle on a platform. Did you write drill for the Tennessee band?

WJJ: I wrote very little drill. Ken Landgren wrote many of the drills. He was very talented. He wrote so many of the circle drills. Many were so complicated we couldn’t do them (laughter). Some of those instructions were like “take 3 steps or take 7 steps” and the like. They were not possible in the time we had to learn a show. JM:

Were there other staff important to the band program during your tenure?

WJJ: Gail Hunter was very important. She was the band secretary from the mid-1960’s until my retirement. There was a woman before Gail that I had to dismiss. Gail still works for me with the Smoky Mountain Music Festival. Her responsibilities with the band program were very important. All of the staff over the years did help to provide stability and made the organization efficient. JM:

You have mentioned one of the great Tennessee marching band traditions: the circle drill. In my research I found that the first circle drill occurred in 1966, what was the deciding factor to focus of that type of drill?

157 WJJ: There were several factors really. The stadium was expanding during those years, and the circle drill played to every side of the stadium. I saw a drum and bugle corps competition in the northeast during the mid-1960’s. One of the groups formed a circle, but they did nothing with it. After seeing their show, I got the idea that there were many possibilities for a circle like the possibilities with a straight line. Our early shows just rotated the circles. Ken Landgren took the drill to new level and created some of the most wonderful shows. He had a very fine mind for those things. JM:

Speaking of Tennessee traditions, one of the most recognizable is the opening of the giant “T” for the team entrance. Can you explain how this tradition developed and the role Coach Doug Dickey played?

WJJ: Coach Dickey and I talked about the entrance for team. After we had planned the opening of the “T” at the end of the pregame show, Coach Dickey had the team practice with the band. At that time, the team practiced at the stadium after our rehearsal, so they came in early to practice running through the “T.” The practice also was needed for the timing factor involved. The band used to form the “T” from the east to west sidelines for 20 or so years. It was formed from the north to south end zones starting around 1983 due to the new locker room location. JM:

Keith Jackson, one of the great college football TV announcers, called the opening of the “T” one of great traditions of college football during a TV interview after his retirement.

WJJ: I did not know that. It has certainly become one the most exciting parts of the pregame show for the fans, band, and team. JM:

Another great tradition of the Tennessee band has been representing the State of Tennessee in the Presidential Inaugural parade. The UT marching band has participated in every Inaugural parade since Eisenhower with the only exception being the Kennedy parade. Can you elaborate on this long-standing event?

WJJ: I contacted the politicians who represented Tennessee in Washington D.C. when we first thought of trying to receive the official invitation. Major Ryba took the UT band for the Eisenhower parade. My first Inaugural parade was Johnson in 1964. Those folks in D. C. decided who would receive the invitations. After receiving the invitation, we began the process of securing the funds needed to travel from the university and state. Ever since 1964, it has become a tradition for the UT band to march in the Inaugural parade. We have always had good friends in D.C. that cared for the band like Howard Baker, Lamar Alexander, Albert Gore, John Duncan, and Governor Winfield Dunn. We had great support from republicans and democrats. It was always great exposure for our band. JM:

With regards to the exposure, the Tennessee marching band was one of the most televised bands during the late 1960’s and throughout the 1970’s and

158 1980’s. I would assume that the success of the football team helped in this area. Did you ever coordinate with the TV networks when about showing the band at half time of national televised games and the bowl games? WJJ: We always made contact with the networks that would carry the games. We had very good relation with most of the networks. That was very important. I believe that ABC did a special on the UT band back in the early 1970’s. During that time the networks carried most of the half time shows of the bands especially at the bowl games. JM:

Did you have a philosophy concerning the college marching band? What was the role of the college marching band?

WJJ: First of all, it was important to survive and keep the resources available to advance and continue the marching band. It was to entertain the fans and to support the football team and represent the university on all levels. There wasn’t much tradition at UT when I arrived. There were very few good marching bands in the country for that matter. It was very limited. JM:

Even by 1960, the collegiate marching band movement was still relatively young and evolving.

WJJ: It was a great time, as far as, experimenting with new drill design. We were very fortunate to have some great minds working with our band, like Ken Landgren and Jim Idol. JM:

Do you think that the college marching band movement is improving?

WJJ: Not so much improving, but keeping pace. There seems to be little creativity these days with college bands. Even high school bands do only one show per year. A lot of that stems from the increase pressure of participating in competitions and such. There seems to have been a shift from entertainment to the competition direction. Even going so far as teaching to the competition and not for the crowd. I never wanted my band to “compete” with the opposing band. We were there to do our show for the fans. I always thought that we were always ready to present a good show that our fans and team would be proud of. JM:

When I was cataloguing your shows, your bands always played tunes that the crowd could recognize. Whether popular tunes, patriotic, or classical, there was a sense that the average fan knew the tune or had heard it.

WJJ: That’s right. They were good tunes. It was a matter of programming. I had very few theme shows, but there were a few like an election show or a patriotic show. The shows had to connect to the average fan, and this included the drill and music. There was always a sense of showmanship.

159 JM:

Some have called you a great showman in the way you presented the Tennessee marching band. I had the privilege of interviewing Dr. Al G. Wright [Director of Bands Emeritus, Purdue University], and he agreed with you about presenting shows that fan could understand and relate.

WJJ: Al had some very fine bands at Purdue and at Miami High School. He was a great showman, and his bands reflected that. Our bands met one time at the Bluebonnet Bowl in Houston. It was an outstanding half time show by both bands. JM:

In 2010, UT sports journalist Josh Pate interviewed long-time UT athletics administrator Gus Manning, who had been associated with the UT Athletics department for over sixty years, concerning the University of Tennessee football program. Mr. Manning listed seven individuals who were significant to the rise and growth of the UT football program. These interviews became a series of articles entitled, “Seven Pillars of Tennessee Football.’ Those “seven pillars” were: Nathan W. Dougherty, Robert R. Neyland, Gene McEver, Peyton Manning, Bobby Dodd, Herman Hickman, and WJ Julian. In the article concerning you, it states,” He was a perfectionist and he wanted perfection by others. He was very strict and a disciplinarian in his craft, but it paid off in the long run. And he always had a great show for the fans in Knoxville. Sure, it sounds like a good description of one of the legends cut from that same orange cloth, names like Wyatt, Battle, Majors, Fulmer and the General. But this man was a legend in his own. This man, no matter the score or wins or losses, constructed the framework of the Tennessee game day atmosphere before some of us knew what that meant. That's why WJ Julian transformed Saturday into a Tennessee experience perhaps more than anybody.” Do you think that what you envisioned for the role of the Tennessee marching band on game day was accomplished?

WJJ: I think it was. There wasn’t much to begin with when I arrived. With the great support given to me during those early years, the band grew and we developed some great traditions for the school, fans, and team. I was very fortunate to have people like Barry McDonald, Ken Landgren, Warren Clark, Jim Idol and others to help with the building of the band in terms of music and drill. Also, there was a lack of timing in the ways happened on game days. I always ran the band on a strict schedule and it influenced the over-all game day timings. Say for instance, the pregame show started at a specific time each game day. This meant the National Anthem was played at a specific time. This was important for the TV networks to carry the playing of the anthem. The team entrance finished the show at a specific time right when we opened the “T.” There was never unaccounted time or standing around of the band. The same came be said of the half time shows in regards to timing. JM:

I would like to now move to the area of the concert band program at Tennessee. Before your arrival at Tennessee, there was very little with regards to a concert band.

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WJJ: It is my understanding that there were very few concert band performances. Members of the marching band would rehearse tunes for specific occasions or performances. There was no organized concert band program as far as I know. JM:

After looking through many of the old concert programs, I found that you immediately established a concert band program your first year at Tennessee with the UT Concert Band as the top performance ensemble. Did you have a wind ensemble during those first years?

WJJ: We played a variety of band literature. On many performances I would select the top players from each section to form a wind ensemble to play the new and older literature for that type of ensemble. When we had more students in the concert program, an additional concert band was added that was called the Campus band. We performed some of the new literature being written at the time, as well as, the older works and transcriptions. JM:

The growth of the concert band mirrored that of the marching band relative to the initial numbers.

WJJ: Yes, that is a fair statement. I would add that those early years the music education program was growing rapidly as well, and it contributed to the growth of the all band ensembles. JM:

During your tenure at Tennessee, who were some composers, conductors, guest soloists who were guests with the concert band program?

WJJ: There were several composers that came to UT to work with the students in their classes and in the ensembles: Vincent Persichetti, who was one of the great composers his generation and a very good person; Clifton Williams, a dear man and great composer. He directed the UT concert band at one of our ABA appearances the year before he died. He was very sick that year, but wanted to be with us; Norman Dello Joio, a wonderful man and composer; Karel Husa, a passionate composer and human being; Martin Mailman, a dear friend; Vaclav Nelhybel, who wrote many good band works, but didn’t get along well with the students; David Van Vactor, who was on faculty at Tennessee and directed the Knoxville Symphony; and some others. As far as conductors that came to work with the concert bands, we had: Sir Vivian Dunn, who was a dear friend of mine and former director of Royal Marine Band; Harry Begian; my dearest friend, Zeke Nicar, William Revelli; Col. John Bourgeois; Frank Wickes; Guy Lombardo, who directed the UT Marching Band; and several others who made guest appearances with the band at conventions. We enjoyed many soloists with the band program over the years. Guest soloists with the marching band included: Charlie Pride, “Tennessee” Ernie Ford, Dottie West, Dr. Isaac Greggs, Roy Acuff, Charlie Daniels, Lee Greenwood, Don Neuen and the UT Concert Choir, Osborne Brothers, the Atlanta Pipe Band, US Army Herald Trumpets, Archie Campbell,

161 and Boots Randolph. Some of the guest artists that appeared with the UT Concert Band included: Vincent J. Abato, the virtuoso clarinetist with the New York Philharmonic, Wynton Marsalis, Governor Lamar Alexander, UT faculty members Don Hough, Cathy Leach, Bill Scarlett, and Gary Sperl, Jay Romines and many UT students over the years. JM:

Along the lines of exposing the students to outstanding musicians in the band field, you held high school and junior high school honor band weekends at Tennessee.

WJJ: Those were very fine opportunities for upwards to 1,200 students each weekend. We ran six concert bands each weekend. These bands were conducted by some of the finest conductors in the public schools. It was quite a challenge to organize and run those weekends due to scheduling sufficient rehearsal time for each group. I believe we ran three concert bands at a time and then changed over to the other three bands. This went on all day. The end result was a final concert on Sunday with all six bands performing. This was a great recruiting tool for the UT band program and gave students from all over the southeast and east coast an opportunity to visit the university. We were one of the very few universities that had a junior high honor band weekend as well. JM:

The concert band program had national exposure by performing at prestigious conferences and conventions. What were some of these events?

WJJ: We performed for the American Bandmasters Association at three different conventions. We hosted the ABA convention in Knoxville in 1987. We played at the Music Educators National Conference (MENC), and we performed at the Tennessee Music Educators Association on several occasions. Over the years the concert band performed at many fine concert hall venues such as the Tivoli in Chattanooga, Ryman Auditorium in Nashville with Vincent Abato as clarinet soloist. We played a concert in Knoxville then repeated the same concert in Nashville with Mendez. The Ryman was a wonderful auditorium and it was sold out for that concert. JM:

Dr. Julian, I would like to ask a few questions concerning your role as a Professor of Music at the University of Tennessee. What were your teaching responsibilities at Tennessee outside of the band program?

WJJ: I taught conducting throughout my time at Tennessee and other music education classes in the earlier years. My teaching load was not as varied as when I was teaching at Tennessee Tech. JM:

What was your favorite class to teach?

WJJ: I always enjoyed teaching conducting and working with the students. I gave the students a great deal of podium time with immediate feedback. I felt it was

162 important to have the students conducting in front of their peers whether it was in class or with our laboratory band. At the end of the term, the conducting students directed one work with one of the concert bands on the “Student Conductor Concert.” The students always enjoyed those concerts, In addition to the podium time and class work, I used my video library of some of great conductors to show technique. Many of the videos included the likes of Toscanini, Klemperer, Furtwangler, Stokowski, and many others. We would discuss the gesturing by the conductors and how it applied to what was performed. It was an intensive class, but it was necessary to prepare them for their conducting future. Some students excelled and others did not make it through. JM:

Who were some of your outstanding students of the years that went on to have successful teaching careers?

WJJ: Bill Connell has one of the finest high school bands in Alabama. Roy Holder began teaching in the Knoxville area and went to Lake Braddock, Virginia and built an incredible program. Denny Stokes has a very fine program in Virginia. All three have built some of the finest programs in the country. Roy Holder, Denny Stokes, and Lafe Cook were inducted into the American Bandmasters Association. There are many other students who have gone on to have successful careers as band directors in the public schools or college, performers, private teachers, and administrators. JM:

What advice would you give to those students who are preparing to become future music educators?

WJJ: Listen to as much good music as you can. Current band directors fail to listen to good music. Being exposed to good music across all mediums helps any educator become a better musician. It promotes greater expressiveness and broadens knowledge. If one only listens to band music, then that is a very narrow view point to draw from since there is not a great deal of band music in existence compared to other areas. Limitations arise when band directors append their time finding the couple of works their marching band or concert bands are going to perform that year. It is important for the director to know their field’s music, but they need to continually stay abreast with the new music or outstanding recordings of other mediums. I will pose a question to you. If you go into a band director’s home, what would their record or CD collection contain? It would say a lot about the person and their understanding of music. JM:

That is a very good question!

WJJ: It would be a good way to measure a person’s musical taste at the very least. JM:

I would like to end this interview with a few questions regarding your administrative role in the national band associations. What do you think are important qualities of an effective leader?

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WJJ: That is hard to say. First of all, one should have a great deal of knowledge of music. That is number one. Another quality would be the ability to effectively deal with people. This would include a measure of disciple, but you cannot overdo it or underdo it. It is in between. I always tried to be fair in dealing with people, but at the same time I was responsible for the welfare of the organization I was representing. Many people in the different associations who held an office tended to overdo things that led to divisions within the organization. Others were benign leaders and past off their responsibilities to others and were just a figurehead. JM:

Describe your experience in the National Band Association (NBA) as a member and past-president.

WJJ: The three major band associations include the National Band Association (NBA) that anyone music educator could join, the College Band Directors National Association (CBDNA) that had college or university directors, and the American Bandmasters association that you had to be elected into membership. JM:

Since you are a past-president of each of these associations, what were your accomplishments with these organizations?

WJJ: The first priority was to keep the organization running and moving in the right direction. There was usually very little money to work with, but there did not have to be a lot of money to effectively do the work. The administrative tasks were very important. This included making sure that the organization was functioning in a manner that served the membership. If the association had a national conference or convention, then that was an important duty of the president to organize and attract as many attendees, quality performers, and presenters. It was always important to me that the associations were presented as the leaders of the band medium. It had to do with integrity and attracting new membership and emphasizing the importance of current members staying active. The strength of any association is the active role of the membership and leadership. Keeping the committees of the associations current and active was important since these groups did so much of the main body of legislative and external work. JM:

How important do you believe that band directors become members of the associations?

WJJ: It is very important! Just to share ideas. We all copy from each other and get ideas from each other. You do not find any outstanding band directors who do no go to conventions or meetings. I would say that is just as important that they join their state associations. JM:

Do see the future of these associations moving in a positive direction?

164 WJJ: I do not see them moving in a negative direction. There is good young leadership today. It may not be the same direction as in the past, but it is working. The associations have conventions and conferences. Membership in the groups is good, as far as I know. JM:

The role of the collegiate Director of Bands seems to be shifting from a position that directly interacts with all facets of a collegiate band program to one of general oversight especially when dealing with the marching band. Do you see this shift happening and what are your thoughts concerning this?

WJJ: There are some directors who fall into this category, but every school is different. Some directors are hired primarily as the artistic director or concert director who oversees the total program. Take for example William Revelli (University of Michigan), he went to every rehearsal whether it be concert or marching band. He was in charge. Al Wright (Purdue University) was the same way. The Tennessee program was built along those lines as well. I was present at all rehearsals since it was my program. Today, there are specific titles applied to positions like Director of Bands, Director of the Marching Band, etc. within the same program. That set up is different from a Director of Bands who is directly involved in all facets of their program with the assistance of an associate or assistant director of bands. The primary difference is that with one side there are different people in charge of different areas as compared to one person in charge of all. I do not know if that is good or bad, it all depends on the direction the administration of the school wants for its program. JM:

Schools that have restructured the Director of Bands position after the retirement of long-serving director. Is this an attempt to dissolve power of one position or to enhance balance?

WJJ: The problem is that some people do not want to have anything to do with the marching band, but that is a big mistake since that is where the money and public support come from. The concert program is usually not known by the majority of the public. That was even the case at Tennessee. The other concern is that when a director of bands is not involved with all areas of their program, they do not know the students who make up the program and the students do not know the director of bands. JM:

I attended a rehearsal of the Tennessee marching band before I came over to conduct this interview. I was talking to some of the members at a break and told them about my meeting with you. They were all very excited when I mentioned your name. It showed a great deal of respect they have for you and for the Tennessee band program and history.

WJJ: Gary Sousa (Director of Bands at Tennessee) does a great job with the concert and marching band. He is in charge of the total program.

165 JM:

In 1983, you formed the Smoky Mountain Music Festival that is still in existence today. What were the reasons for starting the festival?

WJJ: To make money! [laughter] I wanted to start a festival that used the top conductors in the band, choral, and symphonic fields as judges. It has been a great success over the years. I believe that over 5,000 groups from 28 states and Canada have performed. Close to 50% of the groups are repeat participants. JM:

This festival is not a part of “chain” of other festival organizations, but is independent.

WJJ: That is correct. We have the top judges and a top staff. Some of the staff has worked the festival since the beginning. It is important to provide a festival that is punctual, top-rated, and one that attracts multi-year attendees. The judges have included: Roy Holder, William Revelli, Frederick Fennell, Col Arnald Gabriel, Col. John Bourgeois, Frank Wickes, Gary Sousa, Jerry Junkin, Al Wright, Johnny Long, Ken Bloomquist, Ray Cramer, Harry Begian, Jim Copenhaver, David Waybright, Stan Michalski, Tom Fraschillo, Paula Crider, William Moody, Richard Floyd, Bryce Taylor, Myron Welch, Zeke Nicar, Robert Foster, Michael Schwartzkopf, Charles Ball, Eric Thorson, Kirby Shaw, Angela Batey, Ken Fulton, Weston Noble, Craig Jessop, and many others. These are people with great reputations and who have earned it. JM:

Dr. Julian, what other areas of interest do have outside of your vocation as a band director?

WJJ: Whenever I am in a big city, I always go to the concerts of the symphonies: Chicago, New York, Philadelphia, Vienna, Berlin, St. Petersburg, etc. Unfortunately, so many band directors to not get to go to concerts of large symphonies. I enjoy cooking and going to great restaurants. I have a great family who I care for very deeply. My granddaughter is going to attend Tennessee this fall, and my grandson is quite a Tennessee fan. JM:

Looking back over your fascinating career that began only 100 miles away in Silver Point, TN, you have spent the great majority of your life and teaching career in the State of Tennessee. Not many people have stayed in their home state and achieved the success you did.

WJJ: That is right. Tennessee has been a good place to work and live. JM:

During your career did you ever consider leaving the University of Tennessee?

WJJ: One or two schools did approach me about leaving Tennessee to work at their schools. I actually went for a few visits, but nothing ever came from it. I had a great career at Tennessee. I built this program where these other schools had established programs.

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JM:

Your career over-lapped the ending careers of some of the great bandmasters of the collegiate band movement. Who were some of the great personalities and leaders that you knew?

WJJ: Some of the best personalities were not the best band directors. Revelli was great personality and outstanding band director. He was tough to get along with and some disliked him due to his intolerance of things. Though I never personally met Henry Fillmore, he was quite a character. Al Wright talked about his antics often. JM:

Dr. Julian, I want to thank you for allowing me to conduct these interviews with you. I appreciate your openness and time.

167 Interview with Dr. Gary Sousa - Friday, July 29, 2011 JM:

Today is Friday, July 29, 2011, and I am at the University of Tennessee the director of bands, Dr. Gary Sousa. Thank you Dr. Sousa for participating in my research on Dr. Julian.

GS:

Thank you John for this opportunity.

JM:

How long have you known or been associated with Dr. Julian?

GS:

I first met him when he became president of CBDNA [College Band Directors National Association]. His conference was held at the University of Texas in Austin. I was teaching at Baylor University at that point. Everyone at the conference told me he was not only the director of bands at Tennessee, but that he was “governor” of Tennessee. [laughter] I was amazed at how impeccably dressed he was for the conference and the way manner he conducted himself and interacted with those around him. I did not have much of a relationship with him until I took the director of bands position at Tennessee.

JM:

What were your first impressions of him?

GS:

He was well known in the field. There was a scuttlebutt about his election at the time. He was running against Stan DeRusha, the director of bands at Michigan State at that time. People were concerned that this southerner was coming in to take over CBDNA. I think that my first impressions were that he was a class act and well spoken, but there was definitely a northern-southern issue about his election. I remember very vividly people discussing about what did this southern guy know about wind ensembles and the like.

JM:

Well, I am sure that Dr. Julian was like a good “scuttlebutt.” [laughter] In what capacities have you worked with Dr. Julian?

GS:

He has been more of a good friend than any work capacity. I have always had a lot of respect for tradition, and people who laid the groundwork for those of us that came later in the profession. I knew that I soon as I came to Tennessee, he was the first person I wanted to see. The first day of being at Tennessee, I called Dr. Julian and invited him to lunch at his favorite place, the Regas restaurant. That was the beginning of our relationship. We have had a good and caring relationship with each other since I came to Tennessee. He was almost like a second father. It has been a very even relationship. Obviously, I am very respectful of him and what he has done, but I know he has a lot of respect for me. He was able to things in his career at Tennessee that we could not do now because of the change of times and circumstances. Sometimes he will ask, “why don’t you do this,” and I will respond, “because we can’t do that anymore.” In the same respect, I know that he has a lot of respect for the things I have been able to accomplish, especially in regards to the musical aspect that he could not. We have

168 a great relationship and spend a lot of time together. People always ask me if Dr. Julian hovers over me, but it is exactly the opposite. He is a very wonderful man who built something at Tennessee that was very unusual and needs to be maintained. JM:

Just to follow up on that point, when does Dr. Julian come back to the university? Does he come to concerts?

GS:

Yes, he comes to every concert if he is in town and able to. Occasionally, he will come to a football game where we will spend time together. He and I have lunch together frequently. He does not come to the university regularly, but has been by to see our new facility. If he is around, then he will come by. He will tell you that the only things he misses about the university are the students. He still takes a lot of pride in being involved in the program.

JM:

How do the current respond to Dr. Julian being removed almost a generation?

GS:

A priority of mine has always been to try to find our history and preserve it. One of the things that we do in our program, the Tennessee band program is over 140 years old, is with the freshman. The night the upper-classmen arrive, we send them to the field and bring the freshman inside by themselves, and I give a presentation on the total history of the Tennessee band program. This includes pictures and videos about when events happened, then they receive an orientation about the uniform and its history. It really is a history of the program and traditions of the band. Everyone who comes through here, even though they have never had any interaction with Dr. Julian except when he directs the alma mater at homecoming, they know who he is and exactly what he did. The students realize that much of what happens currently was because of him. The fact that they get treated so well, the expectation of the quality of travel, the amount of money they receive for a trip, are all because of this man. Many of the current student’s parents were in the band and marched under Dr. Julian. There are many legacies that happen that make them realize what Dr. Julian did for this program.

JM:

What characteristics have you observed that made him an effective director of bands?

