World War II: The Home Front

World War II: The Home Front

World War II: The Home Front Backwards Planning Curriculum Units Michael Hutchison, Writer Dr. Aaron Willis, Project Coordinator Justin Coffey, Ass...

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World War II: The Home Front

Backwards Planning Curriculum Units

Michael Hutchison, Writer

Dr. Aaron Willis, Project Coordinator Justin Coffey, Associate Editor Kerry Gordonson, Editor Starr Balmer, Assistant Editor Amanda Harter, Graphic Designer

Social Studies School Service 10200 Jefferson Blvd., P.O. Box 802 Culver City, CA 90232 http://socialstudies.com [email protected] (800) 421-4246

© 2009 Social Studies School Service

10200 Jefferson Blvd., P.O. Box 802 Culver City, CA 90232 United States of America (310) 839-2436 (800) 421-4246 Fax: (800) 944-5432 Fax: (310) 839-2249 http://socialstudies.com [email protected] Permission is granted to reproduce individual worksheets for classroom use only. Printed in the United States of America ISBN 978-1-56004-382-9

Product Code: ZP408

Table of Contents Introduction.................................................................................................................... iv Lecture Notes.................................................................................................................. S1 Student Handouts........................................................................................................... H1 Backwards Planning Curriculum: World War II: The Home Front Backwards Planning Activities...................... 1 Project #1: The Impact of the War in Your Town ............................................ 3 Project #2: World War II Propaganda Filmmaking .......................................... 8 Project #3: Letters from the Home Front ........................................................ 13 World War II: The Home Front Multiple-Choice Quiz .................................. 19 World War II: The Home Front Multiple-Choice Quiz Answer Key ............. 24

How to Use This Unit Backwards planning offers an innovative yet simple approach to meeting curriculum goals; it also provides a way to keep students engaged and focused throughout the learning process. Many teachers approach history instruction in the following manner: they identify a topic required by state and/or national standards, they find materials on that topic, they use those materials with their students, and then they administer some sort of standard test at the end of the unit. Backwards planning, rather than just starting with a required instructional topic, goes a step further by identifying exactly what students need to know by the end of the unit—the socalled “enduring understandings.” The next step involves assessment: devising ways to determine whether students have learned what they need to know. The final step involves planning the teaching/learning process so that students can acquire the knowledge needed. This product uses backwards planning to combine a PowerPoint presentation, activities that involve authentic assessment, and traditional tests (multiple-choice and essay) into a complete curriculum unit. Although the materials have enough built-in flexibility that you can use them in a number of ways, we suggest the following procedure: 1. Start with the “essential questions” listed on slide 2 of the PowerPoint presentation (these also appear in the teacher support materials). Briefly go over them with students before getting into the topic material. These questions will help students focus their learning and note taking during the course of the unit. You can also choose to use the essential questions as essay questions at the end of the unit; one way to do this is to let students know at the outset that one of the essential questions will be on the test—they just won’t know which one. 2. Next, discuss the activities students will complete during the unit. This will also help focus their learning and note taking, and it will lead them to view the PowerPoint presentation in a different light, considering it a source of ideas for authentic-assessment projects. 3. Present the PowerPoint to the class. Most slides have an image and bullet points summarizing the slide’s topic. The Notes page for each slide contains a paragraph or two of information that you can use as a presentation script, or just as background information for your own reference. You don’t need to present the entire PowerPoint at once: it’s broken up into several sections, each of which concludes with some discussion questions that echo parts of the essential questions and also help students to get closer to the “enduring understandings.” Spend some time with the class going over and debating these questions—this will not only help students think critically about the material, but it will also allow you to incorporate different modes of instruction during a single class period, offering a better chance to engage students. 4. Have students complete one or more of the authentic-assessment activities. These activities are flexible: most can be completed either individually or in groups, and either as homework or as in-class assignments. Each activity includes a rubric; many also have graphic organizers. You can choose to have students complete the activities after you have shown them the entire PowerPoint presentation, or you can show them one section of the PowerPoint, go over the discussion questions, and then have students complete an activity. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use only. © 2009 Social Studies School Service. (800) 421-4246. http://socialstudies.com

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5. End the unit with traditional assessment. The support materials include a 20-question multiple-choice quiz; you can combine this with an essay question (you can use one of the essential questions or come up with one of your own) to create a full-period test. 6. If desired, debrief with students by going over the essential questions with them again and remind them what the enduring understandings are. We are dedicated to continually improving our products and working with teachers to develop exciting and effective tools for the classroom. We can offer advice on how to maximize the use of the product and share others’ experiences. We would also be happy to work with you on ideas for customizing the presentation. We value your feedback, so please let us know more about the ways in which you use this product to supplement your lessons; we’re also eager to hear any recommendations you might have for ways in which we can expand the functionality of this product in future editions. You can e-mail us at [email protected] We look forward to hearing from you.

Dr. Aaron Willis Chief Education Officer Social Studies School Service

Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use only. © 2009 Social Studies School Service. (800) 421-4246. http://socialstudies.com

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World War II: The Home Front At the dawn of the 1940s, some Americans suspected that the war raging in Europe would eventually pull the U.S. into the fight, but most saw the conflict as far away and felt secure that they would be safe. However, the Japanese attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941—“a date which will live in infamy”—changed things. The attack thrust the nation into a global war that it had barely prepared for. The fight required the rapid mobilization of all aspects of American society, drawing all citizens into the war effort by demanding a degree of sacrifice by everyone. To this end, the federal government under Franklin Delano Roosevelt assumed tighter control of the economy and directed the energies of industry toward producing goods and materiel. The workforce was transformed as women took over traditionally male occupations, while business chafed under new regulations and price controls. Household staples became scarce as resources were diverted. Intense propaganda campaigns made Americans feel as if practically every move they made either helped or hurt the war effort. Americans, meanwhile, tried to live their lives as normally as possible. Some could not: Misguided fears of espionage and sabotage resulted in the forced removal and internment of Japanese American citizens in large numbers. African Americans wanting to serve their country or work in the war industry faced racial discrimination but proved their worth to the war effort, as did other minorities. America lost FDR not long before the war came to a close, leaving his successor to deal the final blows against the Axis powers. In many, the joy and relief of a hard-fought victory mingled with feelings of uncertainty about what would happen when the soldiers, sailors, and Marines came home to a country that had changed greatly in their absence.

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Essential Questions • How did America initially respond to the events leading to WWII? • How did the war change the American home front, both culturally and socially? • How did the war transform the U.S. economy both immediately and in the long term? • How did the war affect minority groups during the period? • What effect did the war have on American industry? • How did the war unify America in a common purpose?

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“The Arsenal of Democracy” • America “officially neutral” as European war began • FDR increased military production and skirted Neutrality Acts after Nazi victories • FDR ran for third term • Lend-Lease Act passed • U.S. embargoed oil and scrap-iron sales to Japan

Mindful of popular opinion as well as congressional investigations into America’s entry into World War I, the U.S. proclaimed itself “officially neutral” as the European war began in 1939. After rapid Nazi victories in Poland and France, however, President Franklin D. Roosevelt decided that the U.S. could not sit idly by. Congress had passed a series of Neutrality Acts in the late 1930s to keep the U.S. out of costly, destructive entanglements such as WWI. FDR agreed to revise the acts to allow belligerents to purchase weapons and non-military goods on a “cash and carry” basis (that is, having a nation pay the entire bill now and arrange for all transport of goods). In addition, he requested significant budget increases for the military and stepped up airplane production. As the situation in Europe deteriorated, FDR ran for an unprecedented third term as president. He defeated internationalist Republican Wendell Willkie in 1940, promising voters that “your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars.” However, by Christmas 1940, he stated in a fireside chat that the U.S. must become the “great arsenal of Democracy.” In January, FDR proposed the LendLease Act, which allowed the U.S. to “lend or lease” weapons to Britain, to be paid for after the war. This effectively skirted the “cash and carry” provision of the Neutrality Acts. Though the U.S. had not officially declared war against Germany, it had certainly become involved in the fight. Meanwhile, the U.S. looked for a peaceful way to stop Japanese aggression against China. In an effort to derail the Japanese war machine, the FDR decided to embargo sales of needed military goods, such as oil and scrap metal. The embargo convinced some Japanese leaders to best handle any threat by the U.S. military with a stunning attack against military installations, such as the naval base at Pearl Harbor.

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The Election of 1940

In this map of electoral results, FDR is indicated in green, Willkie in red

• FDR won unprecedented third term • Defeated Willkie • Both candidates considered “internationalists”

With war looming, President Roosevelt decided to seek a third term. Using the peacetime draft as an excuse, he told Democrats that he would not actively campaign for the nomination, but if “drafted” he would accept the nomination and a third term as president. The Republicans nominated Wall Street banker Wendell Willkie, who had recently switched from the Democratic to Republican Party. Both candidates were so-called “internationalists,” meaning that both felt the U.S. should take a leading role in world affairs as the war in Europe expanded. Although not with as great a margin as in 1932 or 1936, FDR won a third term against Willkie, defeating him in the popular vote by nearly five million votes. FDR carried 449 electoral votes to Willkie’s 82.

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The America First Committee • Formed in 1940 • An estimated 800,000 members at its height • Most prominent member was Charles Lindbergh • Advocated building up U.S. defenses and staying out of Europe’s problems • Dissolved four days after Pearl Harbor

Charles Lindbergh speaking at an America First rally

Many Americans did not wish to risk military involvement in the war in Europe, regardless of the threat that Adolf Hitler appeared to pose to the world’s security and stability. Some became vocal in their opposition to increasing American involvement, most notably the America First Committee. Founded in September 1940, the AFC soon rose to over 800,000 members across the nation. Members included Robert E. Wood, chairman of Sears, Roebuck, and Co.; WWI flying ace Eddie Rickenbacker; and “New Deal agitators” Father Charles Coughlin and Gerald L.K. Smith. However, the most famous member was probably aviator Charles Lindbergh, whose 1927 solo transatlantic flight had made him a national hero. He believed that the U.S. should focus on building up its air and coastal defenses, asserting that what FDR was asking the American people to enter into and support were actually Europe’s problems, and decrying the fact that voters never had an opportunity to vote on these policies. For nearly a year, the America First Committee spoke out against American involvement in the war in Europe. However, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor silenced the organization, which dissolved less than a week after the attack on Pearl Harbor.

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FDR’s “Four Freedoms” • FDR’s 1941 State of the Union address • Early in his third term • Equated aid to Britain with protecting universal freedoms

An excerpt from the speech

Perhaps no one made a better case for American internationalism in the days before the U.S. entered the war, than President Roosevelt himself, in his famous “Four Freedoms” speech. FDR, recently elected to an unprecedented third term, wanted to impress on the American people—many of whom still opposed U.S. involvement in the widening war in Europe— that aid to Britain, now standing alone against Germany, not only ensured their security but protected basic freedoms of all persons everywhere.

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From the “Four Freedoms” Speech “In the future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression—everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his way— everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want—which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants—everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear—which, translated into world terms, means a worldwide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor—anywhere in the world.”

Note to teacher: The CD-ROM includes an audio file of FDR’s speech that you may wish to play here.

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Selective Service Act of 1940

FDR signs the Selective Service Act into law

• First peacetime draft in U.S. • All men aged 21–35 required to register; later 18–65 • Required men picked for duty to serve 12 months • Service in the U.S. or its possessions

President Roosevelt had promised American voters that “your boys aren’t going to be sent into any foreign wars.” However, he also recognized the need for bolstering the armed forces in case the U.S. did enter the war. To that end, Congress passed the Selective Service and Training Act of 1940 (commonly called the “Selective Service Act”), instituting the country’s first peacetime draft. The law required all males aged 21–35 to register. A lottery system would help to select draftees for duty; if selected, the act required a man to serve for 12 months, after which he would be discharged. All service had to occur in the mainland U.S. or in a U.S. possession. The act limited the peacetime army to a maximum of 900,000 men. It also allowed for noncombat duty for conscientious objectors. By summer 1941, it had become increasingly evident that the U.S. would enter the war. By a single vote, Congress extended the act’s term of service from 12 to 18 months. Congress passed a new Selective Service Act soon after U.S. joined the war, which required all men aged 18–65 to register for the draft and made all men aged 18–45 eligible for military service. This new act lengthened the term of service to six months after the end of the war. From 1940 until 1947 (when the wartime draft law expired), more than 10,000,000 Americans were inducted into military service.

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Discussion Questions 1. What steps did FDR take toward making the U.S. the “Arsenal of Democracy”? 2. What was the America First Committee? Who were some of its more famous members? Why did it disband? 3. How did FDR explain the need to provide aid to Britain in his “Four Freedoms” speech? Why do you think that FDR took this approach?

1. As Nazi Germany grew more powerful, FDR first modified the Neutrality Acts to permit the sale of weapons to belligerents on a cash-and-carry basis. He also asked for increases in the federal defense budget and stepped up airplane production. To help Britain even further without disobeying the Neutrality Acts, FDR instituted the “Lend-Lease” plan, by which Britain could receive materiel now and pay for it after the war. He signed the Selective Service and Training Act of 1940 to establish a peacetime draft. Finally, he embargoed oil and scrapmetal sales to Japan in response to its aggression against China. 2. The America First Committee was an organization formed in 1940 that actively spoke out against American intervention in Europe and advocated bolstering the defenses of the U.S. mainland instead. Several prominent Americans joined the group, including aviator Charles Lindbergh, World War I flying ace Eddie Rickenbacker, and Robert E. Wood, chairman of Sears, Roebuck and Co. The America First Committee disbanded immediately following the attack on Pearl Harbor, probably because U.S. intervention had become a foregone conclusion. 3. By portraying aid to Britain as a means of protecting fundamental human rights—such as the freedoms from fear and want, and of speech and worship—Roosevelt explained his position in a way that most Americans could understand and support. FDR took this approach likely because (1) it framed the war in Europe in larger, moral terms as a conflict between right and wrong, and not one nation versus another in one particular circumstance, (2) it played to the American ideals of freedom, fairness, and standing up for a worthy cause, and (3) it gave FDR room to expand U.S. involvement in Europe as needed, in pursuit of the speech’s goals.