GS:

He did what he believed was right. He did what he believed was right for the music, for the students, and he would not waiver from he believed. We all talk about his demand for excellence, but I think it is more than that. I think it was his belief that this was the right thing to do for the student; that they would have quality food, travel and the like. He just demanded it. Everybody talked about his demand for excellence and discipline and there is no doubt about it. It was a major part of his legacy. The band never did anything that was not first-rate. Underlying all of that was a belief, probably from his parents, that in your lifetime you do what is the right thing to do. That characteristic is very impressive. Many people in today’s society will settle for what is easier or because they do not want

169 to fight or something. Dr. Julian said no; there is a bar here and there is no reason not to achieve that level. Whether it is someone that waits on him in a restaurant, the quality of the car he drives, or what he demands of people in their own performance that bar or level is high. The discipline and the level of excellence the he demanded from everybody, I think stems from this other ethical code that you do the right thing that this is the right thing to do. I have heard him say many times that if you are going to do something, then do it right or not at all. That was a very strong characteristic of Dr. Julian. I think he was very politically savvy. It was easier back then to be politically savvy. Since east Tennessee is predominantly republican and he is republican, he was politically smart enough to move within those circles of government to develop relationships. When there was a problem or when he needed help, those relationships he forged were people in positions to solve those problems. His relationships with Congressmen and Senators were very instrumental in keeping the Tennessee band in the inaugural parades since President Johnson’s parade. Many band directors are not that politically savvy. That political understanding on his part was huge in getting the band program to where it was. The combination of those things enabled him to do the right thing for the program and university by building a program that was respected. Having the political wherewithal to get the powers behind the program to protect it from anyone wanting to change it. He developed that ore. People nowadays call it “branding.” Having a brand is powerful and one does not change a brand. I think Dr. Julian was ahead of his times in developing a power base, politically and through traditions that could not be challenged by anybody. JM:

As a freshman in the UT band, I was amazed at the level of organization. The program seemed to run itself. Everything had a process and ran with efficiency. All of the interviews I have conducted with individuals other then Dr. Julian have noted his high level of organizational skills. Whether it was for he day-today business of his program or for a national convention, the organization was impeccable and maintained a high standard. Can you elaborate on this observation?

GS:

I think that it goes back to what I mentioned before that if you are going to do it, then do it right, and it comes down to the smallest detail. Obviously, he would provide a structure for the process, and then he would let the people do their job. In the end, as long as the final product was what was expected, he satisfied. He was not necessarily a micro-manager, but there was an over-riding demand or expectation that it be done right. If it was not done right, then there were consequences.

JM:

In your estimation what influence did Dr. Julian have on the college and university band movement?

GS:

The reputation of the marching band probably had the greatest impact nationally. The fact that the University of Tennessee marching band was well organized, had good numbers, a large following, and its leadership was exemplary were all

170 significant. He was president of all the major band associations, ABA, NBA, and CBDNA; this refers back to his political savvy that we had discussed earlier. His influences within those organizations were significant as well. I admired Dr. Julian always standing up for he believed. When the John Philip Foundation established the Sudler Trophy in the early 1980’s, he refused to accept a nomination for the Tennessee marching band. This award was established to recognize university marching bands for their contributions to the field. He commented in CBDNA meetings that it promoted competitiveness among university marching bands. I believe that Tennessee was slated as one of the first programs to receive the award. I admired his conviction about that, and it represented what he was willing to do for something he thought was right. For a program like Tennessee that was so steeped in a great marching tradition, it was quite a stance to take. JM:

Are there other aspects of his career that had an impact on bands nationally?

GS:

The reputation of the University of Tennessee within the band field directly comes from the “Pride of the Southland” marching band. Nationally, people now associate the circle drill, Rocky Top, among other things with the Tennessee band. During Dr. Julian’s time it was just that it was a great marching band program.

JM:

A question was posed to Dr. Revelli during an interview about people first referring to the marching band rather than the symphonic band at Michigan. Dr. Revelli commented that he had no problem with that. It seems that during the last twenty years there has been a shift concerning the role of director of bands. Dr. Revelli went on to comment in that interview to say that he was honored to be the director of the whole program and was directly involved in the whole program. Dr. Julian was like Dr. Revelli in the fact that he was directly involved in the whole program as director of bands. As the current director of bands at Tennessee, do you see the direct involvement as a hindrance or has the role changed from the days of Dr. Revelli or Dr. Julian?

GS:

The Jay Julians, the John Paytners, the William Revellis, the people of those generations were basically three things: strong musicians, great teachers, and strong administrators. I think that teaching was a major part of who they were because many started in the public schools. Their belief was that the band experience was comprehensive. In the end what you achieved musically on the marching band field should be no less than what you achieved in the concert band hall. Music is music, and you strive for excellence and a level of perfection in every situation. They were savvy enough to know that the people financially responsible for funding in the university were the people interested in the marching band. They realized if they limited themselves to just the concert area, then they would not have the support for the whole program. There would be no political support or financial. It would be comparable to most university orchestra programs that operate on a very limited budget for the school year. They were

171 politically savvy enough to know that you had to build a power base because without it that would not be the finances to make the things work. Also, they were concerned about the comprehensive band experience. Even to this day, when you have a student who has the opportunity to march in a Presidential inaugural parade and perform in Carnegie Hall, you have given that student two lifetime experiences. Do you value one experience more than the other? No, they are both life experiences and change the individual. Because these men were such teachers, that comprehensive experience is what they valued. Are things changing? Yes, they are changing dramatically and the change is not for the better. We are close, maybe within the next ten to fifteen years, to witnessing a major catastrophe in the band field. This is due to several reasons: the economy, and director of bands divorcing themselves from athletics. They are giving a junior faculty member control over the marching band who has no political clout to enter an arena to demand financial support. Dr. Julian was able to do these things as director of bands. In a time where the economy is dictating cuts in all areas, especially in education, where do the cuts usually begin? The cuts begin with the marching band with regards to travel and expenses. Another area of concern the college marching band is the gradual descent to turning the college game day experience into a “pro” game atmosphere with band being replaced with amplified music. At many universities you do have a powerful director of bands involved in these decisions. You can see a gradual decline of the marching band. The current directors of bands who want to be just the artistic conductor are allowing this decline and it results ultimately in a reduction of financial support for the whole program. The marching band has historically brought in financial resources to band programs. Without that funding there will be no funding for commissions, scholarships, renting music, bringing in guest composers, or guest conductors. I foresee a real change very soon. The results of director of band searches demonstrate how universities are moving away from the old model for a director of bands position. It is a dying generation of what the director of bands position used to mean and will have profound implications for the future of the band field. JM:

Can you identify similar characteristics between Dr. Julian and other director of bands who have been subjects of dissertation research like: A.A. Harding, Mark Hindsley, William Revelli, Leonard Falcone, Harry Begian, John Paytner, an Gary Garner?

GS:

When you look like at the names listed, they were from a different time, but they all demanded a certain level of excellence and were disciplinarians. Their leadership profile makes them all very similar. There are many stories about these men and their strict discipline, but there is something that goes beyond that aspect. When you look at this list, I see them as musicians, but more importantly, I see them as teachers. The director of bands who are more concerned about being seen as conductor and not a teacher, they are my biggest problem. They want to be the “maestro.” The word “maestro” means teacher, but I am not sure if they

172 know that. These men who you listed represent great teachers, and Dr. Julian would belong in this list. JM:

In your estimation, as the current director of bands at the University of Tennessee, how did Dr. Julian’s tenure specifically affect the direction of the Tennessee band program? Are his contributions visible today?

GS:

It is amusing to me that I could be Dr. Julian’s son. I am the next generation. He is a little older than my father. The way that I was brought up and the demands that were placed me was similar to his children. Many of the things we believe in are similar like doing things right and with high standards. The whole ore that the Tennessee band is going to have a level of excellence that is unmatched and doing things the right way is always going to be a part of this program. This is due to the fact that it is what Dr. Julian established and that we are so much alike. The most lasting impression that is still evident today is that he established a “brand” of the “Pride of the Southland” band and what it meant. That brand meant integrity, discipline, excellence in rehearsal and performance, and hard work ethic. The band represents the state of Tennessee. It is like an icon in not only east Tennessee, but in the whole state. He built that brand, and people still believe in it. We work hard to make sure that people still believe in that brand and still profess exactly the same thing. We know that the brand is great and special part of our program. What he did to establish that brand and all it affords to the students and university is very special. There are very programs in the country that have this status. If he had not established it or fought for it, we would not have it today. Everyday I work hard to maintain that privilege because if I did not, then it would be gone tomorrow. His influence was huge and is alive today.

JM:

What significance did Dr. Julian have on music education at Tennessee and in the state?

GS:

The level of excellence he demanded of his students was the biggest influence. Those students are now teachers. They took what Dr. Julian modeled for them in terms of expectation of excellence and discipline to their programs.

JM:

It was the intangibles concerning music education that he taught his students helped to prepare them in a way books could not. He instilled a set of standards and expectations in his students.

GS:

Yes, that is a fair statement.

JM:

Dr. Sousa, would you like to add anything else to this interview?

GS:

I am glad that you are doing this project. Dr. Julian is a very special person, and he established something at Tennessee that has not been developed elsewhere.

173 JM:

I would like for you to elaborate further on that thought. What was special about him establishing this program at Tennessee? Many people have made similar comments. Why Tennessee? What made it so special to develop a national program here?

GS:

When you think of the great band programs like those of the Big Ten, those kind of programs were established around great high school programs in their respective areas that would feed them great players. The state of Tennessee did not have the amount of high caliber programs as other states. To establish a program that has a national reputation of excellence and to establish it in a state where there were not many high caliber programs was unusual. If it were not for Dr. Julian, this program would not exist in the form it is today. It be a mediocre regional program that you can find everywhere in the country. He made it happen. I think this is a very good point. Given the culture and the fact that he established this level of excellence within this culture is quite unusual.

JM:

Dr. Sousa, thank you for your participation in this research.

174 Interview with University of Tennessee Emeritus President Joseph Johnson Wednesday, May 25, 2011 JM:

I am in the office of Emeritus President Joseph Johnson of the University of Tennessee. Today is Wednesday, May 25, 2011, and I am continuing my research of the life and career of Dr. WJ Julian. Thank you President Johnson for participating in this research.

JJ:

Thank you. Glad to be a part. I will follow your guidelines and questions and will go wherever you want to it.

JM:

These are preliminary questions and we will just start and see where the questions lead the discussion.

JJ:

I will just start and comment and you can take it where it needs to go.

JM:

Yes sir.

JJ:

How long have I known Dr. Julian? I became acquainted with Jay when I was hired by President Andy Holt to be his Executive Assistant in 1963. Not too long before that, Jay was hired from Tennessee Tech to come to Tennessee to replace Major Ryba. I still know Jay. In fact, he was just recognized and placed on the Hall of Honor of the College of Education and Health and Human Sciences. Recently, he and Faye attended the little inaugural ceremony. I see him in the grocery store every once in a while, and he remains a good friend. I head the family part of the billion-dollar campaign UT is currently undertaking. I made a call on him and Faye at his house and played with his dog. Well, I have known Jay since 1963.

JM:

That moves us right into the next question concerning the official capacities you have worked with Dr. Julian.

JJ:

I worked with him as Executive Assistant, Vice President, and President at the University of Tennessee. I can't remember when Jay retired, but I believe I was president when he retired. I became president in 1989.

JM:

Dr. Julian retired in 1993.

JJ:

Okay. I had to get those dates straight in my mind. So, I knew him as Executive Assistant, Vice President, Executive Vice President, and President.

JM:

So, you observed throughout his tenure except for his first two years.

JJ:

Yes, I followed him throughout all of it. He got here at UT right before I did.

JM:

Well, that covers the second question.

175

JJ:

Yes. The next question is what characteristics made him an effective director of bands. Well, three or four things come to mind. Just observing Jay, up close at times. When I say up close, I remember when he had his band in when I was supervising/overlooking our construction program, and he brought the band in early one summer. We were working on the southeast upper deck of Neyland stadium, and he bought a brand new black Mercedes and drove it into the stadium. That was the day we were going to put the primer on the steel. Somebody asked him to move the car, and he said I am the band director and will move it when the band practice is over. About four hours later, he had a silver, brand new Mercedes. The contractor paid to have it repainted, by the way. Anyway, there are several things that impressed me about Dr. Julian, and I always knew him as an administrator in some role: number one, his high standards for the members of his band. He had very high standards. He did not accept second rate. That is something, I think, that is a quality of any outstanding faculty member, or anybody else. You have high expectations. He also had high expectations of himself. He set high standards. He was creative. He desired to be the best and worked hard at it. He didn't say I am going to be the best, then except the mediocre. I have seen him work on band members, and I've seen him work on assistant directors. All of that was not in the name of embarrassing them, but you have to be the best you can be. We are representing, I am representing, and you are representing the University of Tennessee. So, I guess setting high standards, commitment to being the best, and never accepting second best are wonderful characteristics. As tough as he could be, and he was, on his band members, the affection that a lot of them have thirty or forty years later is impressive.

JM:

Yes sir.

JJ:

My ophthalmologist, David Harris, who was in the band, still talks about Dr. Julian and what great job he did. Those three or four characteristics, John, I think were commit to the institution, commitment to excellence, and doing everything the very best it could be done. It had to do with uniforms, it had to do with drill, it had to do with behavior, and it had to do with decorum, the whole work from beginning to end.

JM:

That is just a great answer.

JJ:

And as an administrator, whatever role I was in, I admired that. I admired that. Having been here at Tennessee before he came and having watched our band in faded old orange uniforms marching up and down Shield-Watkins field, we have come a long way. [laughter] We have come a long, long way. So, if you want to pursue something, then go right ahead.

JM:

No, I am just taking a few mental notes. Let's go ahead and move to the next question.

176

JJ:

Okay. What significance did WJ Julian have on the University of Tennessee band program? In my view having seen the band before he came, his leadership transformed the Tennessee band from something that was average into something that was truly outstanding. He wouldn't accept second-rate uniforms. We didn't have any money to buy any, but he would show up at my office or the president's office and ask who is going to buy new uniforms. That is when we told the athletics to buy new uniforms and have a three-year plan to replace the uniforms on a regular basis. He transformed the appearance of the band, the quality of the performance, and gained national attention. His leadership in the national band associations also gained national attention for the Tennessee band program. He didn't mind showing off what he had and didn't mind inviting his peers to come. I always was assumed at the bowl games, especially when we played Big Ten teams since he thought their bands were not up to par with ours. Their bands were all motion, not performance. So, he brought the quality of our band program up to national recognition.

JM:

That perspective of quality is one of my focus points concerning the UT marching band. Dr. Gary Sousa mentioned that Dr. Julian created a "brand" with the Tennessee marching band and the entire band program.

JJ:

He did. I'll say this later, but I know people who come to the Tennessee football games for the band show. I've heard people say that we might not win the ball game, but we will win the band shows both pregame and halftime. We knew this because Dr. Julian will put the best out there in terms of the quality of the music and the creative marching routines. Another aspect was the people he would invite to perform with the band. He invited Roy Acuff to come perform. That is a little risky, but he did it and that performance lead to Roy Acuff making some significant gifts to the University of Tennessee, and our only initial contact was Dr. Julian. The same can be said of Boudleaux and Felice Bryant and the success with "Rocky Top." My view is that he raised the program to a national level of acclaim and before him we were just another band. He could go on the field with the other SEC bands and hold our on and excel in terms of quality and professionalism. This is something we were and are very proud of. He was a competitor and that was evident since he wanted to have the best. I think that was his impact. The other impact was that the band was so good the talented young students wanted to come to the university to be a part of it. They wanted to march with the "Pride."

JM:

I was one of those students. My dad had season tickets for thirty years. I remember coming to the games and watched the band march to stadium and perform pregame and the halftime shows. I could tell you who were the drum majors and what shows they did. I actually wrote Dr. Julian letters while in junior high school and received hand-written replies from him. It sold me about wanting to be a part of the "Pride of Southland."

177 JJ:

When I do alumni talks I have students come up to me and tell me that they want to be in the band. John Bragg, who was a state representative from Murfreesboro, was chair of the House Finance committee. He was a UT graduate and was probably the third most powerful person in the House of Representatives. His son, Tommy, played trumpet in the UT band. I remember that we were playing Auburn at Legion field one year. I saw Tommy, and we exchanged some Dr. Julian stories. Tommy's favorite one was when he was rehearsing with the UT band; marching up and down the field playing his instrument when he was not suppose to be. He said that he past Dr. Julian and that he laid into him yelling about playing his instrument. He followed him for about twenty yards just working him over. He continued on with the drill and came back down the field. In the meantime someone told Dr. Julian who Tommy Bragg's father was. So, when he marched back down the field doing what he was suppose to and got to Dr. Julian again, Julian said, "Mr. Bragg, I now know who your daddy is and you can do any damn thing you want to do!" [laughter]

JM:

Dr. Julian had a great sense of humor and could use it to relieve tension after working on the band pretty hard.

JJ:

Looking at the next question about describing the band before Dr. Julian came to UT, I think I have covered some of it. I was in the UT graduate school in '56, then in the military, then back in '58, and '59. So, I observed the band from a different perspective. The difference between the band before Julian and after he arrived was daylight and dark. I think a part of at was, in Dr. Holt's hiring Dr. Julian, Dr. Julian set some standards for himself and the university. If I (Dr. Julian) am going to come, then here are some things we have to do: we have to have a larger band, it has to look good, it has to be dressed better, we have to have excellent instruments, and so forth. I think he just came in and said what you've had before maybe that was all right with you, but it is not all right with me. I am not going to direct a band on the field anywhere that the university can't be proud of and I can't be proud of. I saw the former band, and there was a need for major improvement.

JM:

I have spoken with former members of Major Ryba's band, and they agree about the difference between the transformations.

JJ:

Ryba was not a band director in the sense of the term. I don't blame it all on Ryba. We accepted it. Dr. Julian would not take the job if that was the way it was going to be. Does that answer that question?

JM:

Yes. I think it gives a fair estimation of the band before Dr. Julian arrived.

JJ:

Describe the vision and leadership that Dr. Julian had for the marching band and how it impacted the Tennessee football game day environment. A lot of people come early to see the band march to the stadium. That is a big deal to the fans and Dr. Julian made that happen. People come early for the march over and the Vol walk. I think some people to watch the band and not the ball game. Many people

178 enjoy watching the spectacle of the band's total performance during the day. They are excited to see what the new show is going to be for that game and how much more complex the drills are going to be than they were the last time. He and Doug Dickey [former University of Tennessee head football coach and athletic director] did a grand job creating the entrance of the football team coming through the giant "T" formed by the band. That was another aspect of Dr. Julian, in that he cooperated with Coach Dickey. Both of them are pretty much alike in that they are perfectionists. Dr. Julian made the band a part of game day. It was a football game, but it was what went on around it and made it an all afternoon or all evening event. He raised it to a different level, and it is still at that level under Dr. Sousa. JM:

I was sent an article about Dr. Julian describing him as one of the "Seven Pillars of Tennessee Football."

JJ:

Dr. Julian was a part of that, and it couldn't have happened if he weren't willing to cooperate. The band is a huge part of the whole scene on football game days. I cannot imagine what it would be like without the "Pride," as we know it, not being there.

JM:

When I talked to other alumni of the marching band, we all agree that the two things we miss the most are the march over and pregame.

JJ:

The entry of the football team into that stadium is remarkable. Another game day tradition he established was bringing in George Bitzas to sing the National Anthem. That added pure class and that is exemplifies what Julian wanted for the band and the fans. Before we didn't have someone from the music department to sing, I don't think. Again, It made the game day experience better with a professionally trained tenor, and a pretty good one at that, singing the anthem. You even have people doing their takeoffs of Bitzas like those that do their takeoffs of Dr. Julian.

JM:

I believe that helps to give a fair estimation of the impact the band has during game day.

JJ:

Concerning the next question about his role as an ambassador of the University of Tennessee, he was a member of every significant band organization, not only in Tennessee, but also in the nation. He taught, lectured, gave talks, and people from all over came here. He did this as WJ Julian, director of bands at the University of Tennessee. That is a good impact to have, and it brought a level of recognition and attention, not only to him, but the university. There were a lot of people who were at UT that never got invited to a national band conference or international meeting of band directors. That brought acclaim to the university. The fame and reputation of that band helped us attract students and still does.

179 JM:

Since you have witnessed the vast majority of Dr. Julian's tenure at Tennessee, do you think he impacted the growth of the music department at Tennessee?

JJ:

One thing that I always forget is that Dr. Julian directed the entire band program. He conducted the concert band. I have had the opportunity to listen to his concert band programs over the years. It is the same with Dr. Sousa. I forget that they are working with the outstanding concert bands as well. The fame and reputation of the marching band attracted excellent students to want to come to be a part of not only the marching band, but the other groups as well. It also played a part in attracting students to want to major in instrumental music at the University of Tennessee. I am sure that it had an impact. They are not only directing the "Pride of the Southland" marching band, but also directing other groups in the music department.

JM:

There aren't that many dissertations on bandmasters. The primary claim to fame is Dr. Julian's leadership of the UT marching band and how it influenced and shaped the rise of the other programs/ensembles in the band program at UT. He created a product that achieved great fame.

JJ:

The newly renovated Alumni Gym into the Cox Auditorium is described by Dr. Julian as one of the finest auditoriums around. That is another side of the gentleman that you do not see while he is directing the band in the stadium. I know that he had influence beyond the "Pride of the Southland" band. His personality was bigger than life. I kid him about being egotistical and demanding. It is always fascinating, as an administrator, to deal with that. I never had a problem to deal with it and sometimes I had to deal with it.

JM:

Yes sir.

JJ:

He was bigger than life, but a wonderful human being. His first priority was having a program that UT could be proud of and inspired a lot of students. You had to perform well in his bands. He taught his students great lessons in desiring the best, performing with excellence, punctuality, and representing the university with distinction.

JM:

President Johnson, I believe that this will conclude our interview.

JJ:

If you are satisfied, than I am, and I will leave it to your good judgment. I thoroughly enjoyed dealing with Dr. Julian. He was and still is a great asset to the University of Tennessee.

JM:

Thank you President Johnson for your time today.

180 Interview with Dr. A. Wayne Tipps - Friday, July 29, 2011 JM:

Today, Friday, July 29, 2011, I am at the home Dr. Wayne and Erna Tipps in Ten Mile, Tennessee. Dr. Tipps, thank you for agreeing to be a part of my research on Dr. WJ Julian. How long have you known or been associated with Dr. Julian?

WT:

I have known Dr. Julian for over forty-eight years. I started teaching as a high school band director in middle Tennessee in 1959. I attended UT football games fairly regularly and sent some students to the university who marched in the "Pride of the Southland" band. Through the students and attending the games, I got to know him. I was an officer in the Middle Tennessee Band and Orchestra Association [MTSBOA], and he was a member as well. We had many meetings and discussions through our membership in the MTSBOA. I was hired at the University of Tennessee in the music education department simply because of Jay Julian because he knew of the work I had accomplished at Springfield High School.

JM:

The second question flows from the first. In what capacities have you worked with Dr. Julian?

WT:

First of all, he was certainly a colleague, and one that I enjoyed serving with for many years both in professional and casual settings. In a more direct role professionally, when Dr. Julian served as president of the Tennessee Music Educators Association [TMEA] and the National Band Association [NBA], I served in a supportive role in both associations doing exhibits for those conventions. Walter McDaniel and I shared many of those responsibilities. Walter was the convention chair, and I was the exhibit chair. We all worked very closely during those years. The normal things that one does in academia, such as serving on committees, we worked together throughout our tenure at Tennessee.

JM:

When did you join the faculty at the University of Tennessee?

WT:

I joined UT in the fall of 1972 and retired after Christmas of 1999.

JM:

So, you were a faculty member at UT from 1972 through Dr. Julian's retirement in 1993?

WT:

Yes, that is correct. I served as a Professor of Music Education. Actually, I started as an assistant professor, to associate, then full professor.

JM:

In your estimation, what characteristics of Dr. Julian made him an effective director of bands?

181 WT:

Just the persona of the man is number one. He had a persona that made people take notice, listen, and attracted attention. You always take notice of the personality of anyone you meet. Secondly and more important, Dr. Julian possessed immense organizational skills. I believe that much of his success was due largely to the fact that the man was so organized. Whether he surrounded himself with organized people or that he was responsible for their organization, the fact remains that Dr. Julian got the tasks at hand accomplished. I believe that his skills as an organizer were paramount. I have said many times to our students that if you do not get anything from the University of Tennessee other than an observation of Dr. Julian's organizational skills on how to run a music program or a band program, then your have received your education already. Everything down to the last detail was scripted, and everybody knew what to expect. His organization was the second major point. The third major point was that he knew where the power was within the university structure that allowed him to be successful. He used that knowledge as well or better than anyone. He understood who made the decisions and how they arrived at those decisions. Using that knowledge, he understood where he could help his program. I am not sure if others could accomplish this, but it worked for him and for the betterment of his program and students. His base of power did not come from inside the music department, but came from the seats of power from with the university administration who allowed and gave him what he needed to function. This allowed him and his program to reach a level of visibility that it became the norm, and no one dared to challenge that. I am not sure if anyone has mentioned this, but I believe he was a master psychologist. Especially, not when he dealt with colleagues because it may have had a negative effect, but as it related to the students. He had the unique ability to harshly discipline a student, but at a defined moment, he would stop and tell a joke to relieve the stress of the moment and send everyone on his or her way. I saw many times when he would climb the ladder at marching rehearsal and admonish the students, then in a split second say something half-way funny. After that it was all over and everyone went back to work. This was just part of his persona.

JM:

It was a great quality that really endeared him to so many of his students in a way that is hard to put into words, but the fact remained that they understood his expectations of the band and there was no room for debate. Are there any other observations you have of Dr. Julian?

WT:

He was a well-read man and loved the arts. I would not classify him as a great conductor, but he knew great music and what it took to make music. He used his skills that he was given to produce a product that everyone could be proud of. He had many students who could probably hear better and those around him who were better conductors, but there were not many people who could do the listening and bring background information on a piece of music to the table as Dr. Julian. He was able to translate, no matter what his conducting skills, to the students what the music should be and they responded. So was he an effective

182 teacher, absolutely he was effective! He used what God gave him to be a wonderful band director. JM:

While some colleagues and students might not have approved of his methods, the end product was what he wanted and to his standards.

WT:

He was a very intelligent man. Like I have mentioned, he was well-read, but he knew so much about other areas like politics, fine dining, traveling. He always had strong opinions about everything. There was never a grey area with Dr. Julian.

JM:

I have a copy of his dissertation and a copy of a paper he wrote concerning left-handed fiddle playing.

WT:

His voracious reading gave him a great source of knowledge and carried over into the manner he spoke. The way he talked gave him authority in the presence of others.

JM:

Dr. Tipps, what influence did Dr. Julian have on the college and university band movement?

WT:

When I came to work at the University of Tennessee, most of the leadership for bands nationally was in the mid-west. They considered themselves to have provided the model and the development of the band movement. That can be historically substantiated. Flowing from the lines of A. A. Harding and Mark Hindsley and the Illinois program through the Northwestern University program with Glenn Bainum and John Paytner. These individuals served for so many years at their respective schools and influenced countless band directors in that region and nationally. They thought that their product was the best. What I discovered, especially as it relates to the marching band, Jay Julian popularized, and I use the word “popularized” instead of the word “invented,” the circle drill. That drill was unique in terms of style in the country. Not many bands ever emulated that style and certainly not to the extent that Tennessee explored that type of drill. I do remember that Ray Dvorak, long-time band director at Wisconsin, published a book in the 1930’s that showed circle drills. I do not give Jay credit for inventing the circle drill, but I do give him credit for innovating it. Since Tennessee had such a high visibility in football, Jay and the Tennessee band’s circle drills received a great deal of exposure that permeated throughout the country via television. I certainly think that the Tennessee marching band provided the exposure that allowed Dr. Julian’s name to grow nationally within and outside the band profession. Jay’s leadership skills were the key qualities that allowed him to become a part of the interior structure of the band movement. I believe it started with the NBA [National Band Association] and moved to the CBDNA [College Band Directors National Association] and ABA [American Bandmasters Association]. It really started with the NBA where he met a lot of people and through his leadership and organization he was able to establish himself as a

183 leader of the movement. He organized and hosted conventions where he was able to surround himself with quite competent people who did the work and allowed him to be the visibility of the particular organization he was representing at that time. He parlayed that into presidencies of all three major band associations. I believe that was his main claim that he was a leader and that he was able to unify, to some extent, the band movement through his presidency of the associations. I believe the only person to have served as president of all three before Jay was Dr. Revelli. JM:

The NBA is the youngest of the three major associations, but it is the largest.

WT:

Yes it is the largest by far. I am not sure when Dr. Julian served as president of the NBA, but it was in the earlier years. Al Wright and his wife, Gladys, were the diving force behind the NBA. I remember one year that Dr. Julian and I attended the Mid-West Clinic together. He was very anxious for us to meet Dr. Wright. Jay just immersed himself around the leadership of those organizations.

JM:

The next question has been some what answered. What impact do you believe did Dr. Julian have on bands nationally?

WT:

I will add a few more comments. The Tennessee concert band did perform at a number of national conventions with many nationally known conductors. This gave credibility to Jay’s concert program nationally. I do not place his concert program in the likes of Dr. Revelli at Michigan or Harry Begian at Illinois with their immense national recording projects since most of the Tennessee recordings were fairly local in terms of dissemination. I do not believe I ever heard what was happening at Tennessee in the concert program as a model for the band movement. Yet, I still believe his major contributions were his leadership skills and the visibility he brought to Tennessee through his leadership in the various organizations.

JM:

Only two years of his teaching career were not in the State of Tennessee, and that is a factor in the equation.

WT:

That is absolutely correct. He was a “home grown” product. He was born twenty miles from his first public school and college job, and then moved one hundred miles to the east to finish out his career. That is an amazing fact. He gave his life to teaching in his home state. The same can be said of the majority of his students. In general, we did not get the great players at Tennessee coming from other states. These students were developed locally or regionally. He took those students and made good musicians out of them. I certainly give him credit for that.

JM:

A lot can be said of his knowledge of the programs in the state and the directors. He developed a recruiting network within the state. I am sure that

184 his assistants and other faculty members like, Mr. McDaniel and yourself, were a part of the recruiting process. WT:

I think he learned a lot from athletics, I am not sure if he would admit to that, in regards to the value of recruiting. At least during the early years when he was trying to build a program within the state and not nationally, he kept Walter McDaniel on the road visiting almost every school in east Tennessee certainly and many in middle and west Tennessee on a regular basis. I did many visits during the 1970’s and 1980’s. He began to move nationally through the contacts of people from other states who were area directors or faculty members. The exposure of the marching band on television helped with recruiting on a national level. I believe that all these efforts helped to establish a pretty good network both in the state and regionally throughout the southeast and east coast. There was a very good recruiting base in the Washington D.C. area when Roy Holder and Denny Stokes began teaching and establishing fine programs in that area. Jeff Richardson’s program in Raleigh, North Carolina was another fine program. All of these contributed to a good regional network. It all started here in the state of Tennessee and worked outwards. One of my responsibilities at Tennessee was the placement of student teachers. During my last two years at Tennessee, we placed student teachers in the Atlanta and Fairfax County, Virginia areas. This directly and indirectly benefited the recruitment for the UT band and music programs. This was really all possible through the early recruitment process that Dr. Julian established. It was a critical factor in his success at Tennessee.

JM:

Since you authored one of the few dissertations on a college band director, Harold Bachman of the University of Florida, can you identify similarities between the career of Dr. Julian and other prominent college band directors who have been the subjects of historical and scholarly research? I have cited A. A. Harding, Mark Hindsley, William Revelli, Leonard Falcone, Harry Begian, John Paynter, and Gary Garner. I did not cite Harold Bachman since he had so many other positions outside of his post as a college band director, but that does not minimize his importance.

WT:

First of all, there are several similarities just between those you have cited. They were good conductors, and they had high visibility doing all-state bands, regional bands, and clinic bands. Some were good composers and arrangers. I think that Dr. Julian stands unique in the fact that he used another approach to achieve the same kind of results. That is not to minimize Jay’s contributions, but he certainly did not have the national visibility that the others had on the national adjudicators circuit. Dr. Julian did several all-state and regional bands throughout his career, but not to the extent as others. That was not his where he achieved his status. I think Jay Julian was a great leader in the band world. He used his leadership and other skills to achieve prominence, and he surrounded himself with a great staff that he allowed to do their job. That was one of his great strengths that he carried into his leadership role of the different associations. He found good people, put them in leadership positions, and let them function. That is not to say that he did

185 not pull everything together in the end with coordinating meetings. I know that in the ones I was involved with, we always had regular coordinated meetings. He used these meetings to determine what had been accomplished and if it was on schedule. JM:

I know personally, as one of his band workers for the Tennessee band, that we had those coordinated meetings as well. [laughter]

WT:

Yes, I am sure of that. Actually, your comment shows how Dr. Julian maintained the same organization structure whether it was on a national level or in his band. The standards and expectations remained the same for everyone involved in anything he was leading.

JM:

In your estimation, as a former colleague of Dr. Julian, how did his tenure as director of bands at Tennessee impact the direction of the Tennessee band program? Are his contributions still visible today?

WT:

Some of his contributions are certainly still visible. The emphasis on recruiting is still visible. In my opinion, the traditions that Dr. Julian started with the marching band are definitely visible. When the Tennessee band started making changes away from the pageantry shows to precision marching was a tremendous shift. His shows at Tennessee Tech were predominantly pageant shows week after week. The shift away from the tradition of pageantry shows was gradual. It did not happen over night. This shift was occurring nationally, not just at Tennessee. During the 1960’s there was an incredible amount of change occurring concerning the drill work of college bands and bands; bands were in great transition. I remember teaching a grad class where we were trying to figure out how to chart the new drill. I had fourteen or fifteen high school band director in the class. The drill prior to this shift usually involved a sketch of a form on a piece of paper, and the director would spend thirty minutes placing students into the form. That type of learning was not what Dr. Julian wanted. He insisted that every move be scripted and diagramed with instructions so every member knew exactly where they would be at every moment and how they got there. Everybody got his or her own chart book. As you well know, sometimes those chart books would be a half or quarter inch thick. His system of charting shows and the learning process involved is something that is still visible today. Another example of his contributions was the introduction and use of “Rocky Top.” He secured the use of that tune from Felice and Boudleaux Bryant for the university. It became an official state song of Tennessee and became the unofficial and rally-cry for Tennessee athletics and the university. What an incredible impact Jay had on all Tennessee fans. It is amazing to think that when “Rocky Top” is played across the nation, many people associate it with the University of Tennessee! That is all attributed to Jay Julian. He brought in many country music stars to perform with the marching band like, Lee Greenwood, Charlie Daniels, and Roy Acuff. That was something that was not heard of nationally. He brought in the Atlanta Pipe Band to perform. I remember getting chills when they ended with “Amazing

186 Grace.” He had a great vision about what kind of shows would entertain the crowds. Other traditions that he established was the opening of the “T” for the football team, the band uniform, the complex circle drill shows, and the pregame show that has been virtually the same for many years. I would say that any director who came to Tennessee and changed any of these great traditions would not be there long. The most impressive tribute to what he established with the marching band is the fact that the public demands and expects all of these traditions now. You can go to a Tennessee football game and if they announce that the band is doing a circle drill, the audience goes crazy. What a wonderful influence he had! I believe those contributions are with the university forever. JM:

The last question I have for you concerns Dr. Julian’s role as a teacher. How did Dr. Julian impact music education in the State of Tennessee and at the University of Tennessee?

WT:

He provided a model. The state is quite regionalized. I grew up in middle Tennessee. There were two main groups east of the Tennessee river: the Tennessee Tech music education graduates and the University of Tennessee graduates. The older Tennessee Tech teachers were loyal to Dr. Julian since he taught there throughout the 1950’s. The model that he provided at Tech was disseminated throughout many programs where these teachers worked. New generations of band directors were under the same model at Tennessee. These directors took that model to their programs, but it spread more regionally. I cannot attest to the exact things that made up Julian’s model since it is a very individualized thing. I do know that many of his students from both schools have commented to me about what Dr. Julian gave them. Sometimes they cannot put it into words. I believe that it was a model they could emulate. It was a matter of modeling how Julian organized his band and how he dealt with people. I would refer you to Ron Rogers. He did a wonderful thing as president of the Tennessee Music Educators Association when he wrote a testimony to Dr. Julian describing what he learned while at the university. Ron was just one example of the many successful students that were impacted by Dr. Julian. He took to heart the standard that Julian instilled and expected from his students, and that means doing your absolute best in everything relative to the band world. Though he did not teach a music education class during the twenty-seven years I was there, I am not so naïve to think that he did not have a great influence on the students in the music program. I think that the students learned how to do act as band director and sometimes they learned, maybe as equally important, how not to do it. They had models both ways especially in relation to human interaction. In the long run, I think it goes back to what the student wanted to glean from their time at the university. I would certainly say from 1972 until my retirement in 1999; the university produced many very wonderful and successful band directors. Their successful completion of studies was due to a composite of teaching from all their teachers, but the band had a great impact. The many students who went on to have very successful band programs or music education careers in the public schools and higher education represent Dr. Julian’s greatest impact on music education in

187 the State of Tennessee. His leadership as president of the Tennessee Music Educators Association played a significant role as well. Another great contribution he was responsible for was the formation of the Tennessee Bandmasters Association [TBA]. Dr. Julian used the Texas Bandmasters Association as a model. The TBA was a result of the lack of presence and leadership of the MENC [Music Educators National Conference] in the band field in the state of Tennessee. After he had attended a convention of the Texas Bandmasters Association one year, he talked to a group of local band directors in Knoxville and described what he had witnessed. He told us that there were over 12,000 band directors in attendance, ad he wanted to get Tennessee’s association started. We all agreed. Dr. Julian laid the groundwork for our association by drafting the initial letter of formation. At our first meeting in Nashville, we elected Dr. Wayne Pegram as president of the Tennessee Bandmasters Association since Dr. Julian was moving into other arenas of leadership like the NBA. I served as vice president. This is just another example of the influence Dr. Julian had on music education in the state. He had the idea, planted it into those around him, and laid the groundwork. The association took root throughout the state. The association still exists today, but maybe not in the way that he had envisioned it. As times changed, so did the association. When I served as president of the TBA, we were organizing our state convention for the summer and had the Madison Scouts and the Spirit of Atlanta as guest performers. It was a highly publicized convention, but in the end we had only twenty-five band directors attend. It was a truly wonderful convention with great sessions, but all at once the notion of going to clinics or conventions was beginning to decline. It has steadily declined in our state over the past several years. The association still serves the band programs of the state in many ways. Dr. Julian has been a great model for the state, had a tremendous influence on the students at Tennessee and Tennessee Tech, and provided leadership, both regionally and nationally, in the organizations he headed. JM:

Dr. Tipps, I would like to thank you for taking time to participate in this interview.

WT:

Thank you John.

188 Interview with Dr. John Culvahouse – Sunday, September 11, 2011 JM:

Today is Sunday, September 11, 2011, and I am with Dr. John Culvahouse. Thank you Dr. Culvahouse for agreeing to participate in this interview concerning my research about Dr. WJ Julian. I have the list of questions that was sent to you, and please feel free to add anything as we progress through the interview. First, how long have you known or been associated with Dr. Julian.

JC:

I first encountered Dr. Julian in 1968 during my sophomore year in high school at the spring concert festival on the stage of the UT music hall. He was always there and always came through to say hello to the band that was performing. This was a form of recruitment and exposure for the university. I used that model at my former institution as well. It was a smart thing to do. Dr. Julian was a smart man and still is. By that time he had been at UT for seven years and had turned things around pretty quickly. The marching band was already over two hundred members at that time. I did not meet him then, but that was my first encounter with Dr. Julian. I sold cold drinks at the UT football games and would see conducting the band at half time and pregame. I did not see rehearsals. My association with Dr. Julian spans from 1968 until the present. I have taught for thirty seven years and four years of college plus two pre-college, so that adds up to forty three years I have known or been associated with Dr. Julian.

JM:

That is a great amount of time.

JC:

Yes it is. I have some great stories from my undergraduate years concerning Dr. Julian like so my other of his students.

JM:

In what capacities have you worked with Dr. Julian?

JC:

As a student, I entered Tennessee on scholarship as a freshman. I did not actually audition for a scholarship. I went in and declared that I was going to be a music education major and was accepted. He met with me at concert festival in my Holston High School band uniform. We went into Gail Hunter’s office and told me what they would offer me each quarter. I was just elated. I had made first alternate to the all-state band on clarinet, and that was good enough for a scholarship at that time. I entered UT as part of a very good class that included Terry Jenkins from upper east Tennessee and several other good clarinetists. They were not clarinet majors, but were better players than me and had made all state.

JM:

Who was the clarinet professor at that time at Tennessee?

JC:

Bill Scarlett. He was my clarinet professor. I was talking about him to the clarinet professor at my school the other day. He had never heard of him. Bill passed away just a few days ago at the age of 84. He was still active playing tenor saxophone virtually every night. I studied with Bill, and I had never had a clarinet lesson before entering UT. He readjusted everything! I learned how to he clarinet

189 that first quarter at UT. As a sophomore, I moved up to K-2 position in the marching band. Since K-1 was the clarinet section leader, I became the alto saxophone section leader in marching band. All the alto saxophone leadership was very young; Ed Bingham from Bearden was a freshman and a wonderful talent, so Dr. Julian had me lead the alto saxophones. My junior and senior years at UT, I was K-1. They always had me demonstrate marching to the section leaders. I remember that Dr. Julian sat us down in a circle and said, “John, show us the correct way to march 8 to 5. John is our resident Tennessee walking horse.” Walter McDaniel was told me that I anticipated my turns, but in reality, my turns were just faster than everybody. [laughter] I was never drum major of the UT band since there were no auditions back then. Bill Connell was drum major. I was never the concert band section leader, nor should I have been. I was not the best. Cassie Lee was the section leader and first chair. Upon graduation, Dr. Julian was always available for any questions that I might have as a first year band director. JM:

You were a band director in Knoxville?

JC:

Actually, my first year teaching was at Cookeville Junior High School. That was the very same school that Dr. Julian taught in while dually teaching at Tennessee Tech. There was a little bit of connection. I taught there for one year. I returned to Knoxville, and he always included me in social and professional events. I always felt welcomed and respected. He would invite to his home after an event where all the “real” band directors would meet even though I was still just a kid. I believe that due my aggressiveness in conducting class and what I chose to conduct, I gained his respect.

JM:

During one of my interviews with Dr. Julian, he mentioned you as one of the students that stood out in his conducting classes. In your estimation, what characteristics of Dr. Julian that made him an effective director of bands?

JC:

He had vision and passion to produce a good product. He placed emphasis on a concert and marching program. Everything was dealt with in a serious, if not vehement manner. I am sure that he could be heard throughout the campus at marching rehearsal with the help of any sound system. He was an effective director of bands with a complete program. He placed great importance on everything he did, and those of us who followed as band directors used his model. Everything is important.

JM:

Many interviewees have commented on his organizational and administrative skills. Everything he did for a reason, was in the correct place, and held those accountable. Is that assessment something you would concur with?

JC:

Yes, certainly. Organization was great and down to the smallest detail. You arrived early to go on a trip to get your money from him, sign for it and take it out of his hand, then you had time to go have the doughnuts, milk, and apples

190 that were there for us. If he did not do it himself, then he surrounded himself with those that knew how to do it and done the right way. Just look at what happens every Saturday on a game day. Everything is ordered, scheduled, and runs like a machine. It is still basically the same today. The concert program has changed the most. It has changed with times, not necessarily better. He had a wind ensemble, but they were the top players of his concert band. The concert band was the main focus, and the wind ensemble performed on select works. The top ensemble at UT today, is called the wind ensemble, so things change. I know that Dr. Julian goes to all of the band concerts, and I would if I was in Knoxville. JM:

In your estimation what influence did Dr. Julian have on the Tennessee band program?

JC:

Dr. Julian is the University of Tennessee band program. While we all do things differently or decide to things differently while respecting the past, what is there today is because of Dr. Julian. There was not a concert program before him, and the marching program was a military unit. The program before Julian did not grab the attention like the one Dr. Julian established and has been going strong for fifty years. When one sees the opening of the “T” on television or watches a circle drill, Dr. Julian was responsible for these. Actually, he got the idea of circle drills from going to drum corps shows. The Casper Troopers did many shows involving circles.

JM:

Dr. Julian told me in an earlier interview that he got the idea of doing more with circles from drum corps. He thought that more could be done with them, and he had the people around him that wrote those shows for the Tennessee band.

JC:

Yes. Ken Landgren, and later Jim Idol, wrote those shows. Ken was charting shows on computer before there was an actual drill writing software available. Casper Troopers did not call it a circle drill; they called it their “sunburst.” Dr. Julian created the modern University of Tennessee band program. I was in the band when there was talk of changing parts of the uniform. Helmets, like those of the Phantom Regiment, were considered. We all were adamant for not changing. So, nothing changed and the uniform is the same today as when it first appeared with Dr. Julian.

JM:

At the time when Dr. Julian became president of the ABA, it made him and Dr. Revelli the only two who had served as president of all three major band associations. That fact within itself is significant. With your affiliation in the NBA as the current president, how did Dr. Julian impact the NBA as leader?

JC:

I went to the first NBA convention in Ames, Iowa at Iowa State University in 1973. I went with the Clinton High School band while I as still a student at Tennessee since I was going to student teach at Clinton. The Clinton band performed Caccia and Chorale, by Clifton Williams that was still in manuscript form since he died while finishing the work. I have been a member of the NBA

191 from 1974 until the present. I have been a regular member probably longer than anybody who is not a past president. I was attending an executive board meeting recently with David Gregory Bobby Adams, and others. I asked them how many had attended the very first meeting, and no one raised their hand. I probably have one the best institutional memories about the NBA, including Dr. Julian. Linda Moorhouse probably knows more about the NBA than anyone. She is invaluable to the association. I was elected president by a national vote from a slate that was presented by the board of past presidents. I had been presented once before with Paula Crider. Paula became the first woman president of the NBA. She was wonderful president with as much or more vision than anyone before her or to this day. She was a remarkable bandmaster. Dr. Julian was responsible for streamlining the association in regards its organization and administration. He made the convention really worthwhile, enjoyable, and memorable. The convention was in Knoxville more than any other venue. We do not have a convention anymore; it served its purpose. He had the connections at its prime. The groups that were selected, the venues, the “headliners,” the dinners, everything was done first rate. Including Gail and UT band workers, Jay surrounded himself with a good staff and always hosted a premier event. His mark was that the conventions were ultra enjoyable while still being professional and serving as a headliner in the profession. JM:

Paula Crider described Dr. Julian’s impact on the band profession as being someone who wanted to make us better; that there was more to life outside the love and vocation of music. While he set high standards in the band world, those standards were necessary in life.

JC:

Dr. Julian was very unselfish as well. While he may not be as emotional as some, he is a very caring man in his own way.

JM:

As a former student of Dr. Julian, what were some of your observations of him as teacher and representative of the University of Tennessee?

JC:

He was a revered figure. I never feared him, but I revered him. You always would sit up and take notice when he entered the room. I never feared asking him a question. I remember asking if I could leave after a half time of game to go see a marching competition in Gadsen, Alabama. He asked me his favorite question, “Why? I responded with my answer, and he told me to make sure someone turned in my hat. He never questioned it and there was never a problem. As far as representing the university, I remember him always telling us that they would call on him to go speak at meetings when they had run of coaches and administrators. He would go and entertain the audiences and represent the university with dignity, academic regal, and aplomb. He was the director of the “Pride of the Southland” marching band; the band and man they saw each Saturday at the games. There was a connection, and he served that role with class. So, the people who did not revere him would fear him. Those people were probably misinformed or shallow. When he would stand up on the ladder giving announcements, he would say that

192 the crowd is going to love “us,” and he meant that. He would go over the tape with us after the game in the band room. He would look for mistakes while sitting there with some charts. He would call out, “who is E-2 or B-15?” He would call out people, but he was not mad, but certainly those individuals would not make those mistakes again. He respected those that worked hard. If you made a mistake, but earned his respect, then he could live with that. Another fact about Dr. Julian and his wife, they would have senior members of the program for dinner. We were treated with as if we were dignitaries. The man exuded class, and he wanted us to act the same. That in itself is a great quality. JM:

How did Dr. Julian impact you personally?