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Pearl Harbor • December 7, 1941 • Carrier-based Japanese planes bombed naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii • More than 2400 Americans killed • U.S. Pacific fleet temporarily crippled

The USS Arizona burns during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor

American hopes of staying out of war ended on December 7, 1941, when carrier-based Japanese planes bombed the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. In the attack, more than 2400 Americans were killed, with over 1100 wounded. Several American battleships were either sunk or badly damaged. The USS Arizona was destroyed by an armor-piercing bomb that detonated in the ship’s fuel and ammunition chain; more than 1100 sailors and Marines died onboard the ship. Other Japanese planes heavily damaged Pearl Harbor’s army installations and airfields. American naval and airpower eventually recovered from the attack, but on that day, it was far from certain whether the U.S. military could adequately respond to the Japanese threat.

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Pearl Harbor: The Nature of the Attack

Japanese aerial view of Pearl Harbor under attack

• Japanese intended to knock out U.S. military power • Aircraft carriers followed less detectable northern route • U.S. officials knew of a coming attack, but not at Pearl Harbor • Not meant to be a “sneak attack”

The Japanese designed their attack on Pearl Harbor to be a knockout blow. Members of the Japanese high command felt that if they could deliver a crippling blow to the Pacific Fleet, the U.S. would not have the heart for a prolonged war. However, the Japanese underestimated both the U.S. ability to make war, and its economic capability. In order to avoid detection, the Japanese fleet used a difficult northern, rather than eastern, route to approach Pearl Harbor. Many U.S. military officials, however, thought a Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor impossible—due first to the distance from Japan to Hawaii, and second because the relatively shallow harbor would make torpedoes launched from planes simply impact harmlessly on the harbor floor. Most Americans believed that the Japanese had planned a “sneak attack” on a Sunday to catch American military forces off-guard. In actuality, the Japanese plan did not call for the attack first and a declaration of hostilities later. Translation of a diplomatic cable to the U.S. government was delayed, and by the time the Japanese ambassador could deliver the cable, the attack had already begun.

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FDR’s War Message • Delivered to Congress on December 8, 1941 • Only one member of Congress voted against declaring war • Germany declared war on the U.S. a few days later FDR signs the declaration of war with Japan

The day after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt addressed a joint session of Congress and asked for a declaration of war against Japan. He opened his speech with the famous words, “Yesterday, December 7, 1941, a date which will live in infamy.” FDR also described the attack as “dastardly and unprovoked.” The Senate voted unanimously to declare war on Japan. Only one member of the House of Representatives, Jeanette Rankin of Montana, voted against the resolution. Rankin became the only member of Congress to vote against U.S. entry into both World War I and World War II. FDR did not ask Congress to declare war against Germany; however, both Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S. on December 11th. America now found itself fighting a twofront war. Note to teacher: You may wish to play the audio file of this speech, included on the CD-ROM.

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FDR’s War Message: A Significant Change • FDR changed the first line, which included the phrase, “a date which will live in world history” • FDR’s reading copy found after 43 years

FDR’s annotated draft copy of his speech

FDR made revisions to the typed copy of the speech, including more updated information about the military situation, and more importantly, a one-word change to the opening line: rather than his original phrasing that December 7th would be a date which “would live in world history,” he substituted the word “infamy” in order to give the statement more impact. After FDR delivered his war message, he inadvertently left his reading copy behind. A Senate clerk found the speech, and filed it in away in the Senate records, where it sat for 43 years. In 1984, an archivist found the speech and placed it in the National Archives. Discussion questions: Ask students to reflect on the phrase, “a date which will live in infamy,” compared to the original phrase, “a date which will live in world history.” Ask students whether they think the revised phrase seems more effective in stirring popular opinion toward war, and why.

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German Agents in the U.S. • Four German agents landed at Amagansett, NY (June 1942) • Four others near Jacksonville, FL • Both groups had maps, explosives, cash • Planned to sabotage factories, bridges, other installations • FBI arrested both groups

Trial of captured German saboteurs, July 1942

In June 1942, authorities captured four German agents, apparently delivered to the U.S. shore by submarine, soon after they landed at Amagansett, Long Island, NY. A few days later, authorities snapped up four more agents near Jacksonville, FL. In both instances, the agents carried explosives, maps, and several thousand dollars in cash. According to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, the agents had landed with the goal of a two-year campaign of sabotage against U.S. war industries, railways, waterworks, and bridges. In the Long Island case, Coast Guard personnel observed the initial landing, but lacked the equipment to deal with a landing party. Instead, they notified the FBI, which conducted surveillance in the area, and eventually found and arrested the enemy agents. The FBI arrested the Florida group shortly thereafter. The Coast Guard and FBI criticized each other for their handling of the landings. As a result, shore patrols and surveillance were increased for the duration of the war.

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U-Boats in the Western Atlantic

A German U-boat

• Operation Paukenschlag • East Coast essentially undefended • U-boats sank over 500 ships in the U.S. defense zone, July–December 1942 • U.S. 10th Fleet fought against U-boats in western Atlantic • Sank 65 U-boats in six months

German submarines (Unterseeboote, or “U-boats”) patrolling off the East Coast of the U.S. in the days after Pearl Harbor found the coastline essentially unguarded. In addition, most shipping in the region traveled with lights on and unescorted—easy prey for German Uboats. The German navy instituted Operation Paukenschlag (Drumbeat), in which German U-boat “wolfpacks” sank ships with impunity in what they called the “American shooting season.” In ten days, five U-Boats sank 25 ships, without a single U-boat sunk or damaged. U.S. shipping losses skyrocketed throughout the first part of 1942. More and more U-boats appeared in the waters of the western Atlantic—at one point, 105 U-boats were patrolling the U.S. coast, sinking 524 ships, along with nearly eight million tons of shipping. Increased patrols by the U.S. navy’s 10th Fleet managed to strike back against the U-boats. Given the mission of finding, tracking, and destroying German subs, the fleet sank 65 in late 1943 and early 1944; it eventually sank over 100. Eventually, the German high command judged losses in the western Atlantic too high and pulled the remaining U-boats from the area, reassigning them to the northern Atlantic.