JC:

Class. That is what I always told my high school bands; have a good time and have class. I would shout it to my bands on the field or tell my bands on the concert stage. He left his mark on me in many ways, but I will always be grateful for giving me a model of how to be an effective band director.

JM:

Dr. Culvahouse, I want to thank you for taking time to participate in this interview.

JC:

Thank you John.

193 Interview with Dr. Al G. Wright - August 2, 2011 AW:

I have a story concerning Dr. Julian and the Tennessee band. I had a "oneupmanship" on Jay at the Bluebonnet Bowl in Houston. We arranged for the Purdue band and the Tennessee to drill that evening. The Tennessee band went at 7pm and the Purdue band followed at 8pm in the Astrodome. What we did not know is that all around the top of the stadium were the conference officials including the university presidents having a very formal dinner. So, Jay and his band came in and did their drill. Whenever I went anywhere with my band, I had a simple jacket mead up for the occasion. Whether it was Japan or Canada, it was something to give the students and to wear to rehearsals. So, when we went to the Bluebonnet Bowl it was a blue jacket. The jacket costs me about six dollars a piece, so everyone got one. We came on second that evening. Jay was finishing his drill. When we came on the field we were all in blue jackets. Our president says, "our band has a little more class." [laughter] I do not know if Jay ever heard about that. It was a wonderful half-time show with two bands that used different styles, the Tennessee band with their circle drills and our pageantry.

JM:

It is Tuesday, August 2, 2011, and I am in the home of Dr. Al. G. and Gladys Wright. Dr. Wright, I want to thank for consenting to this interview concerning my dissertation on Dr. WJ Julian.

AW:

Thank you John for the invitation.

JM:

It is my privilege Dr. Wright.

AW:

The 1979 Bluebonnet Bowl was the first time our bands had met each other. Fifteen years or so before, we were both in the American Bandmasters Association [ABA]. We are both a little bit "bull-headed." We are both very forceful personalities. I was elected president forty years after being inducted into the ABA, and Jay was elected president thirty years after being inducted. So, we both expressed our opinions in meetings too often. We always got along very well together, as did Gladys and Faye Julian. Jay was a man of great opinions. He was a republican and his wife was a democrat. There is a story that he let the air out of her tires, so she would not get to vote. [laughter] She made it to the polls anyway.

JM:

I have not heard that story. The first question really expands on what you have just discussed. How long have you known or been associated with Dr. Julian?

AW:

We had heard of each other through the national band publications, but through the ABA, we got acquainted.

JM:

I believe Dr. Julian was elected into the ABA in 1966.

AW:

Yes, that sounds right. I was one of the first high school band directors elected into the ABA. I went to my first convention in 1949. Jay came along several years

194 later. We have always had a good relationship. Over the past years, he has us down to his festival in Tennessee. He is a very meticulous person. His dress was meticulous, and his car was meticulous. I am sure he ran his band the same way, and that is why it was good. Regarding his festival, everything had to be right and punctual. He used his band staff to work, and they adored him. Every one of his workers wore a coat and tie including the guy meeting the buses! Nobody ever called him Jay. It was always Dr. Julian. That showed a great deal of respect for him; even my graduated students never called me Al. Jay’s demeanor was meticulous as well. He always knew when he could make something happen and knew when not to push. JM:

To follow up about the festival workers, they come back year after year to work the festival. Some of the workers are have been working since it began in 1983. It is out of respect for Dr. Julian and what he meant to them that there is such a level of loyalty.

AW:

That is the way it should be and is very impressive.

JM:

The second question flows out of the first. In what capacities have you known Dr. Julian?

AW:

Mostly, through our work in his festival. We would spend time together at the ABA conventions or at the Mid-West clinic. Generally speaking, our paths crossed professionally at national meetings.

JM:

At the 2009 Mid-West clinic, I took a picture of you and Dr. Julian speaking together at his booth. I showed the picture to a fellow student from the University of Southern Mississippi. I said to the student, "here is a great picture of Dr. Wright and Dr. Julian." The student did not know either of you. It is very disappointing that today's generation does not know the band movement's past leaders.

AW:

They do not know, nor do they necessarily care to know.

JM:

I told the student that the picture represented over one hundred years of teaching and service to the band movement.

AW:

I would hope that the young people would want to know and understand our history. It is very important to know our heritage and the people responsible.

JM:

Dr. Wright, what characteristics that you have observed of Dr. Julian made him an effective director of bands?

AW:

Attention to detail, even the smallest details. People had to listen to him, and he was usually right. He knew his music, his band, and his players. He knew what they could do and this allowed him to make them better.

195

JM:

Dr. Wright, in your estimation, what influence did Dr. Julian have on the college/university band movement?

AW:

He helped to raise the standards of college and university bands. There are quite a few small colleges who do not have good band programs due to leadership or resources. Jay was in Tennessee, and that state is not known as one of the most generous states in the Union for music programs on any level. Just like Georgia is not like Massachusetts. He went into his jobs at Tennessee Tech and the University of Tennessee with standards and a behavior as a proper gentleman. He simply raised the standards. First, he raised the standards in his own bands by taking those Tennessee students and making them play better through proper teaching.

JM:

My former director in Dickson County in middle Tennessee was a former student of Dr. Julian at Tennessee Tech. He was the epitome of what Dr. Julian expected of his students.

AW:

Middle Tennessee. When I was teaching at my high school in Miami, we had a great deal of success. Due to that success, I began receiving invitations to do All-State bands and clinics around the country. My first clinic that I ever did was the Middle Tennessee band clinic. Tennessee had three associations for the state, I believe.

JM:

Yes sir, the west, middle, and east band associations.

AW:

I was scared to death, but it was a great experience. I believe that clinic happened in 1946 or 1947.

JM:

How did Dr. Julian’s career impact bands nationally?

AW:

He judged a lot of national level contests, and he was adamant that if it was a third division band that is what they received regardless of who the director was. He was a very good adjudicator and held bands to high playing standards. He would not confer with the other judges about what the band should receive. His standards were high, and he held to them. He raised the standards because you had to play better to receive a first division rating from Jay. He knew the music and how it should sound.

GW (Gladys Wright): He had a big impact on the Sousa Foundation. The top award is called the Sudler Flag that is awarded to the top high school band programs in the country. Quite a few of the schools who have received the Sudler Flag were students of Jay. I believe that there are five or six different schools whose directors were his students. That is probably the most of any one person.

196 JM:

There are only a few dissertations on college band directors: A. A. Harding, Mark Hindsley, William Revelli and his Hobart years, John Paytner, Leonard Falcone, Harry Begian, Harold Bachman, and Gary Garner.

AW:

They are all deserving of having a dissertation done of their work and contributions.

JM:

Do you se similarities between those band directors and Dr. Julian?

AW:

First of all, they all came earlier than Jay with the exception of Garner. With the Tennessee band, which was a wonderful band, he did not have the national emphasis, but had a national reputation. Everybody talked about the Revelli band or the Harding band, and still they talk about the Ohio State band. For some reason the Tennessee band program did not get the total national recognition it deserved outside of the marching band.

JM:

That is a very good point. Dr. Julian spent the great majority of his teaching career in the State of Tennessee. Some forty or more years were spent teaching in his home state.

AW:

Do not forget, that all of the people you mentioned were making their reputations before television. When television came along, then marching bands started gaining national exposure. Jay’s marching band received as much or more than most of the college programs. When you get to the total program, then it concerns concert and marching. I heard about Revelli’s bands when I was in high school.

JM:

That is a very good observation concerning television exposure. Dr. Julian’s band received national exposure through television and was one of the first programs to garner a national reputation due to television.

AW:

Yes, I would agree with that assessment. His drills were visually unique with the different uses of the circle formations.

JM:

The set of questions were designed to get your observations about the direction of the college band movement in general. In your estimation how has the role of the director of bands position changed over the past decades as compared to when you or Dr. Revelli or Dr. Julian were teaching?

AW:

The title, “director of bands”, is a title like, “director of athletics” at the college. You can be a full professor, but you cannot be the director of bands. You are appointed as director of bands. In high school it is always director of bands. In college that is a designation and assignment of duties and responsibilities that eclipses that of full professor. Jay was always the director of bands.

GW:

I believe I understand where you are heading with this question. The director of bands was the main authority. At one time the director of bands was very

197 closely connected to the marching band, and today he hires somebody to do the marching band as a secondary position. AW:

Yes. The director of bands position is an umbrella position that oversees the entire program. Some of the older generation was directly involved in all facets of their program, but that is not necessarily the case anymore.

JM:

What were some of the similarities between your program at Purdue and the Tennessee program?

AW:

First of all, at Purdue the members came from the whole university since we did not have a school of music. Our students stayed in the program longer and we enjoyed a high rate of retention. Jay’s band s traveled a great deal as did the Purdue band. Our way of dealing with the band was very similar. In others words, what we said was law.

JM:

I really like your comment about retention rates. The Tennessee band under Dr. Julian contained many three or more year members that translated into a more efficient learning and performing band.

AW:

Today’s programs generally do not have high retention due to many reasons. I think and believe that my members and Jay’s members wanted to belong to the group. Many would not join a fraternity or sorority because of the interaction and fulfillment they received from membership in the band.

JM:

Would this be a fair estimation that you created a “brand” with the Purdue band?

AW:

Yes. That is another thing also. You have to have a style where those who see the band know immediately it is the Purdue band, the Michigan band, the Tennessee band, or the Ohio State band. That is one of the intangibles that Jay had at Tennessee in terms of a style and brand. There are not many programs that can claim this.

JM:

The last question is more open-ended. What do you believe is the role of the university band? Is this role changing?

AW:

I do not think it is changing. I think it is different between schools. The band at Indiana University is a part of a very fine music department, and if they play a wrong tune out on the field, then they hear about it. So there the band is part of the music school, and if the band, and I am surmising this, gets too popular, some of the people watching become very critical. Jay had a situation where the band was it, and whatever he did was right. The same can be said of Purdue, Michigan, Ohio State programs. It was the school out there marching not just the band.

JM:

I would like to get your impression on a question I asked of Paula Crider concerning Dr. Julian. I asked Ms. Crider what impact did Dr. Julian have on

198 his colleagues in the profession? To paraphrase her answer, she said that Jay helped us to understand we were not just band directors. There were aspects in life to enjoy and did not have to be absorbed with band directing. Is that a fair statement? AW:

Gladys and I were always guests at his home. Everything Jay did was perfect. He dressed right, his house was beautifully decorated, and he and his wife got along well. I am sure that some of the younger generation would think, “Here was a guy I would like to be when I grow up!”

JM:

Dr. Wright, I would thank you and your wife for allowing me to come to your home for this interview. It has been a pleasure to interview two of the great pioneers of the band movement.

AW:

Thank you John. It has been a wonderful time.

199 Interview with Walter McDaniel - Friday, July 29, 2011 JM:

I am here at the home of Walter McDaniel to conduct an interview for my dissertation concerning the life and career of Dr. WJ Julian. Thank you Mr. McDaniel for participating in this interview.

JM:

To begin with, how long have you known or have been associated with Dr. Julian?

WMD: I have known Dr. Julian since 1954. I was a student at Tennessee Tech. JM:

You were his student and graduated from Tennessee Tech and later in your career you were hired as the assistant band director at the University of Tennessee. Is this correct?

WMD: Yes, that is correct. I served in that position from 1968 to 1988. Twenty years. JM:

During that time you were the only assistant for the majority of those years.

WMD: Yes, that is correct. JM:

You tenure covered the great majority of Dr. Julian's career at Tennessee. Really, you witnessed a great number of events during those formative years of the band program under Dr. Julian. In what capacities have you worked with Dr. Julian?

WMD: I was the assistant director from 1968 to 1988. We planned all the marching shows, and met with other people along those lines such as drill designers. JM:

Prior to you joining the faculty at Tennessee, you were a high school band director.

WMD: I was a high school band director for ten years. I was at Lebanon High School for four years and at Lenoir City for six years. JM:

Lebanon is located in middle Tennessee and Lenoir City is in east Tennessee. Both schools have great traditions in marching and concert bands. What characteristics of Dr. WJ Julian made him an effective director of bands, in your estimation?

WMD: His planning, his organization, he required punctuality from his students, and he required a standard of excellence that was pretty special. He also had a good sense of humor. JM:

I know that I can attest to the punctuality. [laughter]

WMD: I am sure that you had dreams about that. [laughter]

200

JM:

His discipline and his demand of excellence are recurrent themes throughout many of the interviews I have conducted. I would assume that these characteristics would apply not only to the marching band, but to his concert groups and classes..

WMD: Yes, I would agree with that. JM:

In a interview with Dr. Gary Sousa, he talked about how Dr. Julian created a "brand" with the Tennessee band. He created something not seen in this region and gave Tennessee a certain brand that became nationally known. Would you agree with this observation?

WMD: I certain would. JM:

In your estimation, what influence do you think he had on the college and university band movement?

WMD: His innovations with the marching band would be influential. One example would be the circle drill since nobody else was doing it when we began to develop those drills. Excellence with concert performances at the Tennessee Music Educators Association, the College Band Directors National Association, and the American Bandmasters Association conventions provided a platform to showcase the Tennessee concert bands on a national level. JM:

People forget that not only was the marching band featured nationally on television, but also his concert groups were playing at national and state band/music conventions. This moves us to the next question of what aspects of his career had an impact on bands nationally?

WMD: His leadership in the National Band Association, the College Band Directors National Association, and the American Bandmasters Association had an impact since he served as president of all three at some point. I think that due to the great amount of television coverage the "Pride of the Southland" had, people knew that there was something special going on at Tennessee. JM:

Can you indentify similarities between the career of Dr. Julian and other prominent university band directors who have been subjects of historical research? I gave some examples of college band directors who have had dissertations written about them: Mr. Harding, Mark Hindsley, Dr. Revelli, Mr. Paynter, Leonard Falcone, Harry Begian, and Gary Garner.

WMD: I think all could motivate students effectively. They all had enviable concert bands and all had high leadership abilities.

201 JM:

In your estimation as a former assistant director at the University of Tennessee, how did Dr. Julian's tenure specifically affect the direction of the Tennessee band program?

WMD: There are many traditions that the band continues to perform such as the opening of the "T" for the football team entrance, the "Power T" formation, the school songs which were incorporated in the pregame show, the playing of the visiting team's fight song in pregame, and all these things were initiated by Dr. Julian. He also worked hard to build the scholarship program for the band students. After his retirement there was one student, Lee Martin, who established the WJ Julian scholarship program in which he would match all monies that were donated by students and everyone around. A group of alumni band members gave money and Dr. Julian gave $250,000 towards that program. Lee Martin matched all of it. I think that Dr. Julian worked hard all of his career to get that scholarship program going, and it has really paid off. JM:

The scholarship program started when most band programs had no monies to offer students.

WMD: Yes, that is correct. JM:

A follow up question concerned if his contributions were still visible today?

WMD: Yes, there are visible today. The pregame show has hardly been changed and all of those other things that he established are still intact. JM:

I asked Dr. Sousa, the current director of bands at Tennessee, if he had ever considered changing anything. He replied with a flat "no." (laughter)

JM:

What significance did Dr. Julian, as a teacher and as your teacher at Tennessee Tech, have on music education in the State of Tennessee, in general?

WMD: Well, he set high standards for the future band directors under his tutelage and consequently those band directors have excelled in public and private schools in the State of Tennessee. I know for a fact that he was very instrumental, even at Tennessee Tech when he was there, in developing many fine band directors. JM:

My band director at Dickson County High School, Mr. Robert Johnson, was one of Dr. Julian's students at Tennessee Tech.

WMD: Yes, I was in school with Robert. JM:

Mr. Johnson was a great mentor and very demanding. He helped to prepare me for school at Tennessee.

202 JM:

Who were some of the other students at Tennessee Tech during your years? I know that there were so many that went on to build very successful programs.

WMD: There were two brothers, Billy and Kenny Hull; they both were very successful band directors. There was Norman Woodall and Harold Wilmoth of Chattanooga who taught down there all of their careers. JM:

Was Wayne Pegram a student during that time?

WMD: Yes, I was in school with Wayne. He was very successful at Murfreesboro and made it possible for him to go back to Tennessee Tech as the director of bands. JM:

One last person that I wanted to find out more information was Barry McDonald.

WMD: Barry was a very fine musician and arranger. He came to Tech was the arranger and also followed Dr. Julian to Tennessee as the arranger. JM:

He established what many have called the "Tennessee sound" that was a unique style of arranging for the marching band. Many have commented that they could identify the UT band through the sound and the arrangement of the music.

WMD: Yes, that is right. He did a lot of his arrangements one step higher which gave them a brighter sound. He also wrote chordal changes that really made the music pop. Those were not easy arrangements to play. The band had to grow into the music and the style of playing that Barry wanted. Also, there were two other outstanding band directors, Tony D'Andrea and Stanley Barnes. JM:

All of those band directors had long careers and affected music education in the State of Tennessee in many ways.

JM:

I wanted to ask you recall some composers that visited the University of Tennessee during your time? I know that Norman Dello Joio and Karel Husa came to UT, but can you recall any others?

WMD: Clifton Williams was another. JM:

I believe that Mr. Williams conducted the UT concert band at the American Bandmasters Association Convention one year before his death.

WMD: Yes, that is correct. I know that Vaclav Nelhybel was also brought in. JM:

Who were some of the soloists that appeared with the UT marching band? I believe Dr. Julian brought many performers over the years.

WMD: Yes, there were. Boots Randolph played with us several times. We had the band director from Southern University, Dr. Isaac Greggs, play some jazz charts with

203 us. We had Roy Acuff and Charlie Daniels. During one of Charlie Daniel's visits there was a high rain and they thought someone might get electrocuted. [laughter] JM:

There seems to have been very special experiences for both the concert and marching students.

WMD: Yes, for all of us really. It was a short and long twenty years, and I enjoyed it immensely. It was a lot of fun. JM:

I had the pleasure of playing in your campus band for several years while a student at Tennessee.

JM:

Mr. McDaniel, could you speak to Dr. Julian's contribution to the Tennessee Bandmasters Association.

WMD: He was the founder of the TBA, the Tennessee Bandmasters Association. Back in mid-70s when we were talking about forming the TBA, Dr. Julian cited that the Texas Bandmasters were the important sponsors of all the things that go on in Texas like the All State band, orchestra, and chorus, and so forth. He wanted the TBA to do the same thing in Tennessee, or try to do it. At that time the TEA, or the Tennessee Educators Association, sponsored the All State events at their annual TEA convention. He wanted to see it become more musical and have a convention for just music educators. That is how the Tennessee Bandmasters got started. It did become an important association for the state. These days the TMEA, or Tennessee Music Educators Association sponsors the All State events in Tennessee. The TBA does sponsor the state contests for bands and orchestras, and plays an important role. JM:

The state contest is relatively new for Tennessee.

WMD: Yes, it is new. It generally held in Nashville. JM:

Mr. McDaniel, I want to thank you for your comments and time today. I appreciate your willingness to participate in this research project.

WMD: Thank you John.

204 Sunday, July 25, 2010 8:10 PM Dear John: Please find below my responses to your questions. If you have any follow-up questions, just send me an e-mail, and I shall try to respond as quickly as my travel schedule will allow. I am so pleased that you have chosen to honor Dr. Julian through your dissertation. He is indeed a most special man. Best wishes for success, Paula Paula A. Crider, Professor Emeritus The University of Texas President, The American Bandmasters Assn. (512) 264-1002 P.S. Release form will be in the mail to you tomorrow. 1) How long have you known, or been associated with WJ Julian? My first introduction to J Julian was via a televised halftime of the University of Tennessee Band. (This was back in the days when collegiate halftime shows were not preempted by commercials.)The band performed a circle drill. To my knowledge, UT was the first University band to perform such a drill. Seeing this performance served as a real eye-opener for me. At the time, most of us were still using the "step-2" drill format. Dr. Julian's drill design was truly "cutting edge," and it opened worlds of possibilities for a young generation of would-be drill designers. 2) In what capacities have you worked with WJ Julian? I first met Dr. Julian when we were conducting honor bands on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. He was conducting the top band, and I the bottom band. Several years later, Dr. Julian was the host for a National Band Association Convention when my Crockett High School Band was invited to perform. I continued my association with Dr. Julian during my tenure as President of the National Band Association (he is a Past President of that organization), and I have enjoyed adjudicating at the Smoky Mt. Music Festival for many years. One of my most proud moments in over 40 years of knowing Dr. Julian was when I learned that he would serve as one of my sponsors for membership in the American Bandmasters Association. 3) What characteristics that you have observed of WJ Julian made him an effective director of bands? He was (is) a visionary with high standards. He expects his students to strive for excellence, and leads by example. He is also a consummate politician, a very necessary attribute for a successful director of bands. He always saw to it that his band program was well funded, and that his students were treated

205 in a first class manner by athletics and by university officials. Dr. Julian does not suffer fools gladly and many of the stories have become legend in the band world. My favorite is the story about the UT band marching to the stadium for the first game of the season, and a new and very self-important (but not too bright) gate keeper refused to allow the band to march into the stadium because he did not have the UT Band on his approved list. Dr. Julian's now famous command: "Come on band, he's only got six bullets!" 4) In your estimation, what influence did WJ Julian have on the college and university band movement? He brought the UT Band into national focus and acclaim. The standards and creativity he displayed with his marching band served as an example for bands throughout the country. I should also mention that his exquisite tastes in music, in art, in the culinary arts, in International travel, etc. prompted many members of the "next generation" of Directors of Bands to aspire to emulate Dr. Julian. He also served as President of both the National Band Association and the prestigious American Bandmasters Association. His leadership in both of these organizations had a significant and very positive impact upon both the public school and university band worlds. 5) What aspects of his career do you believe had an impact on bands nationally? First and foremost, his creativity on the marching field had a far-reaching impact on bands nationally. Secondly, the fine music education his students received allowed for several generations of fine young music educators to make their mark in the world of music. Dr. Julian's influence still continues through his students. {Note: I can only comment on the UT marching band, for I never had the opportunity to enjoy his concert band performances.} 6) Can you identify similarities between the career of WJ Julian and other prominent college and university band directors who have been the subjects of historical research (i.e. A.A. Harding, Mark Hindsley, William Revelli, John Paynter, Leonard Falcone, Harry Begian, Gary Garner)? They all had extremely high standards; gave much and expected much from their students; demanded much of themselves...and left a legacy of excellence for all who were fortunate to be in their bands.

206 APPENDIX C “PRIDE OF THE SOUTHLAND” MARCHING BAND SHOWS, 1961-1993 The document in Appendix C was created using existing show scripts and drill charts located in the University of Tennessee band archive. The document reflects only the years and performances that existing documents authenticated. There was no information for the 1962 and 1964 seasons. Permission to use the contents of University of Tennessee band archive was given by Dr. Gary Sousa, director of bands, at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Year

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

Members (Charted)

Drum Major

Majorettes

Circle Drills

Drill Design/ Show Theme

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

1961

10/7 Miss State (HC)

N/A

Cadence, Cherokee, Boogie Woogie, Mood Indigo, Tuxedo Junction, Tin Roof Blues, Tin Cup of Happiness, Auld Lang Syne, Spirit of the Hill, Alma Mater

128

Ed Leamon

Claudette Riley (Head Majorette)

0

Pregame: No Information Halftime: Pageantry ShowLine Drill, Juke Box, Piano, Trombone, Trumpet, Mug, Interlocking UT

Barry McDonald Assistant Director and Arranger Guy Lombardo, guest conductor

10/14 Tulsa

Cadence, Fanfare, Invercargill March, National Anthem, Something About a Soldier

Cadence, March Along Together, Cherokee, I Got Rhythm, Night Train, Autumn Leaves, Spirit of the Hill, Alma Mater

0

Pregame: Entry from North end zone, Fanfare, Block March to Invercargill, National Anthem, Forms ROTC, plays Something about a Soldier. Halftime: Pageantry ShowLine Drill, 100,Concert Set, Music Lyre, Interlocking UT

10/21 Alabama

N/A

Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, Hey, Look Me Over, Cherokee, America the Beautiful, Night Train, Autumn Leaves, Spirit of the Hill, Alma Mater

0

Pregame: N/A Halftime: PageantryRecognition of the new uniforms, Line Drill, 100, Concert set, Music Lyre, Interlocking UT

10/28 UTC

N/A

Cadence, Fanfare, Till There Was You, 76 Trombones, Music Maestro Please, Skaters Waltz, Prince Igor music, Promenade from Pictures at an Exhibition, Rhapsody in Blue, Spirit of the Hill, Alma Mater

0

Pregame: N/A Halftime: Salute to new James White Memorial Auditorium in KnoxvillePageantry - Line drill, Skating Rink, King's Crown, Piano, Interlocking UT

207 Year

1963

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

Members (Charted)

11/4 Vanderbilt Freshman

Cadence, March Along Together, National Anthem, Down the Field

12/2 Vanderbilt

Cadence, March Along Together, National Anthem, Down the Field, Dynamite, CanCan

Cadence, Till There Was You, 76 Trombones, Stars and Stripes Forever, Let It Snow, Baby It's Cold Outside, Aloha, Hawaiian War Chant, Spirit of the Hill, Alma Mater Cadence, Fanfare, Deck the Halls, Good Christian Men Rejoice, 12 Days of Christmas, I Heard the Bells on Christmas Day, White Christmas, Santa Claus is Coming to Town, Joy to the World, Spirit of the Hill, Alma Mater

9/28 Auburn

Cadence, Spirit of Hill Fanfare, National Anthem, Army of the Nile, Fight Vols Fight

Cadence, Stout Hearted Men, Down the Field Waltz, Down the Field Twist, Down the Field Polka, Down the Field Chinese, Down the Field Latin, Down the Field Symphonic, Spirit of the Hill, Alma Mater

10/5 Miss State

Cadence, Spirit of the Hill Fanfare, National Anthem, Army of the Nile, Fight Vols Fight

Cadence, Carmen, Down the Field Variations (like in Auburn Show), 1812 Overture, Spirit of the Hill, Alma Mater (Spirit of the Hill and UT Alma Mater will now be referred to as "UT Sequence")

0

10/12 GA Tech (HC)

Cadence, Spirit of the Hill Fanfare, National Anthem, Army of the Nile, Processional March, Sweet and Lovely, Fight Vols Fight

Cadence, Carmen, Night Train, When You Wish Upon A Star, Rambling Wreck of GA Tech, TN Waltz March, TN Waltz, UT Sequence

0

168

Drum Major

Townley Johnson

Majorettes

DeAnna Smith (Head Majorette), Judy Barton and Brenda Flowers (Featured Twirlers), Marcia Austin, Bette Carlson, Valerie Foster, Melinda Hewgley, Betty Sue Little, Brenda Murrell, Mary Nicholson, Patti Sue Stuart

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

0

Pregame: Lines to Block, Float Block, Form T and float T off field

0

Pregame: Lines unfold to Block, Block floats, Form T, Reverse T to face backfield, Form V for Vanderbilt, Form Music Lyre for Symphony promo Halftime: Christmas Show and uses 12 of Christmas as segue between tunes-PageantryLine Drill, Bells, Snow Man, Stocking, YULE, Interlocking UT Pregame: Chevron ranks, Form Block, Interlocking UT floats Halftime: Pageantry-Down the Field Variations ShowLine Drill, Pinwheels, 3/4,Juke Box, Stein, Coolie, Maracas, Concert Set, Interlocking UT

0

Pregame: Lines to Block, Float Block, Form Interlocking UT and float UT off field - HS Bands play Anthem with Pride Halftime: Pageantry-Down the Field Variations ShowLine Drill, Pinwheels, 3/4, Juke Box, Stein, Coolie, Maracas, Concert Set, Reverse Concert Set to Student side for HS Band Students Interlocking UT Pregame: Lines to Block, Float Block, Plays for HC Court in Block formation, Form Interlocking UT and float UT off field-Ben Sisk, Director of GA Tech directs Anthem Halftime: Diamonds, Pinwheels, Star, Concert set, Interlocking UT

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

208 Year

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

11/16 Ole Miss and 11/30 Vanderbilt

N/A

1965

10/9 South Carolina (HC)

Cadence, Fanfare, TN Waltz March, National Anthem, Fight Vols Fight, Down the Field

Cadence, Down the Field Fanfare, Down the Field, Hey Good Looking, March Grandioso, When You Wish Upon A Star, Coat of Arms March, March of the Steelmen, Take These Chains from My Heart, UT Sequence Cadence, Down the Field, Brave Bulls, Peanut Vendor, Artistry in Rhythm, Temptation, Auld Lang Syne, Old Folks at Home, Old Rocking Chair's Got Me, UT Sequence

1966

10/1 Rice

Cadence, Fanfare, TN Waltz March, National Anthem, Fight Vols Fight, Down the Field

10/8 GA Tech

same

10/22 South Carolina

same

10/29 Army

Same with exception of playing West Point Alma Mater before Anthem

Cadence, Down the field Fanfare, Down the Field, Tijuana Taxi, Thunder and Blazes March, Parade of the Wooden Soldiers, Knoxville All American City, Mr. Touchdown, I'm in Love with a Wonderful Guy, What a Wonderful Day Like Today, I've Got Rhythm, UT Sequence Cadence, Down the field Fanfare, Down the Field, Tijuana Taxi, Thunder and Blazes March, Parade of the Wooden Soldiers, What a Wonderful Day Like Today, I've Got Rhythm, UT Sequence No Halftime Show / Presentation of Marching Band Contest Winners Cadence, Down the Field Fanfare, Down the Field, Old Man River, Winter Wonderland, Tumbling Tumbleweed, Chattanooga Choo Choo, Take that Night Train to Memphis, That Lazy River, Down Yonder, TN Waltz, UT Sequence

Members (Charted)

Drum Major

175

Russell Ramsey

190

Russell Ramsey

Steve Singleton

Majorettes

Judy Barton (Head Majorette), Brenda Flowers (Featured Twirler), Pam Bailey, Mary Bettis, Diane Fleming, Valerie Foster, Martha Harrison, Rebecca Nanney, Kathryn Price, Betty Lou Simpson, Elaine White Brenda Flowers (Head Majorette), Kitty Booth, Carlene Ballard, Diana Fleming, Martha Harrison, Becky Nanney, Connie Phillips, Kathy Price, Sheri Tipton, Elaine White

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

0

Pregame: N/A Halftime: Line Drill, Star (majorette Feature), Concert Set, Interlocking UT

0

Pregame: Lines to Squad lines, Form Block, Form Giant T Team Entrance through T from East Halftime: Line Drill, Majorette Feature, Concert Set, GRADS, Rocking Chair, Interlocking UT

9/18/65 Introduction of giant "T" formation for team entrance

1

Pregame: Lines to Squad lines, Form Block, Form Giant T Team Entrance through T from East Halftime: Line Drill, KNOX, DOUG (Salute to Coach Dickey as Coach of the Year), ANDY (Saluting Dr. Andy Holt), Circle Drill, Concert Set, Interlocking UT

1st Circle Drill

1

Pregame: Lines to Squad lines, Form Block, Form Giant T Team Entrance through T from East Halftime: Line Drill, Circle Drill, Concert Set, Interlocking UT

0

Pregame: Same

0

Pregame: Lines to Squad lines, Form Block, Form Giant T Team Entrance through T from East Halftime: Pageantry-Salute to TN - Line Drill, TVA, Skier, Crutches, Train, Steam Boat, Fiddle, State of TN, Interlocking UT

209 Year

1967

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

Members (Charted)

11/5 UTC

same

same as 10/22/66

0

11/12 Ole Miss

same

Cadence, Down the Field Fanfare, Down the Field, Beautiful Ohio, The Varsity Drag, So It Was Mary, My Blue Heaven, Sometimes I'm Happy and Sometimes I'm Blue, Perry Mason Theme, Auld Lang Syne, When I Grow too Old to Dream, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Lines to Squad lines, Form Block, Form Giant T Team Entrance through T from East Halftime: Pageantry-Salute to retiring Dean Dunford-Line Drill, RALPH, Car, Baby Carriage, Smiley Face to Frown, Scales of Justice, Concert Set, Interlocking UT

11/26 Vanderbilt

same

Cadence, Down the Field Fanfare, Down the Field, Wipe Out, Chorale from St. Anthony, On a Clear Day You Can See Forever, 1812 Overture, UT Sequence

0

9/30 Auburn

same

Cadence, Down the Field Fanfare, Down the Field, Magnificent Men in Flying Machines, National Emblem March, Girl Watchers Theme, Mr. Touchdown, Fight Vols Fight, UT Sequence

Pregame: Lines to Squad lines, Form Block, Form Giant T Team Entrance through T from East Halftime: Precision Drill, Concert Set, Majorette feature, Interlocking UT Pregame: Lines unfold to Form Block, Form Giant T Team Entrance through T from East Halftime: Precision Drill, Concert Set, Majorette Feature, Kicker kicking football through goal posts, Interlocking UT

10/14 GA Tech

same

Cadence, Down the Field Fanfare, Down the Field, Magnificent Men in Flying Machines, Cyrus the Great, Cabaret, The Impossible Dream, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Lines unfold to form Block, Form Giant T Team Entrance through T from East Halftime: Precision Drill, Circle Drill, Concert Set. Interlocking UT

10/21 Alabama 11/4 Tampa

same

same as 10/14/67

1

same as 10/14/67

same

Cadence, Down the Field Fanfare, Down the Field, This is My Country, Yankee Doodle Dixie, You're A Grand Old Flag, Stars and Stripes Forever, America the Beautiful, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Lines unfold to form Block, Form Giant T Team Entrance through T from East Halftime: Patriotic Show- Line Drill, Pageantry, Eagle, 2 Canons, US Flag, USA, US Shield, Interlocking UT

11/11 Tulane

same

Cadence, Down the Field Fanfare, Down the Field, It was a Very Good Year, When You Wish Upon A Star, Old Rocking Chair's Got Me, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Lines unfold to form Block, Form Giant T Team Entrance through T from East Halftime: Alumni Show-Pageantry, Star, 2 Rocking Chairs, Interlocking UT

219

Drum Major

Steve Singleton

Majorettes

Connie Phillips (Head Majorette), Annabel Agee, Pam Bailey, Mary Luallen, Becky Nanney, Rosemary Payne, Kathy Price, Mary Carolyn Roper, Elizabeth Sims, Elaine White

Circle Drills

0

Drill Design/Show Theme

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

210 Year

1968

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

12/2 Vanderbilt

same

1/1/68 Oklahoma Orange Bowl

Members (Charted)

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, When You Wish Upon A Star, Michael row Your Boat, Swing March, Stout Hearted Men, UT Sequence

0

none

Down the Field, Magnificent Men in Flying Machines, Trumpet Tune, Cabaret, Battle Hymn of the Republic

1

Pregame: Lines unfold to form Block, Form Giant T Team Entrance through T from East Halftime: Pageantry, Line Drill, Star, Concert Set, Interlocking UT Pregame: none Halftime: Line Drill, Circle Drill, Concert Set

9/14 Georgia

same

Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, I'm a Big Brass Band, Take Me Along, Second Time Around, Let a Winner Lead the Way, Just Me and My Shadow, Alabama Jubilee, Alabama Bound, Happiness Is, This is My Country, UT Sequence

9/28 Memphis State

same with addition of Army of the Nile

10/12 GA Tech

10/19 Alabama

225

Drum Major

Jerry Field

Majorettes

Connie Phillips (Head Majorette), Pam Bailey, Janet Eileen Guthrie, Gail Love, Mary Luallen, Becky Nanney, Kathy Pattison, Rosemary Payne, Mary Carolyn Roper, Kathy Shields

0

Pregame: Lines unfold to form Block, Form Giant T Team Entrance through T from East Halftime: Election Show-PageantryGOP, Cowboy Hat, Confederate Flag, Snoopy Doghouse, US Capitol/VOTE, Interlocking UT Alma Mater dedicated in memory of Major Walter Ryba

Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, Valencia, Gentle On My Mind, Washington Greys March, Find A Wheel, Love Makes the World Go Round, Finale to Sym. #5, UT Sequence

1

same with addition of Army of the Nile

Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, I'm A Big Brass Band, L David Sloan, This Could Be The Start of Something Big, Find A Wheel, Love Makes the World Go Round, Climb Every Mountain, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Lines unfold to form Block, Form Inverted UF for United Fund, Form Giant T Team Entrance through T from East Halftime: Precision Drill, Line Drill, Circle Drill, Concert Set, Interlocking UT Pregame: Lines unfold to form Block, Form Inverted UF for United Fund, Form Giant T Team Entrance through T from East Halftime: Precision Drill, Line Drill, Circle Drill, Concert Set, Interlocking UT

same with addition of Army of the Nile

Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, Valencia, Gentle On My Mind, Washington Greys March, Find A Wheel, Love Makes the World Go Round, Finale to Sym. #5, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Lines unfold to form Block, Form Inverted UF for United Fund, Form Giant T Team Entrance through T from East, Col. Carlton Butler (Alabama Band Director) directs Anthem Halftime: Precision Drill, Line Drill, Circle Drill, Concert Set, Interlocking UT

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

Walter McDaniel, Assistant Director of Bands Barry McDonald, arranger

211 Year

1969

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

11/2 UCLA

same (no addition)

11/9 Auburn

11/30 Vanderbilt

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, There's Nothing Like A Dame, Orange Colored Sky, Another Opening/Another Show, No Business Like Show Business, Profiles in Courage, Auld Lang Syne, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Lines unfold to form Block, Form Giant T Team Entrance through T from East Halftime: Pageantry Male/Female Symbols, WOW, State of TN with VOLS, Stage, Torch, Champagne Glass, Interlocking UT

same

Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, Valencia, Washing Greys March, Gentle On My Mind, Do Re Mi, Climb Every Mountain, UT Sequence

0

same

Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, Valencia, Hands Across the Sea, How the West Was Won, Carioca, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Lines unfold to form Block, Form Giant T Team Entrance through T from East Halftime: Line Drill, Pageantry, Music Notes, Concert Set, Majorette Feature, Interlocking UT Pregame: Lines unfold to form Block, Form Giant T Team Entrance through T from East Halftime: Line Drill, Circle Drill, Concert Set, Interlocking UT

9/20 UTC

Members (Charted)

250

Drum Major

Jerry Field

Majorettes

Connie Phillips (Head Majorette), Karen Crumm, Susan Douglass, Janet Guthrie, Debby Holliday, Gail Love, Mary Luallen, Rosemary Payne

9/27 Auburn

Same with addition of Wide World of Sports Theme

Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, Rifle Regiment, Those were the Days, Anniversary Waltz, Happy Birthday, Tennessee Waltz, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same entrance, Formation of Football with "100" inside Halftime: 175th Anniversary of UT Show, Line Drill, Times Square Electric Sign with "UT" then "175", Forms "State of TN", Interlocking UT

10/4 Memphis State

Same with no addition

1

Pregame: Same with no additions Halftime: Line Drill, Circle Drill, Concert Set, Interlocking UT

10/11 Georgia Tech

Same

Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, Rifle Regiment, Say It with Music, Watch What Happens, Battle Hymn of the Republic, UT Sequence Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, Wagner Selections, Say It With Music, Watch What Happens, Battle Hymn of the Republic, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: Line Drill, Circle Drill, Concert Set, Interlocking UT

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

212 Year

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

11/1 Georgia

Away Trip

11/8 South Carolina (HC)

Same

11/29 Vanderbilt

Same

12/27 Florida Gator Bowl

1970

Members (Charted)

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, El Capitan, Step to the Rear, It's A Big, Wide, Wonderful World, America the Beautiful, UT Sequence Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, Inauguration March, An Apple for the Teacher, Profiles in Courage, 76 Trombones, Lassus Trombone, People, UT Sequence Same Show as 11/1/69

1

Halftime: Line Drill, Circle Drill, Concert Set, Interlocking UT

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: Show for Dr. Andy Holt, Line Drill, "ANDY", "TEA", "NEA", Trombone, Concert Set, Interlocking UT

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: Same Show as 11/1/69

Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, National Emblem March, Columbia, Gem of the Ocean, This is My Country, Stars and Stripes Forever, UT Sequence Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, Girl Talk, Mr. Touchdown USA, All the Things are You, Our Director, Bridge Over Troubled Water, UT Sequence

1

Halftime: Line Drill, Circle Drill, Eagle with Shield (1st Time Used)

0

Pregame: Same with the addition of spelling out "Mr. Burke" in honor of Jim Burke Day Halftime: Majorette Feature, "Battle" for new head Coach Bill Battle, "Boling" for new UT President Edward Boling, Line Drill, Concert Set, Interlocking UT

250

Drum Major

Jerry Field

Majorettes

9/17 SMU

Same with addition of Tennessee Waltz

Rosemary Payne (Head Majorette), Karen Crumm, Susan Douglass, Debby Holliday, Gail Love, Kathy McCarrell, Donna McKibbin, Suzanne Minchey, Gail Noe, Karen Oakes (Feature Twirler)

10/3 Army

Same with addition of West Point March and Army Blue

Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, Applause, King Cotton, Clear Day, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same with addition of spelling out "ARMY" Halftime: Line Drill, Kaleidoscope Drill, Circle Drill, Interlocking UT

10/10 Georgia Tech

Away Trip

Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, Everything is Beautiful, Band of America, What a Wonderful Day Like Today, Before the Parade Passes By, UT Sequence

1

Halftime: Line Drill, Circle Drill, Interlocking UT

10/17 Alabama

Same no addition

Same Show as 10/10

1

Pregame: Same with no additions Halftime: Same Show as 10/10

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

213 Year

1971

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

10/24 Florida

Same

10/31 Wake Forest (in Memphis) 11/21 Kentucky (HC)

Same

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, Hands Across the Sea, On A Clear Day You Can See Forever, Ode to Joy, UT Sequence Same Show as 10/24/70

1

Pregame: Same with Mr. Richard Bowles (UF) directing National Anthem Halftime: Line Drill, Circle Drill, Concert Set, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: Same Show as 10/24/70

Alumni Band: Down the Field, Yes Sir That's My Baby, Auld Lang Syne Pride: Same

Same Show as 12/27/69 with Liberty Bell March substituting for National Emblem

1

11/29 Vanderbilt 12/5 UCLA

Away Trip

1

1/1/71 Air Force Sugar Bowl

Away Trip

9/18 UCSB

Same with the addition of the "T" and "U" interlocking sequence.

Same Show as 11/21/70 Cadence, Down the Field, Theme from Hee Haw, Drummer Boy, We Wish You A Merry Christmas, Rudolph the Rednose Reindeer, Hallelujah Chorus, UT Sequence Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, Mountain Dew, Rifle Regiment, I Ain't Down Yet, Battle Hymn of the Republic Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, A Man and a Woman, Am I Blue, Singing the Blues, Too Young, Let It Be, Where Have All the Flowers Gone, UT Sequence

9/25 Auburn

Same as 9/18/71

10/9 Georgia Tech

Same

Same

Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, Mountain Dew, I Saw the Light, Take These Chains, Wildwood Flower, I'm Movin' On, I'll Walk the Line, UT Sequence Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, Thunder and Blazes, Love the One You're With, Promises, Promises, Look of Love, This Guy's in Love, Close to You, UT Sequence

Members (Charted)

Drum Major

Majorettes

1

0

250

Jerry Field

Kathy McCarrell (Head Majorette), Mary Brockmon, Rhoda Long, Gail Love, Donna McKibbin, Suzanne Minchey, Gail Noe, Leah Smith, Suzie Smith, Theresa Steiner

Alumni Band (1st Performance) Pregame: Down the Field, Yes Sir, That's My Baby, Auld Lang Syne Pregame: Same with My. Harry Clarke (UK Director) directing National Anthem Halftime: Same Show as 12/27/69 Halftime: Same Show as 11/21/70 Pregame: Same Halftime: Christmas Show, Line Drill, "YULE", Reindeer and Sleigh, Concert Set, Interlocking UT

1

Halftime: Diamond Drill, Line Drill, Circle Drill, Concert Set

1

Pregame: Introduction of the Floating UT sequence. Formation of Giant T for Team entrance Halftime: Line Drill, Formation of male and female symbols, dollar signs, scales, 1st Flower Drill, Interlocking UT

1

Pregame: Same with Dr. Bill Walls (Auburn) directing the National Anthem Halftime: Line Drill, Concert Set, Circle Drill, Interlocking UT

1

Pregame: Same with no guest Halftime: Diamond Drill, Line Drill, Concert Set, Circle Drill, Interlocking UT

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

Archie Campbell, soloist

214 Year

1972

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

10/16 Alabama 10/23 Miss State at Memphis

Away Trip

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Same Show as 9/25/71 Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, Rifle Regiment, Gershwin Medley, Manteca, UT Sequence Band Day

1

Halftime: Same Show as 9/25/71 Pregame: Same Halftime: Line Drill, Diamond Drill, Circle Drill, Concert Set, Interlocking UT

10/30 Tulsa

Same

11/20 Kentucky

Away Trip

Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, The Thunderer, William Tell, Love Story Same Show as 11/20/71

0

11/27 Vanderbilt

Same

12/4 Penn State

Same with addition of Mr. Touchdown USA before opening of "T"

Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, March On, Mighty Vols (written by Barry McDonald), Americans We, St. Louis Blues, Firebird Suite (dedicated to Stravinsky, died 6/71)

1

12/20 Arkansas Liberty Bowl

Same with addition of forming Eagle with Shield

1

9/9 Georgia Tech

Away Trip

Cadence, Fanfare, Down the Field, Rifle Regiment, Wildwood Flower, I'm Movin' On, I'll Walk the Line, Joy to the World, We Wish You A Merry Christmas Cadence, Vol Fanfare, Down the Field, Hands Across the Sea, Do Re Mi, Find A Wheel, Love Makes the World Go Round, Put Your Hand in the Hand, He's Got the Whole World, TN Waltz March

9/16 Penn State

Same with no additions

Same

Thus Spake Zarathustra, Promises, Promises, I've Grown Accustomed to His Face, Second Time Around, There'll BE Some Changes, Happy Day are Here Again, AM I Blue, Singing the Blues, Bridge Over Troubled Waters, Hail to the Chief, This is my Country, UT Sequence (includes TN Waltz March from this point forward)

Members (Charted)

Drum Major

Majorettes

1

0

250

Bill Connell

Kathy McCarrell (Head Majorette), Karen Crumm, Barbara Hammer, Karen Lee, Suzanne Minchey, Leah Smith, Lexie Smith, Suzie Smith, Theresa Steiner

Pregame: Same Halftime: Same Show as 10/23/71 Halftime: Diamond Drill, Line Drill, forms an apple, forms hat and mask, Concert Set Pregame: Same Halftime: Same as 11/20/71 with Interlocking UT Pregame: Same with addition of forming "M" for the Majors family. Dr. James Dunlop (Penn State and President of ABA) directing National Anthem Halftime: Line Drill, Circle Drill, Trumpet and 5 quarter notes, "ST. LOUIS", Concert Set Pregame: Same with addition of forming Eagle and Shield Halftime: Diamond Drill, Line Drill, Circle Drill, "YULE"

1

Pregame: Same with inversion of interlocking UT, To Block, to team entrance "T" Halftime: Line Drill, Circle Drill with Flower and Spirals, Concert Set

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: Election Day Show Expanse Drill with arcs, Elephant, Donkey, Dollar Signs, Peace Symbol, Capitol with "VOTE", Interlocking UT

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

215 Year

1973

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

9/23 Wake Forest

Same

9/30 Auburn

Members (Charted)

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Cadence, Vol Fanfare, Down the Field, March On Mighty Vols, Happy Hearts, America the Beautiful, Stars and Stripes Forever, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: Line Drill, Circle Drill, Arc Concert Set, Eagle with Shield, Interlocking UT

Away Trip

Same Show as 9/23

1

Halftime: Same Show as 9/23 with no Interlocking UT

10/21 Alabama

Same

Cadence, Vol Fanfare, Down the Field, March On Mighty Vols, Emblem of Unity, Autumn Leaves, Columbus Stockade Blues, Wabash Cannonball, ROCKY TOP (1st Time), UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: Line Drill, Chevron Concert Set, Double Circle Drill (1st Time), Interlocking UT