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Japanese Balloon Bombs • Carried anti-personnel and incendiary bombs • Floated to the West Coast • Killed six picnickers in Oregon in 1945

A balloon bomb

While the Japanese and Germans could not launch direct assaults on U.S. territory, they did try to attack the U.S. mainland in novel ways. In one instance, the Japanese used “balloon bombs” in attempts to kill U.S. civilians. Constructed mostly of paper and rubberized silk, the balloons carried both anti-personnel and incendiary bombs. The Japanese launched more than 9000 balloons toward the U.S., though only about 1000 made it; less than 300 sightings were actually reported. The U.S. military and news media elected not to provide widespread coverage of the balloon, while the Japanese decided to end the offensive by April 1945, certain that their operation had failed. However, in May 1945, a balloon bomb killed six Oregon picnickers when it exploded as they dragged it from the woods. The federal government then publicized the balloon bombs, warning people not to tamper with them. The Oregon deaths were the only known civilian home-front fatalities during World War II.

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Civil Defense • Fears of attack by Axis Powers on U.S. mainland • Office of Civilian Defense • Civil Air Patrol and Civil Defense Corps • Performed various protective services The WWII-era Civil Defense logo

Just as the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, showed that American cities were not safe from foreign attack, the attack on Pearl Harbor convinced many that “homeland security” had to be maintained in addition to fighting in Europe and the Pacific. To ensure that American cities would remain safe, the Office of Civilian Defense, first headed by New York Mayor Fiorello La Guardia, had the responsibility of devising protective measures and elevating national morale. Soon, cities required citizens to practice blackout conditions, and air-raid wardens conducted drills as if German or Japanese aircraft were approaching to destroy houses and businesses. The Civil Air Patrol’s duties included commissioning civilian pilots to patrol American coastlines and borders, and facilitating search-and-rescue missions where needed. Officials established the Civil Defense Corps to fight fires which might occur after a bombing raid, decontaminate areas following a chemical-weapons attack, and administer first aid. While the Axis Powers never attacked the mainland, the prevalent thought at the time was that an attack was not only possible, but likely. Officials had dissolved the civil defense agencies established during World War I soon after the war. However, most of the World War II–era agencies remained in effect to help civilian populations deal with Cold War concerns.

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The War Powers Act • Gave the president sweeping powers to conduct the war • President allowed to initiate and terminate war contracts • Government agencies set for wartime priorities • Foreign assets also frozen • Censorship allowed, though media generally censored themselves

Within days of formally declaring war against the Axis Powers, Congress passed the 1941 War Powers Act, which gave the president sweeping authority to conduct the war. As commander-in-chief, FDR could enter into and terminate contracts with defense industries. The act reconfigured government agencies to deal with war-related situations and emergencies, and allowed for freezing foreign assets if needed. Most significantly, the act gave the president the power to censor all incoming and outgoing communications. FDR appointed Byron Price, executive news director of the Associated Press, as director of censorship. Price relied mainly on the media to regulate itself, which it did fairly effectively. However, there were instances of fairly heavy-handed censorship. Magazines that sometimes included “adult” content were considered obscene, and Esquire magazine successfully sued the postal service to allow for distribution in the mail. In another instance, First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt received a letter of reprimand due to an entry in her “My Day” newspaper column in which she described the weather while on a trip with her husband; Mrs. Roosevelt promised not to do it again.

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Discussion Questions 1. What were the immediate effects on the U.S. of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor? 2. What were some ways in which the Germans and Japanese tried to directly attack the U.S.? 3. What did the War Powers Act give FDR the authority to do in conducting the war?

1. While the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor lowered U.S. morale in December 1941, it also resulted in a significant setback for the American military. More than 2400 American servicemen died in the attack, and several ships in the Pacific Fleet were severely damaged or destroyed. The attack also crippled the army installations and airfields there. Most importantly, the attack led FDR to ask Congress for a declaration of war against Japan. 2. In 1942, German agents attempted to infiltrate the U.S. from locations on Long Island (NY) and in Florida; while they did no significant damage to U.S. infrastructure, they planned to sabotage defense plants as well as bridges and railroads. German U-boats also inflicted great losses on shipping in the western Atlantic until American naval forces disrupted their sinking of merchant ships in 1944. The Japanese floated balloons carrying anti-personnel and incendiary bombs toward the West Coast. 3. The War Powers Act gave the president sweeping powers: he could enter into and terminate contracts with war industries, reconfigure government agencies to deal more effectively with war-related matters, and freeze the assets of foreign nations if needed. The act also allowed for censorship of the media, though the media essentially censored themselves.

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New Recruits • Over 60,000 enlisted immediately after Pearl Harbor • Military training facilities overwhelmed • Not enough barracks or materiel • Recruits processed, then sent to basic training • Recruits broke down cultural and class barriers

Recruits arriving at the naval training center in San Diego

Immediately after the attack on Pearl Harbor, more than 60,000 Americans volunteered for military service. The already undersupplied U.S. military now found itself overwhelmed. Rather than house enlistees in barracks, the army put them in tents. The military also commonly had shortages of materiel: many recruits trained with broomsticks instead of rifles, rocks instead of grenades, and trucks rather than armored vehicles. The typical enlistee first went to a “reception” center, where doctors administered physical exams and vaccinated recruits against diseases such as smallpox, typhoid, and others they might encounter overseas. In addition, doctors noted and assessed recruits’ physical issues such as poor vision and dental problems. After the physical, the military issued recruits supplies needed for service, including uniforms, mess kits, and other equipment. Basic training for most recruits lasted eight weeks, in which instructors would subject them to physical training as well as classroom instruction on basic military strategies and tactics. Recruits with higher levels of education were frequently placed in Officer Candidate School. While the army segregated enlistees by race, they did not group them by region or social class. Mixed together, troops frequently developed a “brotherhood” with recruits from different backgrounds and ways of life.

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Basic Training • Designed to build strength and stamina • Obstacle courses, forced marches, marksmanship • Instilled a strong sense of discipline Army recruits practice calisthenics at Camp Robinson, Arkansas, in 1942

The basic training that recruits received placed an emphasis on physical training that would harden civilians into fighting men, building both strength and stamina. During this eightweek program, recruits constantly faced various tests designed to make sure they could function in combat situations: obstacle courses lined with barbed wire, and lengthy “forced marches” and speeded “quick marches,” usually while carrying heavy packs and extra field equipment. They practiced disassembling and cleaning their M1 rifle, and then reassembling it under battlefield conditions. They learned how to fire their weapon quickly and accurately; generally, trainees from rural areas had extensive hunting experience and therefore more success on the rifle range. Another aspect of basic training had instructors “break down” recruits in order to “rebuild” them with a strong sense of discipline. A recruit caught smoking after hours might be forced to smoke a cigarette with a metal pail over his head, resulting usually in choking and vomiting. A recruit who mopped a floor poorly might have to repeat the job with only a toothbrush. A soldier whose uniform didn’t meet standards might result in extra calisthenics for the whole unit as punishment.