10/28 Hawaii

Same

Band Day

11/18 Ole Miss (HC)

Alumni Band: Those Were the Days, The Charleston, Whiffenpoof Song, Auld Lang Syne Pride: Same

Cadence, Vol Fanfare, Down the Field, March On Mighty Vols, Do Re Mi, Pictures at an Exhibition, Mona Lisa, Finlandia, TN Waltz, Auld Lang Syne, UT Sequence

0

11/25 Kentucky

Same with addition of When Irish Eyes are Smiling

Cadence, Vol Fanfare, Down the Field, March On Mighty Vols, King of the Road, Hey Good Looking, Take Me Home Country Roads, Help Me Make It Through the Night, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same with addition of "(heart)'BRIEN" saluting Mickey O'Brien Halftime: Line Drill, Circle Drill, Wind up Spiral, Arc Concert Set, Interlocking UT

12/30 LSU Bluebonnet Bowl

Away Trip

1

Halftime: Same as 10/21/71 with addition of Guest soloist, Boots Randolph with Band in Concert Set

Boots Randolph, soloist

9/15 Duke

Same

Same Show as 10/21/72 with addition of Country Bumpkin, Proud Mary, TN Waltz, When the Saints go Marching In, Yackety Sax, TN Waltz March Thus Spake Zarathustra, I Believe in Music, Art of Fugue, La Donna e Mobile, I'd Like to Teach the World to Sing, Foggy Mountain Breakdown

0

Pregame: Same as 1972 Pregame Halftime: From Bach to Bluegrass Show - Expanse arc entrance, Line Drill, Concert Set with guest soloist George Bitzas, Line Drill, Banjo with Guest soloists Wayne Goforth and students, Interlocking UT

Wayne Goforth and students, George Bitzas soloists

250

Drum Major

Bill Connell

Majorettes

Kathy McCarrell (Head Majorette), Pam Hambrick (Feature Twirler), Marsha Cole, Nancy Davis, Nancy Jones, Karen Lee, Rhoda Long, Melinda Ortolani, Theresa Steiner

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

Rocky Top - 1st played

Pregame: Same Halftime: Line Drill, Circle Drill with Flower and Spirals, Concert Set Alumni Band: Concert Set, Beer Mug, UT Pregame: Same Halftime: Line Drill, Half Notes, Painter's Palette, Concert Set, State of TN with UT, Champaign Glass, Interlocking UT

216 Year

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

9/29 Auburn

Same

10/6 Kansas at Memphis

Members (Charted)

Drum Major

Majorettes

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

Cadence, Down the Field, Army of the Nile, I Can See Clearly Now, Delta Dawn, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same with GEORGE BITZAS singing the National Anthem Halftime: Line Drill, Circle Drill, Concert Set, Interlocking UT

George Bitzas – Ist time to sing National Anthem

Same

Same Show as 9/29/73

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: Same Show as 9/29/73

10/13 Georgia Tech

Same

Thus Spake Zarathustra, Sing, When You Wish Upon a Star, Wonderful Day, Summer of '42, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same with Dr. Ben Sisk (GA Tech) directing the National Anthem Halftime: Same Drill 9/15/73 Show with addition of new Concert Set and Interlocking UT

10/27 TCU

Same

Fanfare, Down the Field, Strike Up the Band, Tea for Two, Heat Wave, Ciribiribin, 76 Trombones, Lassus Trombone, Ode to Joy, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same with Charlie Pride singing National Anthem Halftime: Section Feature Show Line Drill, Concert Set with Tubas dancing, Reform to feature Percussion, Form Circles to feature Trumpets, Trombone to feature Trombones, Concert Set, Interlocking UT

11/3 Georgia (HC)

Same

Fanfare, Down the Field, Thanks for the Memories, Charleston, Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy, Old Rocking Chair, TN Waltz, UT Sequence

0

11/17 Ole Miss at Jackson

Away Trip

1

11/25 Exhibition at Bengals - Cardinal NFL Game

Fanfare, TN Waltz March, March On Mighty Vols, Bengal Growl, Stars and Stripes Forever, Fight Vols Fight, Down the Field, National Anthem

Thus Spake Zarathustra, Jambalaya, San Antonio Rose, Delta Dawn, I Ain't Down Yet, Put On A Happy Face, TN Waltz March Same Show as 11/17 with addition of Joy to the World

Pregame: Same with George Bitzas singing National Anthem Halftime: Line Drill, Car, Trumpets, Rocking Chairs, State of TN with UT, Interlocking UT Halftime: Expanse arc entrance, Line Drill, Concert Set, Circle Drill, Spiral Drill

1

Pregame: Adjusted for NFL Game, Eagle with Shield Halftime: Same Show as 11/17/73

11/25 Kentucky

Away Trip

Same Show as 11/17/73

1

Halftime: Same Show as 11/17/73

12/1 Vanderbilt

Same

Same Show as 11/17/73 with UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: Same Show as 11/17/73 with Interlocking UT

Charlie Pride, soloist

217 Year

1974

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

12/29 Texas Tech Gator Bowl

Away Trip

9/7 UCLA

Same

Thus Spake Zarathustra, It's A Small World, Cabaret, On A Clear Day, Stars and Stripes, Country Bumpkin, Honky Tonk, Shadow of Your Smile, Charlie Brown, Yackety Sax, TN Waltz March Fanfare, Entry of the Volunteers, March Grandioso, Art of Fugue, Take the A Train, Mood Indigo, For All We Know, Superstar, The Entertainer, UT Sequence

9/21 Kansas

Same with addition of Wide World of Sports Theme

Vol Fanfare '74, El Capitan, Wooden Soldiers, Bridal Chorus, Funeral March, Go Galop, Barnum and Bailey's Favorite, Stars and Stripes Forever, UT Sequence

10/5 Tulsa

Same no additions Away Trip

Band Day

10/12 LSU

Members (Charted)

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

1

Halftime: Same Drill as 11/17/73 with addition of Eagle and Shield and Concert Set featuring Soloist

Boots Randolph, soloist

1

Pregame: Shortened Show (no Floating UT) with Guest Soloist "Tennessee" Ernie Ford singing the National Anthem Halftime: 2 Corner expanse entrance, Line Drill, Concert Set, Circle Drill, Ray Drill, Interlocking UT

Ken Landgren, Drill Designer Ernie Ford, soloist

0

Pregame: Addition of counter-march at south end zone, form interlocking UT, invert UT at north end zone, to block, to giant "T with addition of "NCAA", George Bitzas singing National Anthem Halftime: Line Drill, Square Drill/Precision Drill, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same

Same as 9/7/74 Show with addition of 2001 Space Odyssey, Delta Dawn, TN Waltz March Fanfare, Sempre Fidelis, Caravan, Killing Me Softly, Brian's Song, UT Sequence

1

Halftime: Same Drill as 9/7/74 Show

1

Pregame: Same no additions Halftime: Block Drill, Arc expansion drill, Circle Drill, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: Line Drill, Precision Drill with Donald Neuen and UT Concert Choir, Liberty Bell, Outline of US, Eagle, Concert Set and US Shield, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same with Dr. Tom Ferguson (Memphis State) directing National Anthem Halftime: 2 Corner expansion entrance, line Drill, Double Circle Drill, Double Spiral, Concert set with Fred Waring directing UT Concert Choir, Interlocking UT

250

Drum Major

Dale Horst

Majorettes

Kathy McCarrell (Head Majorette), Susan Huntington (Feature Twirler), Carolyn Bell, Marsha Cole, Nancy Davis, Pam Hambrick, Nancy Jones, Jan Stallings

10/19 Alabama

Same

10/26 Clemson

Same

Patriotic Fanfare, Patriotic Medley, Battle Hymn of the Republic, UT Sequence

0

11/9 Memphis State

Same

Fanfare, Entry of the Volunteers, Army of the Nile, Columbus Stockade Blues, Wabash Cannonball, Rocky Top, You'll Never Walk Alone, UT Sequence

1

Concert Choir, soloists

218 Year

1975

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

11/16 Ole Miss in Memphis

Same

11/23 Kentucky (HC)

Members (Charted)

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Same Show as 11/9/74 with addition of Help Me Make it through the Night

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: Same drill as 11/9/74

Same

Lady of Spain, Cole Porter Medley, Ode to Joy, UT Sequence

1

11/30 Vanderbilt

Away Trip

Same Show as 11/23/74 with addition of TN Waltz March

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: Line/Block Drill, Circle Drill, Concert Set, Interlocking UT Halftime: Same Show as 11/23/74

9/13 Maryland

Same

French National Defile, George Washington Bicentennial, Make Your Own, UT Sequence

9/27 Auburn

Same

10/11 LSU

250

Drum Major

Dale Horst

Majorettes

Susan Huntington (Head Majorette), Carolyn Bell, Marsha Cole, Nancy Davis, Pamela Doyle, Nancy Jones, Teresa Ray, Susan Saffelle, Jan Stallings, Cynthia Swan

1

Pregame: Same with addition of Interlocking UT inverts to float back down field Halftime: 2 Corner expanse entrance, Block Drill, Circle Drill, Interlocking UT

Wagner Excerpts, George Washington Bicentennial March, Make Your Own, Everything's Coming Up Roses, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: Block/Line Drill, Circle Drill, Flower Drill, Interlocking UT

Same with addition of Thanks to You It's Working

Patriotic Fanfare, Patriotic Medley, Battle Hymn of the Republic, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same with addition of stick figures saluting the United Way Halftime: Line Drill, Precision Drill with Donald Neuen and UT Concert Choir, Liberty Bell, 1776 (inverted), 1976 (inverted), Eagle, Concert Set with US Shield, Interlocking UT

10/18 Alabama

Away Trip

Same Show as 9/27/75 with no UT Sequence, TN Waltz March

1

Halftime: Same Drill as 9/27/75 show

10/25 North Texas State

Same with Massed High School Bands playing National Anthem

Band Day

11/1 Colorado State

Same with no additions

Malaguena, South Rampart Street, Orange Blossom Special, I Can't Stop Loving You, I'll Fly Away, St. Louis Blues, UT Sequence

Pregame: Same Halftime: Line Drill, Circle Drill with Flower and Spirals, Concert Set 1

Pregame: Same Halftime: Precision entrance, Circle Drill, Flower Drill, Block Drill, UT Sequence

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

Concert choir, soloists

219 Year

1976

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

11/8 Utah (HC)

Alumni Band: Down the Field, Sentimental Over You, When the Saints Go Marching In, Can Can, Auld Lang Syne Pride: Same

Wagner Excerpts, Army of the Nile, March On Mighty Vols, Those Were the Days, Anniversary Waltz, Fight Vols Fight, Down the Field, TN Waltz, Auld Lang Syne, UT Sequence

11/15 Ole Miss at Memphis

Away Trip

1

11/22 Kentucky

Away Trip

Same Show as 11/1/75, no UT Sequence, addition of TN Waltz March Same Show as 10/11/75 no UT Sequence

11/29 Vanderbilt

Same

N/A

N/A

9/11 Duke

Same

French National Defile, Amazing Grace, It's A Miracle, South Rampart Street Parade, Autumn Leaves, UT Sequence

9/18 TCU

Same with addition of National Anthem of China Away Trip

Band Day

0

Crown Imperial, Carmen, Will the Circle Be Unbroken, Love Will Keep Us Together, Tie A Yellow Ribbon, Everybody Loves a Lover, TN Waltz March French National Defile, Promises, Promises, Hail to the Victors, Baby Elephant Walk, There'll BE Some Changes, Happy Day are Here Again, AM I Blue, Singing the Blues, Olympic Theme, UT Sequence Crown Imperial, Proud Mary, TN Waltz, When the Saints go Marching In, Yackety Sax, UT Sequence

1

Halftime: 2 Corner Precision entrance, Block Drill, Circle drill, Flower drill, Spiral drill

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: Block Drill, Concert Set, Line Drill, Concert Set, Interlocking UT

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: Block Drill, Concert Set with guest soloist, Interlocking UT

Same show as 10/2/76 with addition of UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same with Frank Wickes (Florida) directing National Anthem Halftime: Same show as 10/2/76 with addition of Interlocking UT

9/25 Auburn

10/2 Clemson

Same

10/16 Alabama

Same

10/23 Florida

Same

Members (Charted)

Drum Major

Majorettes

Jack Connell Alumni Band Director

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

0

Alumni Band: Block entrance, trombone, trumpet, Concert Set, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: Precision entrance, Script "VOLS" Drill, Outline of State of TN with UT, Champaign glass, Interlocking UT Same Show as 11/1/75 with no Interlocking UT

0

250

Dale Horst

Susan Huntington (Head Majorette), Susan Brown, Nancy Davis, Nancy Jones, Barbara McBride, Teresa Ray, Jan Stallings, Cynthia Swan, Suzanna Timberlake

0

Same Show as 10/11/75 with UT Concert Choir and no Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: N/A

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

Concert Choir, soloists

Pregame: Same entrance, full counter-march at south end zone, full counter-march at north end zone, form interlocking UT, invert UT at south end zone, to block, to giant "T Halftime: Block Drill, Concert Set, Line Drill, Concert Set, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same

Boots Randolph, soloist

220 Year

1977

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

11/6 Memphis State

Away Trip

Thank God I'm a Country Boy, Wabash Cannonball, Night Train to Memphis, Jambalaya, Wildwood Flower, I'm Movin' On, Rocky Top, Help Me Make It Through the Night, Till I Can Make It On My Own, TN waltz March

11/13 Ole Miss (HC)

Alumni Band: Down the Field, The Twist, The Stripper, Boogie Woogie, Auld Lang Syne Pride: Same

Fanfare, Harrigen, Mary's A Grand Old Name, I'm A Yankee Doodle Dandy, Give My Regards to Broadway, Alexander's Ragtime Band, TN Waltz March, TN Waltz 3/4, Strike Up the Band, UT Sequence

11/20 Kentucky

Same with addition of Army of the Nile and You'll Never Walk Alone

11/27 Vanderbilt in Nashville

Members (Charted)

Drum Major

Majorettes

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

1

Halftime: Block Drill, Line Drill, Circle Drill, Flower Drill, Concert Set

0

Alumni Band: Block entrance, Concert Set, half notes, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: Line Drill with Don Neuen and UT Concert Choir, Concert Set, Interlocking UT

Same Show as 11/6/76 with addition of UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same with addition of wheelchair and stick figure saluting the United Way Halftime: Same Show as 11/6/76 with addition of Interlocking UT

Same with no additions

Same Show as 11/20/76

1

Pregame: Same with Howard Nicar (Vanderbilt) directing the National Anthem Halftime: Same Show as 11/20/76

9/10 Cal

Fanfare, TN Waltz March, Alma Mater March, TN Waltz March, March On Mighty Vols, America the Beautiful, National Anthem, Fight Vols Fight, Down the Field with ROTC

Rocky, Sir Duke, Feelings, When Johnny Comes Marching Home, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same as 1976 Pregame Halftime: 2 Corner Oblique Pass Thru entrance, Concert Set, Shift Concert Set to South end zone, "JOHNNY" saluting new head coach Johnny Majors, UT Sequence

9/17 Boston

Same

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: Expansion entrance from columns, Line Drill, Curvelinear, Stars, Circles, spaceship, Line power set, Interlocking UT

9/24 Auburn

Same

Star Wars Theme, Cantina, Princess Leia's Theme, Luke's Theme, Ben Kenobi's Theme, Darth Vader's Theme, Rebel Spaceship Fanfare, Throne Room, End Title Theme, UT Sequence Star Wars, Evergreen, Where is the Love, You are the Sunshine of My Life, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: Same Star Wars entrance, Curvelinear set, New Circle Drill, Interlocking UT

Alumni Band: Jerry Field

250

Tom DeLozier

Susan Huntington (Head Majorette), Sandy Brown, Kim Helton, Barbara Jo McBride, Debra McCarrell, Teresa Ray, Jan Stallings, Cynthia Swan, Suzanna Timberlake

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

Concert Choir, soloists

"Dragoon" Color Guard added permanently to Pregame

221 Year

1978

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

Members (Charted)

Drum Major

Majorettes

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

10/1 Oregon State 10/8 Georgia Tech

Same

Band Day

Same

Cadence, Sweet Georgia Brown, Bye Bye Blues, Blues in the Night, South Rampart Street Parade, St. Louis Blues, Bourbon Street Parade, Just A Closer Walk with Thee, Basin Street Blues, Wolverine Blues, TN Waltz March

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: Line pass thru entrance, Line Drill, Concert Set, Parade Block, trumpet with note, Line Drill, Concert Set with Guest Trumpet Soloist, Interlocking UT

10/15 Alabama

Away Trip

Same show as 9/24/77 with no UT Sequence, TN Waltz March

1

Halftime: Same Show as 9/24/77

11/5 Memphis State (HC)

Alumni Band: Down the Field, Memphis Blues, Night Train to Memphis, Basie, Auld Lang Syne Pride: Same

Sunny Side of the Street, Serenade in Blue, Rock Around the Clock, Aquarius, Let the Sunshine In, UT Sequence

1

11/12 Ole Miss in Memphis

Away Trip

Love Me Tender, Zarathustra Theme, Hush Little Baby, Battle Hymn of the Republic, Blue Suede Shoes, Don't Be Cruel, Hound Dog, I Can't Help Falling in Love, TN Waltz March

1

Alumni Band: Block entrance, Paddleboat, Concert Set, half notes, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: Lines to Arcs entrance, Line Drill, Circle Drill, Arc Concert Set, Interlocking UT Halftime: 2 Corner Oblique pass thru entrance, Block to arcs, Circle Drill, Concentric Stars, "ELVIS"

11/19 Kentucky

Away Trip

Same Show as 11/12/77

1

Halftime: Same Show as 11/12/77

11/26 Vanderbilt

Same

Same Show as 11/19/77 with UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: Same Show as 11/19/77

9/16 UCLA

Same

Festive Overture, Circles, Hallelujah, What Kind of Fool AM I, Washington Post March, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same with new addition of Power T after Interlocking UT Halftime: 2 Sideline entrance of expanding arcs, Circle Drill, Square Drill, "RAMER", Interlocking UT

9/23 Oregon State

Same

National Emblem March, Happy Together, Put On a Happy Face, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: Line Drill entrance from both sidelines, Triple formation of diamonds, squares and circles, Interlocking UT

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

Pregame: Same

Alumni Band: Jon Trotter

250

Tom DeLozier

Nancyjean Dolfi (Head Majorette), Tanya Bethune, Sandy Brown, Marla Carr, Kim Helton, Eileen Keeler, Barbara Jo McBride, Debra McCarrell, Dawn Pearson, Melody Peck, Teresa Thomas, Suzanne Timberlake

Dr. Isaac Greggs, soloist

Jim Idol, Drill Designer

222 Year

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

9/30 Auburn

Away Trip

10/7 Army

Same

10/21 Alabama

Same

10/28 Mississippi State

Members (Charted)

Drum Major

Majorettes

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Same Show as 9/16/78 with no UT Sequence, TN Waltz March

1

Halftime: Same Show as 9/16/78 no Interlocking UT

Fanfare, Down the Field, Caissons Go Rolling Along, Yakety Sax, Somewhere, America (West Side Story), Trumpeter's Lullaby, And the Angels Sing, 76 Trombones, Lassus Trombone, UT Sequence Crown Imperial, Stars and Stripes Forever, American Trilogy, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: Section Feature Show Line Drill, Chevrons, Concert Set for Saxophone Section, "V" Concert Set to East Side, Reverse to West Side, Double Image of "V" Set, Concentric Circles, trombone, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: 2 Corner Oblique pass thru entrance, Block Drill, Concert Set with guest soloist, Interlocking UT

Same

Crown Imperial, Bourbon Street Parade, Will the Circle be Unbroken, Love Will Keep Us Together, Tie a Yellow Ribbon, Everybody Loves a Lover, Irish Tune from County Derry, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same with James Heil (Miss State) directing the National Anthem Halftime: 2 Corner Oblique pass thru entrance, Block Drill, Circle Drill, Arcs to Rays Concert Set, Interlocking UT

11/4 Duke

Same

Band Day

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: Line Drill, Circle Drill with Flower and Spirals, Concert Set

11/11 Notre Dame

Away Trip Performs shortened pregame – Exits field in Power T

Same Show as 11/14/78 with no UT Sequence, TN Waltz March

1

11/18 Ole Miss (HC)

Same

Fanfare, Down the Field, Hail to Tennessee, Orange Blossom Special, Rocky Top, TN Waltz, Fight Vols Fight, UT Sequence

0

11/25 Kentucky

Same

Joy to the World, Jingle Bells, Deck the Halls, Hallelujah Chorus, UT Sequence

0

12/2 Vanderbilt

Away Trip

Same Show as 10/28/78 with no UT Sequence, and addition of Hallelujah Chorus

1

Pregame: Shortened - Exits in Power T Halftime: Same show as 11/14/78 with no Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: Line entrance from North end zone, Line Drill, Concert Set of Chevrons, Outline of State of TN with UT, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: Christmas Show with Don Neuen and UT Concert Choir - Block entrance form North end zone, "NOEL" to both sideline, Line Drill, Block Drill, Concert Set, Interlocking UT Halftime: Same Show as 10/28/78 no Interlocking UT

0

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

Dottie West, soloist

Concert Choir, soloists

223 Year

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

Members (Charted)

Drum Major

Majorettes

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

1979

9/22 Utah

Fanfare, TN Waltz March, Alma Mater March, TN Waltz March, ROCKY TOP (1st use in Pregame), Alma Mater March, Battle Hymn of the Republic, Gentle On My Mind, Army of the Nile, National Anthem, Fight Vols Fight, Down the Field

Strike Up the Band, Great Day, Hey Look Me Over, Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts, Got to get You Into My Life, Lucy In the Sky, When I'm 64, Carry that Weight, Hava Nagila, UT Sequence

250

Mark Connell

Nancyjean Dolfi (Head Majorette), Karen Beeler, Sandy Brown, Marty Browning, Angela Floyd, Eileen Keeler, Betty Ann Lowe, Debra McCarrell, Dawn Pearson, Robin Richardson, Kathy Thrower

0

Pregame: Same with NO Power T. Addition of "PAUL" Halftime: 1 corner pass thru entrance, Block, Line Drill, Chevrons, Block Drill, Concert Set, Interlocking UT

Warren Clark, arranger

9/29 Auburn

Same with Auburn Fight Song

Superman Theme, Gallant Seventh March, Zip-A-Dee-DooDah, Whistle a Happy Tune, It's A Small World, Somewhere Over the Rainbow, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same with no additions Halftime: Block from North end zone, Arc expansion to South, Line Drill, Circle Drill, Interlocking UT

10/6 Mississippi State in Memphis

Away Trip

Same Show as 9/29/79 with no UT Sequence. Addition of TN Waltz March

1

Halftime: Same Show as 9/29/79 with no Interlocking UT

10/13 Georgia Tech

Same with GA Tech fight Song and Army of the Nile

This is My Country, Chattanooga Choo Choo, I Got Rhythm, I Can't Stop Loving You, America the Beautiful, UT Sequence

0

10/28 Alabama 11/3 Rutgers (HC)

Away Trip

Same Show as 10/6/79 Royal Fireworks, Wabash Cannonball, I Saw the Light, Roy Acuff Medley (Wabash Cannonball, Night Train to Memphis, Great Speckled Bird, I Saw the Light), UT Sequence

Pregame: Same with addition of 3 stick figures saluting the United Way Halftime: Americana Show with Don Neuen and the UT Concert Choir - 4 Corner entrance to Blocks, Line Drill, Chevrons, Parallelogram Drill, Line Concert Set, Interlocking UT Halftime: Same Show as 10/6/79 Alumni Band: Block entrance, Cruise Ship, Pink Panther, Champaign glass, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime:2 Corner pass thru entrance from North end zone, Block Drill, Line Drill, Chevron Concert Set with Guest Soloist, Interlocking UT

11/10 Notre Dame

Same with Notre Dame Fight Song

Alumni Band: Down the Field, Love Boat, Pink Panther, Plop Plop Fizz Fizz, Auld Lang Syne Pride: Same no Rutgers Fight Song. Addition of Theme form Rocky

Die Meistersinger, Sound of Music, 16 going on 17, My Favorite Things, Do-ReMi, Climb Every Mountain, Sound of Music, Don't Cry for Me Argentina, UT Sequence

1 Alumni Band: Bill Connell

0

1

Pregame: Same with no additions Halftime: Block from North end zone, Arc expansion to South, Line Drill, Double Circle Drill with Spirals, Double Ray Concert Set, Interlocking UT to West

Concert Choir, soloists

Roy Acuff, soloist

224 Year

1980

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

12/1 Vanderbilt

Same with Vanderbilt Fight Song

12/21 Purdue Bluebonnet Bowl

Members (Charted)

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Great Gate of Kiev, March from 1st Holst Suite, Rock That, I Saw Three Ships, Greensleves, We Wish You A Merry Christmas, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: 4 Corner entrance, Line Drill to Diamonds, Star Drill, Concert Set, Interlocking UT

Away Trip

Fanfare, Down the Field, March from 1st Holst Suite, It's A Small World, Rock That, DoRe-Mi, Strike Up the Band, Great Day, Academic Festival, TN Waltz March

1

Halftime: 4 Corner entrance, Line Drill to Squares, Circle Drill, Flower Drill, Spiral Drill, Arcs invert to Ray Concert Set

9/6 Georgia

Fanfare, TN Waltz March, Alma Mater March, TN Waltz March, Rocky Top, Alma Mater March, Visitor's Fight Song, Rocky Top, You're a Grand Old Flag, National Anthem, Fight Vols Fight, Down the Field, Fight Vols Fight

Stars and Strips Forever, Happy Days are Here Again, Nobody Knows the Trouble I've Seen, There'll Be Some Changes Made, Baby Elephant Walk, Am I Blue, California Here I Come, Old Rockin' Chair, Theme from Dallas, This is My Country, God Bless America, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same as 1979 Halftime: Election Show - Line entrance from both sidelines, donkey, elephant, dollar signs, 2 rocking chairs, cowboy hat with "JR", Eagle, Interlocking UT

9/13 Southern Cal

Same

Brahms' First Symphony, Before the Parade Passes By, Hello Dolly, Tie a Yellow Ribbon, Oh Lonesome Me, Mountain Dew, When You Wore a Tulip, Old Joe Clark, Rocky Top, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: North end zone Block entrance to expanded arcs, Circle Drill, Interlocking UT

9/20 Washingto n State

Same

Nothing Like a Dame, Hey Look Me Over, I Am Woman, This Is It, Fanfare from Rocky, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: Woman's Athletics Show Texas-Turn entrance, "Lady Vols", "BoostHer", Outline of State of TN with "T", Interlocking UT

10/11 Georgia

Away Trip

Parade of the Charioteers, The Last Dance, Army of the Nile, Tonight, Marche Slav, TN Waltz March

0

Halftime: 2 column entrance to expanded arcs, Block Drill, Wave Drill, Parallelogram Drill, Ray Concert Set

250

Drum Major

Tom DeLozier

Majorettes

Debra McCarrell (Head Majorette), Nancyjean Dolfi (Feature Twirler), Cynthia Adkins, Rhonda Barker, Karen Beeler, Mart Browning, Angela Floyd, Dawn James, Eileen Keeler, Betty Lowe, Deborah Macon, Dianna Scales

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

225 Year

1981

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

10/18 Alabama

Same

10/25 Pittsburgh

Members (Charted)

Drum Major

Majorettes

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Down the Field, Children of Sanchez, If My Friends Could See Me Now, Charlie Daniel's Medley: Legend of Wooley Swamp, The Devil Went Down to Georgia, TN Waltz, In America, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: North End zone Block to Arcs drill, Square Drill, Ray Concert Set with Guest Soloist Charlie Daniels, Interlocking UT

Same

Same Show as 10/11/80 with UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: Same Show as 10/11/80 with Interlocking UT

11/1 Virginia (HC)

Alumni Band: Down the Field, The Way We Were, The Twist, Night Train, Auld Lang Syne Pride: Same

Are You from Dixie?, Swanee, Carry Me Back to Old Virginny, Country Roads, TN Waltz, Way Down Yonder in New Orleans, Sweet Georgia Brown, Rocky Top, UT Sequence

0

Alumni Band: Block Entrance, Concert Set, guitar, Concert set, Interlocking UT Halftime: Texas Turn entrance, Block Drill, Line Drill, Concert Set, Interlocking UT

11/15 Ole Miss

Same

Fanfare, Down the Field, March from Holst 1st Suite, It's a Small World, Rock That, Do-Re-Mi, Strike Up the Band, TN Waltz March

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: Block to expanded arcs for North end zone, Line Drill, Circle Drill

11/29 Vanderbilt

Away Trip

Same show as 11/15/80

1

Halftime: Same show as 11/15/80

9/19 Colorado State

Same as 1980 with addition of This is My Country and deletion of You're A Grand Old Flag

Flamingo, Barry Manilow Medley: Somewhere in the Night, Who's Been Sleeping in my Bad, Bandstand Boogie, Copa Cabana, Somewhere in the Night, I Write the Songs, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same as 1980 Halftime: Block to Diamond entrance, Line Drill, Parallelogram Drill, Line Drill, Interlocking UT

9/26 Auburn

Same

Tomorrow, What I Did for Love, People, You'll Never Walk Alone, UT Sequence

0

10/10 Georgia Tech

Same

Trumpet Voluntary, Army of the Nile, Colonel Bogey March, Everything 's Coming Up Roses, There's No Business Like Show Business, I Sing the Body Electric, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: Blocks to Arcs entrance, "United Way", 3 stick figures, United Way symbol, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: Texas Turn entrance, Block Drill, Line Drill, Circle Drill, Interlocking UT

Alumni Band: Dale Horst

250

Ed Nichols

Eileen Keeler (Head Majorette), Cindy Adkins, Rhonda Barker, Karen Beeler, Marty Browning, Vicki Davis, Angela Floyd, Leigh Ann Gammon, Daen James, Betty Lowe, Deborah Macon, Julie Northern, Aimee Wall

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

226 Year

1982

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

10/17 Alabama

Away Trip

10/24 Memphis State

Away Trip

Same show as 10/10/81 with no UT Sequence. Addition of TN Waltz March Same show as 10/17/81

11/7 Wichita State (HC)

Alumni Band: Down the Field, Delta Dawn, The Stripper, When the Saints Go Marching In, Auld Lang Syne Pride: Same

This Land is Your Land, Wabash Cannonball, Night Train to Memphis, Great Speckled Bird, I saw the Light, Almost Like a Song, UT Sequence

11/14 Ole Miss

Same

Stars and Stripes Forever, America the Beautiful, Battle Hymn of the Republic, God Bless America, UT Sequence

0

11/29 Vanderbilt

Same

1

12/13 Wisconsin Garden State Bowl

Shortened Pregame

It's a Small World, Rule Britannia, Entry of the Gladiators, Allouette, Irish Tune, Love Makes the World Go Round, Mexican Hat Dance, Beer Barrel Polka, Dance of the Siamese Children, I Love Paris, Stars and Stripes Forever, Way Down Yonder in New Orleans, UT Sequence It's a Small World, New York New York, Everything's Coming Up roses, There's No Business Like Show Business, I Sing the Body Electric, TN Waltz March

9/4 Duke

Fanfare, TN Waltz March, Alma Mater March, TN Waltz March, Rocky Top, Alma Mater March, Visitor's Fight Song, Rocky Top, Battle Hymn of the Republic, National Anthem, Fight Vols Fight, Down the Field, Fight Vols Fight

TN Waltz March, My Homeland Tennessee, My Tennessee, When It's Iris Time Down in Tennessee, TN Waltz, Rocky Top, UT Sequence

Members (Charted)

Drum Major

Majorettes

Alumni Band: Dale Horst

250

Ed Nichols

Angela Floyd (Head Majorette), Cindy Adkins, Marty Browning, Vicki Davis, Devika Earls, Leigh Ann Gammon, Amy Hall, Tina Harlament, Dawn James, Deborah Macon, Kenda Melton, Leslie Murrell, Aimee Wall

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

1

Halftime: Same show as 10/10/81 with no Interlocking UT.

1

Halftime: Same show as 10/17/81

0

Alumni Band: Block Entrance, half and 2 sixteenth notes, Line Drill, trumpet, Interlocking UT Halftime: Show saluting Roy Acuff - Texas Turn entrance, Square Drill, Chevron drill, Block and "ROY" (Special guest on field - Roy Acuff), Concert Set to expanded arcs, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: Block to Chevrons entrance, Concert set, Line Drill, Liberty Bell, Eagle, USA Shield. Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: 1982 World's Fair Show - Texas Turn entrance, Line Drill, Circle Drill, Mexican Hat, mug, Chinese symbol, Eiffel tower, World's Fair symbol, "HANK" saluting 1951 National Champ Football Team, Interlocking UT

1

Pregame: Shortened Pregame - Exit field in Interlocking UT Halftime: Same Drill as 10/17/81

0

Pregame: Same Drill as 1981 with addition of Power T after Interlocking UT Halftime: Salute to Official State Songs of Tennessee - 4 corner entrance, Square Drill, Line Drill, Outline of State of TN, "ROCKY TOP", Interlocking UT

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

Roy Acuff honoree / Concert Choir, soloists

George Bitzas, soloist

George Bitzas. Soloist

227 Year

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

9/11 Iowa State

Same

10/2 Washingto n State

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Strike Up the Band, Star Dust, 76 Trombones, Lassus Trombone, Don't Rain on My Parade, Clarinet Candy, In the Stone, I've Got Rhythm, Baby Elephant Walk, Tea for Two, I'm Movin' On, Yakety Sax, Stars and Stripes, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: Section Feature Show Line entrance, Circle with arcs, Curvelinear set, Diagonal Set, Concentric Circle Set, Crown Set, Interlocking UT

Same

Chariots of Fire, Hands Across the Sea, Hill Street Blues, Do I Do, Fame, Greatest American Hero, Memory, UT Sequence

1

10/16 Alabama

Same

America the Beautiful, Columbia the Gem of the Ocean, America, Battle Cry of Freedom, I'm a Yankee Doodle Dandy, Aura Lee, You're a Grand Old Flag, God Bless America, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: 2 Corner entrance to concentric arcs, Line Drill, Circle Drill, Kaleidoscope Drill, Spiral Drill, Concert Set in Concentric Arcs, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: Show dedicated to Hank Hartsfield (UT Graduate and Astronaut) - Line entrance to Chevrons, Line Drill, Square Drill, Chevron Concert Set, Lines to Concentric Arcs, Interlocking UT with "SI" for Space Institute

11/6 Memphis State (HC)

Alumni Band: Block entrance, trumpet, Line Drill, Interlocking UT Pride: Same

Bourbon Street Parade, Memphis Blues, Just a Closer Walk with Thee, Basin Street Blues, Wolverine Blues, UT Sequence

11/20 Kentucky

Same

11/27 Vanderbilt

Away Trip

Rocky Top, Under the Double Eagle, Rifle Regiment, Hill Street Blues, Fame, Greatest American Hero, UT Sequence Same Show as 11/20/82 with no UT Sequence. Addition of TN Waltz March

12/31 Iowa Peach Bowl

Shortened Pregame Massed Bands play America the Beautiful (Dr. Morgan Jones - Iowa) and National Anthem (Dr. WJ Julian UT)

Same Show as 11/27/82 with addition of March from Holst 1st Suite and deletion of Under the Double Eagle

Members (Charted)

Drum Major

Alumni Band: Jerry Field

Majorettes

0

1

250

Alumni Band: Block entrance, trumpet, Line Drill, Interlocking UT Halftime: Dixieland Show Line entrance to chevrons, Concentric arcs facing 50 on both sides for concert set, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: Block entrance to chevrons, Line Drill, Circle Drill, Interlocking UT

1

Halftime: Same show as 11/20/82 with no Interlocking UT

1

Pregame: Shortened Pregame - Band exits in Power T formation Halftime: Same show as 11/27/82

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

Concert choir, soloists

Dr. Isaac Greggs, soloist

228 Year

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

1983

9/3 Pittsburgh

Fanfare, TN Waltz March, Alma Mater March, TN Waltz March, Visitor's Fight Song, Rocky Top, Alma Mater March, National Emblem, Stars and Stripes Forever, You're a Grand Old Flag, National Anthem, Fight Vols Fight, Down the Field, Fight Vols Fight Same

Flashdance, Autumn Leaves, Billie Jean, Beat It, William Tell Overture, Die Meistersinger Overture, Ballet Parisian, 1812 Overture, UT Sequence

9/10 New Mexico

Members (Charted)

Drum Major

Majorettes

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

Ed Nichols

Dawn James (Head Majorette), Rhonda Barker, Vicki Davis, Leigh Ann Gammon, Kenda Melton, Leslie Murrell, Aimee Wall, Julie Watson

0

Pregame: Same as 1982 with deletion of Power T and Addition of reversing Interlocking UT Halftime: Texas Turn entrance, Block Drill, Square/Diamond Drill, 4 Corner Concert Set, Interlocking UT

Ed Gaston, arranger

Just a Closer Walk with Thee, Back Home Again in Indiana, Dixie One Step, Royal Garden Blues, Copenhagen, When the Saints Go Marching In, Won't You Come Home Bill Bailey, UT Sequence Crown Imperial, She Works Hard for the Money, What a Wonderful Day Like Today, Everything's Coming Up Roses, That's Entertainment, UT Sequence Same Show as 9/24/83

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: 3 Side entrance to Diagonals, CircleArc Concert Set that rotates to each side of stadium, Semi-Circle and lines Concert Sets, Interlocking UT

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: Modified Texas Turn entrance, Concentric Circle, Double Circle Drill, Interlocking UT

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: Same Show as 9/24/83 Pregame: Same with addition of opening giant "T" to north end zone (1st Time) Halftime: Tennessee Show Texas Turn entrance, Line Drill, Arc Concert set, Interlocking UT Halftime: Same show as 9/24/83 with no Interlocking UT

9/24 Auburn

Same

10/1 Citadel

Same

10/8 LSU

Same

Welcome to Tennessee, Smokey Mountain Rain, Chattanooga Choo Choo, Tennessee River, Rocky Top, UT Sequence

0

10/15 Alabama

Away Trip

Same show as 9/24/83 with no UT Sequence and addition of TN Waltz March

1

10/22 Georgia Tech

Same

Jambalaya, I Saw the Light, Hey Good Lookin', Kaw-Liga, Your Cheatin' Heart, Take These Chains from My Heart, UT Sequence

0

11/12 Ole Miss (HC)

Same

Crown Imperial, Army of the Nile, Die Meistersinger, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: Hank Williams Sr. Salute - 3 Side entrance, Block to Diamonds, Line Drill, Parallelogram Drill, Circles to unfold to arcs, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same as 10/8/83 (remains until present) Halftime: 3 Side entrance, Line Drill, Interlocking UT

Concert choir, soloists

229 Year

1984

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

11/26 Vanderbilt

Same

12/17 Maryland Citrus Bowl

Members (Charted)

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

Just a Closer Walk with Thee, I'm Movin' On, Proud Mary, TN Waltz, When the Saints Go Marching In, Yakety Sax, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: Same drill as 11/12/83

Boots Randolph, soloist

Away Trip

Welcome to Tennessee River, Memphis Blues, Chattanooga Choo Choo, Rocky Top, Smokey Mountain Rain, TN Waltz March

1

Halftime: Modified Texas Turn entrance, Circle Drill, Kaleidoscope Drill, Parallelogram Drill, Arc Concert Set

9/1 Washingto n State

Fanfare, TN Waltz March, Alma Mater March, Visitor's Fight Song, Rocky Top, Alma Mater March, God Bless America, National Anthem, Fight Vols Fight, Down the Field, Fight Vols Fight

Raiders of the Lost Ark, Anything Goes, Uptown Girl, Still, On the Road Again, Always on My Mind, Thriller, Beat It, Say Say Say, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same drill down through Interlocking UT. Move to Block to march North. Open "T" at North end zone Halftime: Block entrance to chevrons, spider formation, Circle and Spokes, Concert Set to South, Wedge form, Circle Drill, Concert Set, Interlocking UT

9/15 Utah

Same

This Land is Your Land, This is My Country, California Here I Come, Old Rockin' Chair, Happy Days are Here Again, Fanfare and Olympic Theme, Bugler's Dream, Stars and Stripes Forever, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: 2 Corner entrance, Blocks, Triangle, 2 rocking chairs, 2 Hearts inverted, Olympic Circles, Eagle with Shield, Interlocking UT

9/22 Army

Same with Army Herald Trumpets

1

Pregame: Same with Col. Eugene Allen directing National Anthem Halftime: Same show as 12/17/83 with Interlocking UT

9/29 Auburn

Away Trip

1

Halftime: Same show as 9/22/84 with no Interlocking UT

10/13 Florida

Same

Welcome to Tennessee, TN Waltz, Tennessee River, Memphis Blues, Chattanooga Choo Choo, Rocky Top, Smokey Mountain Rain, UT Sequence Same Show as 9/22/84 with no UT Sequence with addition of TN Waltz March Strike Up the Band, There's No Business Like Show Business, People, 76 Trombones, You're Just In Love, God Bless the USA, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: Concert Choir Show Lines to chevrons entrance, spider formation, Line formation, Block formation, Arc Concert Set, Interlocking UT with "SI" saluting the Space Institute

Concert choir, soloists

10/20 Alabama

Same

Mountain Dew, I Saw the Light, Tennessee Hound Dog, Rocky Top, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: 3 side entrance, Blocks to Chevron Concert set facing 50 with guest soloists, Interlocking UT

Osborne Brothers, soloists

250

Drum Major

Ed Nichols

Majorettes

Julie Watson (Head Majorette), Rhonda Barker, Vicki Davis, Devika Earls, Leigh Ann Gammon, Amy Hall, Kenda Melton, Leslie Murrell, Aimee Wall, Robin Willocks, Robin Williams, Susan Zachary

James Sparks, added as 2nd assistant director Warren Clark, arranger

230 Year

1985

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

10/27 Georgia Tech

Away Trip

Same Show as 9/29/84

11/10 Memphis State (HC)

Alumni Band: Down the Field, Way Down Yonder in New Orleans, Bourbon Street Parade, When the Saints Go Marching In, Auld Lang Syne Pride: Same

Crown Imperial, Army of the Nile, TN Waltz, UT Sequence

11/24 Kentucky

Same

12/1 Vanderbilt

Members (Charted)

Drum Major

Majorettes

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

1

Halftime: Same show 9/29/84

0

Alumni Band: Block entrance, music staff with notes, Line Drill, trumpet, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: Texas Turn entrance, Chevron Concert facing 50 with guest soloist, Interlocking UT

Raiders of the Lost Ark, Colonel Bogey March, Mountain Music, Love in the First Degree, God Bless the USA, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: 2 Corner Oblique entrance, Line Drill, Circle Drill, Concert Set, Interlocking UT

Away Trip

Same show as 11/24/84 with no UT Sequence and addition on TN Waltz March

1

Halftime: Same show as 11/24/84 with no Interlocking UT

12/23 Maryland Sun Bowl

Shortened Pregame

Same Show as 12/1/84

1

Pregame: Shortened pregame exiting field in Block Halftime: Same show as 12/1/84

9/14 UCLA

Fanfare, TN Waltz March, Alma Mater March, Visitor's Fight Song, Rocky Top, Alma Mater March, Semper Fidelis, National Anthem, Fight Vols Fight, Down the Field, Fight Vols Fight

America, America, the Beautiful, The Thunderer, Contrapunctus No. 1, Axel F, Stars an Stripes, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Lines to Full Block, Counter-march from south end zone; UT formation with half-time step, to block, to Giant T Half-time: 4 triangles to 2 diamonds, Line Drill, Concert set, Inter-locking UT

9/28 Auburn

Same

Yellowbeard, Trumpet Voluntary, On the Road again, Play Me that Mountain Music, Take the Night Train to Memphis, She Believes in Me, NO UT sequence, Fanfare/TN Waltz March

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: Texas Turn entrance, Circle Drillconcentric circles, spirals, flower within circles, floating circles, Closer - to arcs

10/5 Wake Forest

Same

George Cohan Show Percussion & Fanfare, Give My Regards to Broadway, Harrigan & Mary, I'm A Yankee Doodle Dandy, Come Follow the Band, We are the World

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: Concert Choir feature Company front entrance from sidelines, Line Drill, Square Drill to inter-locking diamonds, Closer - connecting arcs, Interlocking UT

Alumni Band: Jerry Field

260

Ed Nichols

Julie Watson (Head Majorette), Leigh Ann Burchell, Devika Earls, Heather Mehner, Kenda Melton, Leslie Plemons, Andrea Saylor, Robin Williams, Robin Willocks, Susan Zachary

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

Charlie Daniels, soloist

Concert Choir, soloists

231 Year

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

10/19 Alabama

Away Trip

10/26 Georgia Tech

Members (Charted)

Drum Major

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Same show as 9/28/85

1

Halftime: Same drill as 9/28/85

Same

Silverado, Night and Day, Great Day, Tonight, You're the Inspiration, UT Sequence

1

11/2 Rutgers (HC)

Alumni Band: Down the Field, 20th Century Fox Fanfare, Zip-ADee-Doo-Dah, How the West was Won, Rocky, Looney Tunes, Auld Lang Syne Pride: Same

Conquest, On Broadway, God Bless the USA, Happy Birthday, UT Sequence

Pregame: Same Halftime: 3 side entrance with columns and block, Blocks to multiple arcs, Circle Drill with squares, Closer cover the field with company fronts, Interlocking UT Alumni band: Block, Bent Company fronts, Concentric Squares, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: Company front and chevrons, chevrons to north and South with soloist, Block, Interlocking UT

11/9 Memphis State

Away Trip

Same show as 9/28/85

1

Same drill as 9/28/85

11/16 Ole Miss

Same

Take the A Train, Flamingo, And the Angels Sing, 76 Trombones, Night Train, I've Got Rhythm, Sing Sing Sing, Woodchopper's Ball, Thus Spake Zarathustra, UT Sequence

0

11/30 Vanderbilt

Same

Step to the Rear, Let a Leader Lead the Way, Charleston, Sweet Georgia Brown, Rocky Top, Climb Every Mountain, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: Big Band Era Show featuring sections - 3 side entrance to Triangle, Half circle with arcs concert set to south, rotate to west and reform concert set, rotate to north and reform concert set, rotate to west and reform concert set, reform to honor guests astronauts, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: Salute to Bob Woodruff Show - Texas Turn, "BOB" inverted to West and East, Arcs and Lines Concert Set, Chevrons to north and south, Concert set, Interlocking UT

1/1/86 Miami (Sugar Bowl)

Modified with addition of Stars and Stripes with Miami Band

Silverado, Play Me that Mountain Music, Dixie Road, On the Road Again, God Bless the USA, Fanfare/TN Waltz March

1

Alumni Band: Jerry Field

Majorettes

0

Modified Pregame: Miami Band joining to form "USA" Pride opens "T" Halftime: 3 side entrance with columns and block, Blocks to multiple arcs, Circle Drill with squares, Closer Eagle formation with US Shield and guest soloist

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

Lee Greenwood, soloist

Bob Woodruff, honoree

Lee Greenwood, soloist

232 Year

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

Members (Charted)

Drum Major

Majorettes

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

1986

9/6 New Mexico

Fanfare, TN Waltz March, Alma Mater March, Visitor's Fight Song, Rocky Top, Alma Mater March, Gallant Seventh March, National Anthem, Fight Vols Fight, Down the Field, Fight Vols Fight

Russian Christmas Music, Conga, King of the Road, Dixie Road, It's a Small World, Waiting for the Robert E. Lee, Mountain Dew, Oh Lonesome Me, Rocky Top, UT Sequence

260

Tim Michaels

Julie Watson (Head Majorette), Lisa Baker, Leigh Ann Burchell, Wendy Collins, Devika Earls, Kimberly Lundy, Heather Mehner, Andrea Saylor, Emily Taylor, Robin Williams, Susan Zachary