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Marshall and Mobilization • Army underfunded and underdeveloped in late 1930s • Marshall became Army Chief of Staff • Convinced FDR and Congress to provide increased manpower and funding

General George C. Marshall

In the 1920s and into the 1930s, the U.S. military had little strength compared to many of the other industrialized world powers. When Hitler’s forces invaded Poland in September 1939, the U.S. Army numbered only 190,000 men, many of whom had enlisted in the peacetime army to escape the hardships of the Great Depression. However, on the same day that WWII began in Europe, General George C. Marshall became Army Chief of Staff. Marshall asked FDR for an appropriation of $657 million to help increase the size of the army as the military situation in Europe became bleaker for the Allies. The president agreed to most of the request. By the time France surrendered to Germany in May 1940, Congress had given the U.S. military $9 billion. Through the Selective Service Act of 1940, the size of the army grew dramatically. At its peak, the army numbered almost six million men, with the Army Air Force slightly over two million. Although draftees made up most of the military, it could still defeat a welltrained enemy force while undergoing rapid expansion and training in wartime.

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Women in the War Effort • Took over many jobs for servicemen, most notably in heavy industry • Some joined the military • Altered family life, brought several drawbacks

A poster urging women to take manufacturing jobs to help the war effort

With millions of American men either enlisting in the armed forces or drafted, women had to take over many jobs usually performed by men, such as working in heavy industry, manufacturing tools of war including tanks, planes, and other materiel. The image of “Rosie the Riveter” became commonplace as women soon became the backbone of American industry during the war years. Other women sought a more active role in defense by joining specially created women’s units in the armed forces. Many joined the WACs, WAVEs, SPARs, and other related units, filling many noncombat positions both stateside and overseas. Women also served as drivers, clerks, communications officers, pilots, and nurses. Thirty nurses were killed in action during World War II. However, while many women became the family breadwinner and proved that they could work as hard as their male counterparts, wartime employment had substantial drawbacks. The divorce rate increased substantially, as did juvenile delinquency among females. The incidence of alcoholism among women also grew. Many women had to uproot themselves and their families to relocate to communities that provided more defense-industry opportunities. A new generation of “latchkey kids” frequently found itself without parental guidance or supervision, perhaps with fathers in the military and mothers working a shift at a defense plant.

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The Women’s Army Corps

WAC Director Col. Oveta Culp Hobby (right) confers with WAC members at Mitchell Field, NY

• Marshall noted British success in using women for noncombat duties • Congress created Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps in 1942 • WAAC later renamed “Women’s Army Corps”

U.S. military leaders saw in the early days of the war that the female population could provide significant military service as well. Impressed with the British army’s incorporation of women in military service, Army Chief of Staff George C. Marshall became a main proponent of a women’s unit for the U.S. Army. With his backing, and at the urging of other women leaders including First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, Congress created the Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) in May 1942. Congress upgraded the WAAC to full military status within a year, renaming it the “Women’s Army Corps” (WAC). WACs (as corps members were informally known) contributed to the war effort by performing more than 200 noncombat jobs, including operating switchboards, driving staff cars, and sorting mail. The military stationed WACs at more than 400 mainland military bases as well as in both the European and Pacific theaters. By the end of the European war, the WACs had more than 100,000 members, including more than 6000 commissioned officers. The army named as director Oveta Culp Hobby, wife of former Texas Governor William Hobby and head of the War Department’s Women’s Interest Section. After the war, she became the first secretary of the newly created Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (later, the Department of Health and Human Services).

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WAVEs • “Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service” • Navy program similar to WACs • Did not serve overseas • Nurses, clerical work, communications jobs

A WAVES recruitment poster explaining the pay scale for members

With the WAAC established by summer 1942, the navy followed suit with a similar program, called “Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service” (WAVES). Although an official part of the navy, the program’s name indicated its temporary nature; after the war ended, members would be discharged. The navy stationed WAVEs (as individuals were called) only in the continental U.S. or in U.S. possessions such as Hawaii. They did not serve in any combat zones. Most WAVEs worked as nurses, in communications jobs and clerical positions, and as storekeepers. The U.S. Coast Guard established a similar program, called “SPAR,” after the initials of that branch’s motto, “Semper Paratus” (“Always Ready”). In 1948, Congress disbanded the WAVEs by passing the Women’s Armed Services Integration Act, which gave women permanent status in the armed forces. However, most female recruits were known as WAVEs for much of the 20th century.

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WASPs

Four WASPs receive final instructions as they chart a cross-country course

• “Women’s Airforce Service Pilots” • Aviators Cochran and Love proposed idea separately • Performed noncombat flight duties • Freed male pilots for combat missions

Although the military barred women from participating in naval or ground combat operations, they still provided valuable service to the U.S. armed forces in noncombat roles. Female aviators did the same through their service in the Women’s Airforce Service Pilots program. Two well-known pilots, Jacqueline Cochran and Nancy Harkness Love, independently proposed such a program prior to Pearl Harbor. While the Army Air Corps rejected these early submissions, the entry of the U.S. into WWII changed the position of General Henry “Hap” Arnold, as well as other military leaders. Women worked as civilian flight instructors, as well as ferried planes from factories to airfields. Female pilots towed airborne targets for anti-aircraft drills, simulated strafing drills, and transported cargo. Perhaps most importantly, the contributions of the WASPs made male pilots available to participate in combat. Unlike the WACs and WAVEs, Congress failed to pass legislation giving the WASPs equal military status with the all-male Army Air Corps. Considered civilian civil-service employees, the WASP corps was disbanded in late 1944. Only in the late 1970s did the U.S. government retroactively give the WASPs equal military status, recognizing female pilots for their service.

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Women in the Workforce • Women were encouraged to work in defense plants • Others grew Victory Gardens and helped with recycling for the war effort • Generally earned less than male workers

Factory workers polish Plexiglas nose cones for A-20 attack bombers

Although some women joined the military during the war, most found they could assist the war effort by working in the private sector. By war’s end, nearly 18,000,000 women worked outside the home—one-and-a-half times the number that had performed similar labor in 1939. The shortage of male workers led employers to suggest that women’s work as homemakers had adequately prepared them for work in industry. The majority of women working in defense plants earned much less than their male counterparts, though many used to working as homemakers without pay accepted lower salaries without question. Many married women with the responsibility of raising children as well as managing the home, stayed housewives. However, they contributed to the war effort by growing Victory Gardens (which fed the family and freed food resources for troops’ consumption) and working in recycling drives, as well as buying war bonds.