1

Pregame: Same as 1985 Pregame Halftime:4 side Arc expansion drill, Concert Set of Arcs, Line Drill, Circle Drill, Square drill with guest dancers, Interlocking UT

Square Dancers and Alan Tipton (National Square Dance Caller), guests

9/13 Mississippi State

Same

Back to the Future, Freedom, Jump, Glory of Love, Crown Imperial, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: 2 Corner entrance, Large triangle rotation, Circle Drill, Multiple arc closer, United Way "Heart" symbol, Interlocking UT

9/27 Auburn

Away Trip

Same show as 9/13/86, No UT Sequence, Fanfare/TN Waltz March Exit

1

Halftime: Same drill as 9/13/85 with no Interlocking UT

10/4 Texas El Paso

Same

Russian Christmas Music, Army of the Nile, Fanfare/Olympic Theme, TN Waltz March, On the Road Again, Orange Blossom Special, Through the Years, Those were the Days, TN Waltz, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: 150th Anniversary Show for UT Alumni Association Block to Arcs, Square to outline of State of TN, Color Guard traces path through state, "1836" to "1986", "150", Interlocking UT

10/11 Army

Same

This is the army Mr. Jones, Aura Lee, Cassions Go Rolling Along, Anchors Aweigh, Off We Go into the Wild Blue Yonder, Sempre Fidelis, Marine Hymn, America the Beautiful, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: Veterans Day Show - Texas Turn, Block Drill, Line Drill, Concentric Arc Concert Set, Interlocking UT

10/18 Alabama

Same

Back to the Future, Freedom, Jump, She Believes in Me, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: Same drill as 9/13/86

10/25 Georgia Tech

Away Trip

Crown Imperial, Freedom, Jump, She Believes in Me, Fanfare/TN Waltz March

1

Halftime: Same drill as 91/13/86 (No Interlocking UT)

Concert Choir, soloists

233 Year

1987

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

11/8 Memphis State (HC)

Alumni Band: Down the Field, Thanks for the Memories, Charleston, Rock Around the Clock, When I'm 64, Auld Lang Syne Pride: Same

Welcome to Tennessee, Memphis, Can't Help Falling in Love, Mountain Dew, Take the Night Train to Memphis, I Saw the Light, Play Me that Mountain Music, Smokey Mountain Rain, Take Me Home Country Roads, TN Waltz March, TN Waltz, UT Sequence

11/22 Kentucky

Same

11/30 Vanderbilt

Members (Charted)

Drum Major

Majorettes

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

0

Alumni Band: Lines to bent line concert Set, Clock face with hands, 2 Rocking Chairs, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: Combined Show with Memphis Band - Block entrance, Chevron, form "Fiddle with Bow", inverted chevron, State of TN with "86", State of TN with rocking chair, Interlocking UT

Memphis State Marching Band

Crown Imperial, Semper Fidelis, Walk Him Up the Stairs, I Am What I Am, What a Difference You Made in My Life, Chariots of Fire, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: 2 Corner entrance to arcs, Line drill, Circle drill to Double Circle drill, company fronts to Arc, Interlocking UT

Away Trip

Same show as 11/22 except no UT Sequence or Chariots of Fire. Exit with Fanfare/TN Waltz March

1

Halftime: Same drill as 11/22/86 (no Interlocking UT)

8/30 Iowa (Kick Off Classic East Rutherford, NJ)

Fanfare, TN Waltz March, Alma Mater March, Rocky Top, Alma Mater March, Grand Old Flag, National Anthem

Finale from New World Symphony, Liberty Bell March, I'm a Yankee Doodle Dandy, This is My Country, God Bless America, Through the Years, Fanfare/TN Waltz March

1

Pregame: Modified - Iowa Band joins "Pride" for National Anthem after "Grand Old Flag", both bands exit field Halftime: 3 side entrance, Line Drill, Circle Drill, Ray expansion with arcs

9/5 Colorado State

Fanfare, TN Waltz March, Alma Mater March, Visitor's Fight Song, Rocky Top, Alma Mater March, Grand Old Flag, National Anthem, Fight Vols Fight, Down the Field, Fight Vols Fight

Finale from New World Symphony, Liberty Bell March, I'm a Yankee Doodle Dandy, This is My Country, God Bless America, America the Beautiful, Chester, Yankee Doodle, Stars and Stripes Forever, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same as 1986 Pregame Halftime:200th Anniversary of US Constitution Show - Same drill as 8/30/87 with addition of ray rotation to north and south, ray rotation to face west, formation of Eagle with US Shield, Interlocking UT

9/26 Auburn

Same

Parade of the Charioteers, La Suerte de los Tontos, Power of Love, Jacob's Ladder, Set Me Free, Ice Castles, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: 3 Arc expansion from 1 sideline, Invert arcs with rotation, Circle Drill, Inverted arc rotation with outer circle, stacked arcs, Interlocking UT

Alumni Band: Jerry Field

260

John Martin

Julie Watson (Head Majorette), Julie Atkin, Lisa Baker, Leigh Ann Burchell, Wendy Collins, Kimberly Hester, Heather Mehner, Monica Rahmizadeh, Angie Smith

234 Year

1988

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

10/3 California

Same

United We Stand, What I Did for Love, What a Difference You've Made in My Life, Tomorrow, People, UT Sequence

10/17 Alabama

Away Trip

10/26 Georgia Tech

Members (Charted)

Drum Major

Majorettes

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: 100th Anniversary of United Way Show - 3 Arc expansion from 1 sideline, United Way "Heart" symbol, 3 stick figures to east, invert 3 stick figures to west, "100" to east. "100" to west, company fronts to arcs, Interlocking UT

Parade of the Charioteers, La Suerte de los Tontos, Power of Love, Jacob's Ladder, Set Me Free, Ice Castles, Fanfare/TN Waltz March

1

Halftime: Same drill as 9/26 (no Interlocking UT)

Same

Scotland the Brave, Loch Lomond, Patton, Rocky Top, Amazing Grace, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: Bagpipe Show - Texas Turn, Lines to Chevrons, Concentric Circles with Bow, Invert to Ray Concert Set, Interlocking UT

Atlanta Pipe Band, soloists

11/14 Ole Miss (HC)

Alumni Band: Down the Field, Sing Sing Sing, Rock Around the Clock, Blue Suede Shoes, Auld Lang Syne Pride: Same

Nothing Like a Dame, Orange Blossom Special, TN Waltz, I Am Woman, Celebration, Victory, Eye of the Tiger, UT Sequence

0

Alumni Band: Lines to bent lines concert set, Clock face with hands, "ELVIS", Interlocking UT Halftime: Lady Vols Show Triangle entrance from 2 corners and sideline, Line Drill, State of TN with star marking Knoxville, "Lady Vols" (cursive), Interlocking UT

UT Lady Vol Basketball Team, honorees

1/2/88 Indiana (Peach Bowl)

None

Welcome to Tennessee, Gallant Seventh March, I'm a Yankee Doodle Dandy, This is My Country, God Bless America, Smokey Mountain Rain, Rocky Top

1

Halftime: Texas Turn, Line Drill, Circle Drill, company fronts to arcs

Walter McDaniel retires

9/3 Georgia

Away Trip

Temptation, My Favorite Things, A Wonderful Day Like Today, Together Whenever, They're Playing My Song, Shaker Tune, Fanfare/TN Waltz March

1

Halftime: 2 corner and sideline entrance, curvelinear form, Circle Drill, Diamond in Box, Company fronts with Triangle to staggered final set

Lafe Cook

260

Tim Michaels

Monica Rahimzadeh (Head Majorette), Julie Atkin, Lisa Baker, Angela Brown, Sarah East, Kim Hester, Jocelyn Ingram, Diane Lawrence, Heather Mehner, Angelia Smith

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

235 Year

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

9/10 Duke

Fanfare, TN Waltz March, Alma Mater March, Visitor's Fight Song, Rocky Top, Alma Mater March, National Emblem March, National Anthem, Fight Vols Fight, Down the Field, Fight Vols Fight

9/17 LSU

Members (Charted)

Drum Major

Majorettes

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Exodus, I've Had the Time of My Life, Rifle Regiment, Let It Be Me, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same as 1987 Pregame Halftime: Texas Turn, Line Drill, Curve-linear final set, Interlocking UT

Same

Temptation, My Favorite Things, A Wonderful Day Like Today, Together Whenever, They're Playing My Song, Shaker Tune, UT sequence

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: Same as 9/3/88 with addition of Interlocking UT

9/24 Auburn

Away Trip

Same Show as 9/3/88

1

Halftime: Same Drill as 9/3/88

10/1 Wash. State

Same

There's No Business Like Show Business, Alexander's Ragtime Band, You're Just in Love, Blue Skies, Anything You Can Do I Can Do Better, This is the Army Mr. Jones, God Bless America, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: Texas Turn, Block Drill, Curve-linear concert Set, Company fronts to arcs, Interlocking UT

10/15 Alabama

Same

Olympic Spirit, I Get Around, Barbara Ann, Good Vibrations, Surfin' USA, Let It Be Me, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: 4 side entrance to arcs, Reform to expansion arcs, Circle drill, Diagonals and Triangle final set, Interlocking UT

10/22 Memphis State

Away Trip

Same show as 10/15/88 with no UT Sequence, Exit with Fanfare/TN Waltz March

1

Halftime: Same drill as 10/15/88 with no Interlocking UT

11/5 Boston College (HC)

Alumni Band: Down the Field, There's Nothing Like A Dame, Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy, Hernando's Hideaway, Blue Suede Shoes, Hey Good Lookin', Auld Lang Syne Pride: Same

Before the Parade Passes By, Jeepers Creepers, in the Mood, You've Gotta Be a Football Hero, Wide World of Sports, NBC Theme, Gilette Theme, Olympian Theme, UT Sequence

0

Alumni Band: Line entrance, Trumpet formation, "ELVIS", Concert Set, Interlocking UT Halftime: 2 corner & 1 sideline entrance, curvelinear formation, "ABC", "NBC", "CBS", Olympic Circles, Interlocking UT

11/26 Vanderbilt

Away Trip

Same Show as 10/22/88

1

Halftime: Same drill as 10/22/88

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

Concert Choir, soloists

236 Year

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

Members (Charted)

Drum Major

Majorettes

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

1989

9/2 Colorado State

Fanfare, TN Waltz March, Alma Mater March, Visitor's Fight Song, Rocky Top, Alma Mater March, Stars and Stripes Forever, National Anthem, Fight Vols Fight, Down the Field, Fight Vols Fight

You Ain't Nothing But a Hound Dog, Love Me Tender, CC Rider, Heartbreak Hotel, Jailhouse Rock, I Can't Help Falling in Love with You, UT Sequence

260

Tim Michaels

Monica Rahimzadeh (Head Majorette), Julie Atkin, Lisa Baker, Sarah East, Jocelyn Ingram, Angelia Smith, Connie Thomas, Kelly Thomas, Kristi Ward

0

Pregame: Same as 1988 Pregame Halftime: Texas Turn, 2 Chevrons to north and south, 3 Blocks, Bent Lines Concert Set, Interlocking UT

James Sparks, associate director and Patricia Root, assistant director David Keith, guest performer

9/16 Duke

Same

Pictures at an Exhibition, Step to the Rear, Everything's Coming Up Roses, There's No Business Like Show Business, Rhapsody in Blue, UT Sequence

1

9/30 Auburn

Same

1

10/7 Georgia (HC)

Alumni Band: Down the Field, Hello Dolly, Peg of My Heart, Auld Lang Syne Pride: Same

Thus Sprach Zarathustra, San Antonio Rose, Will the Circle Be Unbroken, Columbus Stockade Blues, Wabash Cannonball, TN Hound Dog, Send in the Clowns, UT Sequence My Country Tis of Thee, God Bless America, UT Sequence

Pregame: Same Halftime: 4 Side entrance to 8 step cover the field. Large Triangle, 2 Diamonds, Double Circle Drill with spirals, Double Ray Expansion Final Set, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: 5 Arc expansion entrance, Circle Drill, Kaleidoscope Drill, 2 - 8 Point concentric stars, Curve-linear Concert Set, Interlocking UT

10/21 Alabama

Away Trip

10/28 LSU

Away Trip

11/11 Akron

Same

Alumni Band: Ed Nichols

0

Alumni Band: Lines to Concert Set, Circle, "Heart" with arrow, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: 4 Side entrance to 8 step cover the field, Interlocking UT Halftime: Same drill as 9/2/89 (no Interlocking UT)

You Ain't Nothing But a Hound Dog, Love Me Tender, CC Rider, Heartbreak Hotel, Jailhouse Rock, I Can't Help Falling in Love with You, Fanfare/TN Waltz March Thus Sprach Zarathustra, San Antonio Rose, Will the Circle Be Unbroken, Columbus Stockade Blues, Wabash Cannonball, TN Hound Dog, Let It Be Me, Fanfare/TN Waltz March

0

1

Halftime: Same Drill as 9/30/89 (no Interlocking UT)

Scotland the Brave, Loch Lomond, Appalachian Spring, Rocky Top, Amazing Grace, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: Bagpipe Show - Texas Turn, Lines to Chevrons, Concentric Circles with Bow, Invert to Ray Concert Set, Interlocking UT

David Keith, guest performer

Atlanta Pipe Band, soloists

237 Year

1990

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

11/18 Ole Miss

Same

12/2 Vanderbilt

Members (Charted)

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

Theme from Patton, Dixie Road, Ain't No Trick, God Bless the USA, Fanfare/TN Waltz March

0

Lee Greenwood, soloist

Same

Christmas Entrance, The Christmas Song, Jingle Bells, Deck the Halls, We Wish You a Merry Christmas, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: 5 Arc expansion entrance, Arcs to Chevrons to north and south, Concert Set, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: Texas Turn, 3 Diamonds, Company Fronts, Concert Arcs, Interlocking UT

1/1/90 Arkansas (Cotton Bowl)

None

Same as 10/28/89 Show with addition of God Bless the USA and deletion of Let It Be Me

1

Halftime: Same Drill as 9/30/89 with addition of Eagle and US shield (no Interlocking UT)

Lee Greenwood, soloist

9/1 Pacific

Fanfare, TN Waltz March, Alma Mater March, Visitor's Fight Song, Rocky Top, Alma Mater March, National Emblem March, National Anthem, Fight Vols Fight, Down the Field, Fight Vols Fight

Malaguena, Strike Up the Band, Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy, 76 Trombones, Night Train, Jacob's Ladder, Baby Elephant Walk, Tea for Two, I'm Movin' on, Yakety Sax, Stars and Stripes Forever, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same as 1989 Pregame Halftime: Section Feature Show - 4 corner entrance to 6 arc and triangle, East sideline teardrop concert set, rotate to south and reform, Reform to Diagonals to west, Concentric circles, Bent arcs to front, Company front with Crown points, Interlocking UT

9/15 Texas El Paso

Same

I Saw the Light, Your Cheatin' Heart, Jambalaya, I Can't Help It, Take These Chains, Hey Good Lookin', UT Sequence

0

9/29 Auburn

Away Trip

1

10/20 Alabama

Same

Malaguena, Twist & Shout, Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, I Want to Hold Your Hand, Beethoven's 9th, Rocky Top Same Show as 10/29/90

Pregame: Same Halftime: Hank Williams Sr. Show - Texas Turn, 2 Block, Expansion diagonals, 20 Files, Interlocking UT Halftime: 4 corner entrance to 6 arcs, Circle Drill with Flower, Final arc set

11/3 Temple

Same

Happy Birthday Fanfare, Through the Years, Fight Vols Fight, Down the Field, Mr. Touchdown, Rocky Top, UT Sequence

0

11/10 Notre Dame

Same

Crown Imperial, I'm Movin' On, Proud Mary, TN Waltz, When the Saints Go Marching In, Yackety Sax, Rocky Top

0

275

Drum Major

Lafe Cook

Majorettes

Monica Rahimzadeh (Head Majorette), Angela Brown, Christy Coffman, Sarah East, Jocelyn Ingram, Holly Norman, Connie Thomas, Kristi Ward

1

Concert Choir, soloists

Concert Choir, soloists

Halftime: Same drill as 9/29/90 with Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: 100th anniversary of UT Football Show Texas Turn, 2 Block, Expansion diagonals, "100", State of TN, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: Texas Turn, 2 Blocks with Soloist, Interlocking UT

Boots Randolph, soloist

238 Year

1991

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

11/17 Ole Miss

At Memphis

11/24 Kentucky

Members (Charted)

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Same Show as 9/29/90

1

Same

Battle Hymn, This My Country, God Bless America, Hold Onto Love, God Bless the USA, UT Sequence

0

Halftime: Same drill as 9/29/90 with Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: Texas Turn, 2 Blocks with Soloist, Block Concert Set, Interlocking UT

12/1 Vanderbilt

Away Trip

Same Show as 9/29/90

1

1/1/91 Virginia (Sugar Bowl)

Same until National Anthem, Rocky Top, Down the Field

1

9/14 UCLA

Fanfare, TN Waltz March, Alma Mater March, Visitor's Fight Song, Rocky Top, Alma Mater March, Semper Fidelis, National Anthem, Fight Vols Fight, Down the Field, Fight Vols Fight

Battle Hymn, When the Cassions Go Rolling Along, Anchors Aweigh, Wild Blue Yonder, Semper Fidelis, Marine Hymn, God Bless the USA, America the Beautiful, Rocky Top Candide, Something's Coming, Tonight, America, Maria, Somewhere, UT Sequence

9/21 Mississippi State

Same

9/28 Auburn

275

Drum Major

Chris Satterfield

Majorettes

1

Pregame: Same as 1990 Pregame Halftime: West Side Story Show 2 Corner entrance to arcs, Circle Drill, Rotating Double Star, Interlocking UT

Happy Birthday, Celebrate, Here Comes the Showboat, Waitin' for the Robert E. Lee, As Time Goes By, There'll Be Some Changes Made, Through the Years, UT Sequence

0

Same

Another Opening/Another Show, I Love Paris, Begin the Beguine, Night & Day, UT Sequence

0

10/19 Alabama

Away Trip

Same show as 9/14/91 with no UT Sequence, Exit with Rocky Top

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: 200th anniversary of City of Knoxville Show: Block entrance, "CELEBRATE," "KNOXVILLE," Show/Paddle Boat formation, "200," Connected and broken arcs final set, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: Cole Porter Show - 2 Block/1 Diamond entrance, Line Drill, Company fronts to arcs final set, Interlocking UT Halftime: Same drill as 9/14/91(no Interlocking UT)

11/2 Memphis State (HC)

Alumni Band: Down the Field, When the Saints Go Marching In, Basin Street Blues, Auld Lang Syne Pride: Same

Exodus, UT Sequence

Alumni Band: Ed Nichols

Arah East (Head Majorette), Laurel Batson, Angela Brown, Jill Coffman, Angie Killen, Lorie Lindsey, Holly Norman, Beth Prichard, Kristi Ward

Halftime: Same drill as 9/29/90 with Interlocking UT Pregame: Modified with Virginia Band Halftime: 2 Corner entrance with front sideline pass through, Circle Drill, Flower Drill, Ray Expansion Final Set

0

Alumni Band: Company Front entrance, Arcs, Interlocking UT Pregame: Same Halftime: 2 Block/1 Diamond entrance, Interlocking UT

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

Lee Greenwood, soloist

Lee Greenwood, soloist

Concert Choir, soloists

239 Year

1992

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

11/23 Kentucky

Away Trip

12/29 Penn State

Modified - No Down the Field

9/5 Southwest Louisiana

Fanfare, TN Waltz March, Alma Mater March, Visitor's Fight Song, Rocky Top, Alma Mater March, The Thunderer March, Olympic Spirit, National Anthem, Fight Vols Fight, Down the Field, Fight Vols Fight Away Trip

Parade of the Charioteers, La Suerte de los Tontos, Strike Up the Band, I've Got Rhythm, Firebird Suite Finale, Rocky Top Parade of the Charioteers, La Suerte de los Tontos, Mountain Dew, I saw the Light, I'm Movin' On, Firebird Suite Finale, Rocky Top Olympic Spirit, Olympic Fanfare, I'm A Yankee Doodle Dandy, Give My Regards to Broadway, You're a Grand Old Flag, May Way, UT Sequence

9/12 Georgia 9/19 Florida

10/10 Arkansas

10/17 Alabama

Fanfare, TN Waltz March, Alma Mater March, Visitor's Fight Song, Rocky Top, Alma Mater March, The Thunderer March, National Anthem, Fight Vols Fight, Down the Field, Fight Vols Fight Same

Same

Members (Charted)

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

1

Halftime: 2 Corner precision entrance to pendulum arcs, Double Circle Drill, Curve-linear final set

1

Pregame: Modified - No opening of "T" Halftime: Same drill as 11/23/91

1

Pregame: Same drill as 1991 Halftime: Olympic Salute Show - 2 sideline entrance to diagonal/company fronts, Multiple arcs, Circle Drill, Expansive arcs final set, Interlocking UT

Same show as 9/5/92, no UT Sequence, Exit with Rocky Top Patriotic Fanfare, Columbia the Gem of the Ocean, America, Battle Cry of Freedom, America the Beautiful, Battle Hymn, UT Sequence

1

Halftime: Same drill as 9/5/92 (no Interlocking UT)

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: Line entrance from end zones, Line Drill, Box Drill, Arcs final set, Interlocking UT

This is My Country, There'll Be Some Changes Made, Happy Days are Here Again, Don't Stop Thinking About Tomorrow, Baby Elephant Walk, Second Time Around, I've Grown Accustomed to His Face, Am I Blue, Sing the Blues, Stars and Stripes Forever, UT Sequence Welcome to Tennessee, Alabama Jubilee, Night Train to Memphis, I'm Movin' On, Jambalaya, Smokey Mountain Rain, UT Sequence

0

Pregame: Same Halftime: Election Show - 2 Sideline entrance to crosses, Donkey formation, Republican Elephant formation, "$$" that shrink, "TAXES" that expands, inverted "VOTE" to both sidelines, Capitol outline with "92", Interlocking UT

1

Pregame: Same Halftime: 3 side line entrance to expanded arcs, Circle Drill, Expanded arcs final set, Interlocking UT

275

Drum Major

Brion Randolph

Majorettes

Kristi Ward (Head Majorette), Jill Coffman, Jennifer Culpepper, Tara Duus, Kellye Harbison, Angie Killen, Lorie Lindsey, Holly Norman, Tina Rindom

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

Concert Choir, soloists

240 Year

Game

Pregame Tunes

Halftime Show Tunes

12/28 Vanderbilt

Away Trip

11/21 Kentucky

Same

Members (Charted)

Drum Major

Majorettes

Circle Drills

Drill Design/Show Theme

Yellowbeard, Sing Sing Sing, I Love Paris, Wonderful Day Like Today, There's No Business Like Show Business, Swanee, People, Rocky Top

1

Halftime: In Memory of Roy Acuff Show Texas Turn, Circle Drill, Inverted arcs/diamonds, Expanded arcs final set

Down the Field, Crown Imperial, Hey Look Me Over, Mountain Dew, I Saw the Light, I'm Movin' On, Army of the Nile, Rocky Top, Through the Years, Irish Tune from County Derry, UT Sequence

1

Pregame: Same with Dr. Julian directing National Anthem Halftime: D. WJ Julian Retirement (surprise) Show: End zone entrance with 80 members (representing 1st band under Dr. Julian at UT), Line Drill, Rest of band joins to full chevron, 1st Band executes 1st Circle drill at UT with rest of members in large square around, Full band Circle Drill, Kaleidoscope Drill, Flower Drill, Rotating inverted diamond within large circle, 20 files, "JULIAN", 7 expanded arcs for final set, Interlocking UT

Guest/Honoree/ Soloist

Dr. WJ Julian, honoree

241 APPENDIX D PROGRAMS FROM NATIONAL BAND CONVENTIONS

Southern Division Convention of the Music Educators National Conference April 28, 1977 in Atlanta, Georgia

242

American Bandmasters Association Convention March 5, 1975 in New Orleans, Louisiana

243

American Bandmaster Association Convention March 1, 1979 in Montgomery, Alabama

244

245

American Bandmasters Association Convention March 25, 1987 in Knoxville, Tennessee

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