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“Rosie the Riveter” • A symbol of working women during the war • Based on factory worker Rose Will Monroe • Miller and Rockwell both created iconic “Rosie” images This poster for the Westinghouse Corporation is frequently associated with “Rosie the Riveter”

One of the most iconic images of the home front was that of “Rosie the Riveter,” a symbol of the power of the working woman to help achieve victory in World War II. Though the famous “We Can Do It!” poster (by artist J. Howard Miller) is credited as one of the first uses of “Rosie” in wartime propaganda, Miller did not intended to associate his image with the character; Miller created the poster as a motivational tool for the Westinghouse Corporation, not the federal government. An actual factory employee, Rose Will Monroe, likely inspired the character of “Rosie the Riveter.” She worked as a riveter at Michigan’s Willow Run Aircraft Factory. Several government posters encouraging women to work in defense plants featured her picture, and the government also sponsored a promotional film starring Monroe. Illustrator Norman Rockwell drew another famous conception of “Rosie”—this time a welder—for the cover of the May 29, 1943, issue of The Saturday Evening Post. The original painting later sold at auction for nearly $5 million. Regardless of the character’s origin, the “Rosie” image helped spur women to help in the war effort by taking on industrial jobs that had previously gone to men.

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Discussion Questions 1. What role did General George C. Marshall play in mobilizing the armed forces early in the war? 2. How did women contribute to the U.S. war effort?

1. Marshall became Army Chief of Staff in late 1939, in which position he secured major increases in funding for the armed forces, fearing an eventual conflict with a remilitarized and expansionist Germany. He convinced the government to appropriate $9 billion by May 1940, and also to pass the Selective Service Act, which instituted a peacetime draft and grew the size of the army from 190,000 to several million at its height. 2. Women played a major role in the mobilization of the country in the war effort as well as maintaining the wartime economy. Women joined various branches or subsidiary organizations of the armed forces, including the WACs, WAVEs, SPARs, and WASPs. They also joined the workforce in large numbers, in various industries—some for the first time, such as in airplane or munitions plants. to help maintain domestic lifestyles while producing needed tools of war. “Rosie the Riveter” became a common emblem of American life, and many families depended on the woman’s income.

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Office of War Information • Established in 1942 • Coordinated release of war news • Promoted patriotism • Tried to recruit women into factory work • Propaganda program abroad • The Voice of America

Patch worn by Office or War Information personnel

As the government worked to mobilize industry and manpower for the war effort, it also took steps to prepare the nation psychologically for a difficult struggle. This task fell to the Office of War Information, established in 1942. The OWI played several roles. One involved coordinating the release of war news via censorship and control of the media. In most instances, the OWI promoted media self-censorship of the media, which complied with many restrictions regarding troop movements, military campaigns, and so on. The OWI worked to promote patriotism through various means, including posters, propaganda films, and radio shows—many featuring some of the era’s bigger celebrities. Similarly, the OWI helped to recruit women to work in the defense industry. The OWI also worked to educate foreign populations about “American democracy” through an international propaganda program, specifically with the Voice of America, a radio network that broadcasted American news and music to various nations in Europe, as well as to other parts of the world. With the end of the war came the end of the need for the OWI, and it dissolved in late 1945.

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Wartime Propaganda Posters

Government propagandists sometimes used fear and racial slurs in order to convey their message

Discussion questions: Ask students to identify specific elements that make these posters propaganda. Ask students to speculate as to how effective posters such as these might be in keeping patriotism high and focusing American attention on the war effort. Students may look at the image of Uncle Sam rolling up his sleeves (a symbol of getting down to work), as well as the Nazi workers, as good methods of propaganda, although the Nazi war workers picture is somewhat subdued compared to the picture of Uncle Sam. However, the use of the word “slavery” in the Nazi war workers poster may lead students to note that Americans who read that poster might be concerned about losing basic freedoms if the Nazis won the war.

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Donald Duck in Nutziland • Produced by Disney in 1943 • Donald Duck dreams he works on a German munitions line • Bandleader Spike Jones recorded “Der Fuehrer’s Face” • Name of cartoon later changed to reflect song title

Chorus to “Der Fuehrer’s Face”: When der fuehrer says we is de master race We heil heil right in der fueher's face Not to love der fuehrer is a great disgrace So we heil heil right in der fuehrer's

While the government churned out propaganda posters in order to maintain popular support for buying war bonds and the war effort, movie studios did the same. Disney Studios produced one of the most famous examples of pro-U.S. propaganda in 1943, a cartoon originally titled Donald Duck in Nutziland. In the cartoon, Donald Duck has a nightmare that he is living in Nazi Germany, working in a German munitions plant, dealing with what the Disney Studios portrayed as life in a dictatorship, and “heiling” Adolf Hitler. At the end of the cartoon, Donald awakens back in the U.S., kisses his model of the Statue of Liberty, and proclaims that he’s glad he’s an American. The cartoon became an instant hit, particularly after Spike Jones and His City Slickers recorded and released a version of “Der Fuehrer’s Face,” a song by Oliver Wallace featured in the cartoon. Disney later changed the cartoon’s name to reflect the song title. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences also honored the cartoon, awarding it the Oscar for best cartoon short in 1943.

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1940s Movies

A scene depicting the Nazi propaganda machine, from one of Frank Capra’s Why We Fight films

• Feature films included war themes • Nazis and Japanese portrayed as buffoons or villains • Patriotism also a common theme • Characters such as Sherlock Holmes and Tarzan battled Nazis • Documentaries by Capra and Wyler also popular

During the 1940s, Hollywood movie studios made films to promote the war effort and keep morale high. Many of the most popular films of the era featured either anti-war themes, or highlighted patriotism. Many movies, such as Chaplin’s The Great Dictator and Jack Benny’s To Be or Not to Be portrayed the Nazis as fools and buffoons. Other films such as Casablanca had Nazis as villains. The Japanese received the same treatment in films such as Flying Tigers and They Were Expendable. Studios repurposed well-known movie heroes such as Sherlock Holmes and Tarzan (both 19th-century creations) to fight fictional Nazis. Many movies from the era focused on life on the home front, including Mrs. Miniver and Since You Went Away. Other movies, such as 1942’s Yankee Doodle Dandy, starring James Cagney as American showman George M. Cohan, emphasized patriotism. Documentary filmmakers produced many lasting works in the 1940s. Frank Capra’s Why We Fight series summed up the reasons for U.S. entry into World War II, and William Wyler’s Memphis Belle told the story of a U.S. bomber crew that successfully completed 25 missions against Germany.

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Mobilization of Industry • “Dr. Win the War” replaced “Dr. New Deal” • Many civilian industries converted to war production • Manpower needed for defense plants • Scarce goods rationed and price controls established • Disputes between management and labor to resolve

Workers assembling an aircraft

Recovering from Pearl Harbor posed many significant military problems, but also posed significant problems on the home front as well. Used to federal regulation of the economy, Americans now found the government changing economic and industrial priorities to meet military needs—in the words of FDR, “ ‘Dr. New Deal’ [was] replaced by ‘Dr. Win the War’.” To reach this goal, civilian industries converted to wartime production, which frequently required retooling factories and retraining workers. Factories needed more manpower (both male and female), especially to replace workers who enlisted into the armed forces or were drafted. The sheer amount of products devoted to the war effort inevitably led to the scarcity of certain foods and goods. The government had to find a way to make sure that military populations would receive needed supplies, without subjecting civilian populations to extreme hardships. Still another question concerned relationships between management and labor—how to maintain production without the threat of strikes.

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“A Production Miracle” • Axis Powers underestimated American production • Many factories and businesses converted to war production • New industries emerged • Output significantly increased

One of the largest mistakes the Axis nations made was in believing that most Americans would not tolerate shifting industrial production to build tanks, planes, and guns, instead of washing machines, automobiles, and radios. However, American industry and the public soon proved that they were willing to make sacrifices for the sake of victory. Civilian automobile production ended two months after Pearl Harbor. Soon, automobile manufacturers had retooled and were producing airplanes and tanks. Other civilian industries did the same, and by 1942, war production involved one-third of the U.S. economy. American output of materiel equaled that of Germany, Japan, and Italy combined. The war also spurred the expansion or creation of new industries. For example, Japanesecontrolled territory contained most of the world’s supply of rubber. In response, the U.S. built nearly 50 synthetic rubber plants across the country. By war’s end, the U.S. had become the world’s largest importer of natural rubber to the world’s largest exporter of synthetic rubber. All told, U.S. industry produced 300,000 military aircraft, 2.6 million machine guns, six million tons of bombs, and 86,000 warships.

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Liberty Ships

The SS Carlos Carrillo, a Liberty ship later made into a troop carrier

• Usually cargo ships • Developed by Henry Kaiser • Featured welded hulls • Many sections prefabricated • By 1943, three entered service daily

The U.S. “production miracle” included the mass production of “Liberty ships.” Used primarily as cargo or troop carriers, the Liberty ship became one of the most recognizable vessels of the U.S. Navy. Industrialist Henry J. Kaiser developed the concept and its novel construction techniques. His ability to quickly produce these ships earned him the nickname “Sir Launch-alot,” bestowed by FDR himself. Liberty ships originated as vessels ordered by the British from the U.S. to replace ships sunk by German U-boats. While many early models used coal-fired boilers for steam propulsion, later models ran on diesel fuel. Early models featured riveted hulls, but since this significantly increased construction time as well as costs, later versions had welded hulls— previously unheard-of in ship construction. However, the use of welded hulls had its problems: In some instances, improper welds fractured in cold sea water, causing the loss of the ship. Improved welding techniques reduced this danger later in the war. Another innovation involved prefabrication: workers built various sections of the ship independently and brought them together for final assembly. While many remarked that the ships themselves were not “attractive looking,” workers could produce them extremely quickly. It originally took over six months to produce a single ship, but this fell to about 42 days. By 1943, three ships per day entered service.

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Ford’s Willow Run Facility • Built B-24 “Liberator” bombers • World’s largest factory under one roof • Produced 14 aircraft per day in August 1944

Workers at the Willow Run facility assemble B-24 bombers, 1943

Henry Ford’s Willow Run facility provided another “production miracle,” this one with B24 “Liberator” bombers. Built on the site of a farm owned by Ford Motor Company founder Henry Ford, Willow Run had an enormous factory floor. The main building had 2.5 million square feet of floor space. Until the construction of Chrysler’s engine plant in 1943, Willow Run was the largest factory in the world under one roof. Willow Run had its share of criticism. The facility produced no airplanes there until July 1942, when it merely sent a single, unassembled plane to the Douglas Aircraft facility for finishing. The government did not receive the first completed plane from Willow Run until September 1942. The War Production Board (as well as an congressional oversight committee chaired by Missouri Senator Harry Truman) severely criticized delays in constructing planes. However, Willow Run soon became more effective in producing planes. Its airframe production in 1944 nearly equaled that of the entire Japanese aircraft industry; in August of that year, Willow Run was churning out 14 aircraft per day. Efficient mass-production techniques let Willow Run deliver aircraft to the U.S. military at roughly half the cost as in 1941.

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Discussion Questions 1. What was the purpose of the Office of War Information? How did it accomplish this? 2. How did the film industry contribute to the war effort in the 1940s? What were some significant productions? 3. What techniques did Henry Kaiser introduce to dramatically increase production of Liberty ships?

1. The Office of War Information was formed in 1942 to ensure coordination of war news, promote patriotism, and develop and disseminate propaganda. The OWI produced posters, motivational films, and radio shows to keep Americans focused on the war effort. It also recruited women to work in the war industry by similar means. In addition, the OWI established and ran the Voice of America radio network to broadcast a steady stream of American propaganda to Europe and in the Pacific. 2. Hollywood helped the war effort by providing audiences with movies that showed the evils of the Axis and highlighted the goodness of the Allied cause. Movies such as Casablanca portrayed the Germans as sadistic warmongers, while Yankee Doodle Dandy promoted patriotism on the home front. Cartoons such as Donald Duck in Nutziland put a comic spin on why Americans had to support the war effort. Life on the home front was also brought to the silver screen in films such as Mrs. Miniver and Since You Went Away. Documentary films, such as Frank Capra’s series Why We Fight also helped to maintain American interest in fighting the war. 3. Kaiser made two innovations in shipbuilding: First was the use of welded hulls, rather than riveted hulls, which greatly reduced the time spent on construction. The second involved prefabricating sections of the ship at different locations, then bringing them together for final assembly at a shipyard.

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War Production Board • Ensured that the military had the resources it needed • Directed industrial output • Prohibited nonessential business activities • Allocated raw materials • Organized scrap drives

A “War Educational Bulletin” produced by the War Production Board

In order to coordinate the “production miracle” needed to win the war, the Roosevelt Administration created several boards and agencies which significantly altered American business and the economy during the war years. The War Production Board ensured that the military received the resources it needed to fight the war. Since the government had to acquire massive amounts of material to fight the Axis, it also needed to direct a large portion of industrial output to military purposes. Headed by Sears, Roebuck and Co. Chairman Donald Nelson, the WPB suspended nonessential business activities, such as the manufacture of civilian automobiles, for the duration of the war. It assigned priorities to scarce materials and allocated raw materials to key industries. It also organized and encouraged scrap drives to recycle waste materials into needed goods.

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Scrap Drives

Results of a scrap rubber drive

• Organized by the WPB • Encouraged collection of waste and scrap goods for war use • Materials included iron, aluminum, paper • Waste cooking fats for making glycerin

In addition to the War Production Board’s attempt to allocate scarce materials to industry, it also encouraged civilian populations to recycle waste and scrap materials for reuse as war resources. Women and children collected and turned in tons of scrap metal, aluminum, newspaper, and waste cooking fats. The U.S. government especially urged children to participate, calling them “Uncle Sam’s Scrappers,” or “Tin Can Colonels.” The WPB estimated that 30 million schoolchildren across the nation collected 15 million tons of scrap metals. It declared that this amount of scrap metal could build 425 Liberty ships. The WPB especially prized waste cooking fats because they were used to make glycerin, an important ingredient in the manufacture of gunpowder. Making one pound of gunpowder required three pounds of glycerin; therefore, firing a 12-inch shell from a navy cannon took nearly 350 pounds of glycerin.

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Scrap Drives: Posters The government used posters and publicity pictures of celebrities such as Rita Hayworth (right) to encourage citizens to recycle scrap items.

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Office of War Mobilization • Created in 1943 by FDR • Headed by James Byrnes • Became dominant mobilization agency • Byrnes worked well with labor and with the military

OWM head James F. Byrnes

It soon became apparent that the WPB could not handle all aspects of war production, such as maintaining production of certain civilian goods while at the same time ensuring production of military supplies. To solve this issue, President Franklin D. Roosevelt the creation of the Office of War Mobilization in 1943. To head the new agency, Roosevelt appointed James F. Byrnes, a former Supreme Court associate justice as well as one of FDR’s closest advisers (whom many called the “assistant president”). While it didn’t abolish the War Production Board, the OWM became the more effective, dominant agency dealing with war production, primarily because Byrnes could better handle labor issues and reach compromises with the military regarding production levels.

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The Truman Committee • Created to expose waste and fraud in the defense industry • Truman personally inspected factories and military installations • Saved taxpayers millions Senator Harry S. Truman

As the government became more and more financially involved in the war effort, the Senate created an oversight committee to investigate charges of fraud and mismanagement of federal resources and money in the defense industry. Selected to lead the committee— officially, the Senate Special Committee to Investigate the National Defense Program—was Senator Harry Truman of Missouri. Driving himself in his own Dodge automobile, Truman made several trips across the U.S. to inspect military installations and defense plants. Although Congress had only allocated $15,000 for the committee’s expenses, the Truman Committee saved taxpayers millions and did much to lessen fraud in the defense industry. Along the way, Truman made contacts with the president, and agriculture, labor, and manufacturing agencies, as well as a name for himself nationally. In 1944, supporters saw Truman as a logical choice for FDR’s running mate.

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War Manpower Commission • Headed by former IN governor Paul McNutt • Balanced the military’s recruiting needs with requirements of agriculture and industry • Gave deferments to certain groups • Oversaw the draft until 1943

WMC head Paul McNutt

The need for millions of men to fight the war caused the problem of effectively staffing the military while simultaneously allowing for enough civilian workers to produce war goods. Directed by former Indiana Governor Paul McNutt, the War Manpower Commission had the task of determining who would enter the military and who was exempt from service. Essential labor and married men with children received deferments, but soon McNutt instituted a “work or fight” program that eliminated many of these. In addition, the WMC oversaw the Selective Service System (i.e., the draft) until 1943, when FDR made it a separate agency.

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Discussion Questions 1. What were the functions of the War Production Board? 2. What was the Truman Committee? How did its work contribute to the war effort? 3. What made scrap drives so necessary to the war effort? What types of materials did they collect?

1. The War Production Board helped coordinate the “production miracle” needed to win World War II. Chiefly, the WPB ensured that the military received needed resources to fight the war. It assigned priorities to scarce materials and allocated raw materials to key industries; along these lines, the WPB organized scrap drives to recycle needed materials. 2. The Truman Commission (or the Senate Special Committee to Investigate the National Defense Program, headed by Sen. Harry Truman) was established to provide oversight of the war contracting and production process. Truman toured defense plants and military bases, looking for instances of waste and fraud. Its findings likely saved taxpayers millions of dollars in wasted resources (which were already scarce) and unfulfilled contracts. 3. Scrap drives simply arose from a scarcity of resources needed to produce goods and materiel for the military. The drives collected materials such as iron, aluminum, newspaper, and waste cooking fats (for making glycerin, a necessary component in the production of gunpowder and other explosives).

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Financing the War • U.S. spent more than $321 billion (over $3 trillion today) • National debt increased dramatically • More Americans required to pay income taxes • War-bond sales raised needed revenue

World War II demanded significant changes to the nation’s economic system. The U.S. spent more than $321 billion (over $3 trillion in today’s dollars) fighting the Axis powers. This amounted to more than twice what the federal government had spent in its entire existence. As a result, the national debt skyrocketed as well, to nearly $260 billion by the war’s end. One way the government helped pay its expenses was with a substantially increased income tax rate. By the end of the war, about 40 million Americans filed tax returns—more than ten times the number in 1941. For the first time, the government required employers to withhold a certain percentage of their employees’ paychecks, depending on their salary and how many dependents an employee claimed. That way, the employee would have withheld enough tax to avoid having to pay a much larger sum at the end of the year, or to receive a refund from the government. In addition, the government raised $185 billion through the sale of war bonds to private individuals, banks, and industry.

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War Bonds • Used to help finance the war • More than $185 billion sold • Bought by businesses, banks, and civilians • Celebrities helped with bond drives • High interest rates

An example of a $100 war bond

While the government sought to pay for the war with higher tax rates and deficit spending, assistance—to the tune of $185 billion—came also from the purchase of war bonds, a type of savings bond. Many corporations, banks, and insurance companies bought the bonds, but civilians did as well, including children, who could purchase “war stamps” they could later convert into bonds. Many celebrities and sports heroes participated in bond drives to raise demand. War bonds yielded a substantial benefit to those purchasing them. Bonds could be used as a savings plan for expenditures such as buying a new home or providing for children’s education. Interest rates for bonds were comparable to or higher than rates for most other savings plans in the 1940s.

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War Bonds: Posters

Posters such as these sought to convince Americans that they should help the war effort and stop the enemy by buying war bonds

Discussion questions: Have students view the posters. Ask the class the following questions: •In each example, what emotions or feelings is the poster attempting to stir? (Students will probably note that they appeal to fears that Americans might have had at the time. The “shadow” poster plays on the fear of Nazi takeover of the U.S., with a giant swastika looming over defenseless children. The “wooden crosses” poster implies that American soldiers would die [with a wooden cross marking each grave] if civilians didn’t buy war bonds.) •Ask the class if they feel these are effective images (Answers will vary.) Note to teacher: You may also show the class the video file included on the CD-ROM, a pitch for war bonds featuring “Mr. and Mrs. America.”

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Office of Price Administration • Designed to limit wartime inflation • Established “ceiling prices” for many goods • Rationed scarce goods and many consumer staples • Rationing stopped at end of war • Dissolved in 1947

The possibility of inflation greatly concerned the federal government. As goods became harder for the civilian population to purchase, their prices would skyrocket. Worried about inflation’s effect on the U.S. economy, the Roosevelt Administration created the Office of Price Administration in early 1942. The OPA established “ceiling prices” for many commodities, most fixed at their March 1942 levels, above which they could not rise. The OPA froze nearly 90% of the nation’s retail prices during the war. In addition, the OPA rationed what the government considered “scarce” goods. Several staples of American life, such as gasoline, automobile tires, sugar, coffee, meats, and processed foods were tightly rationed; some supplies were nearly nonexistent. Millions of Americans found themselves either substituting for scarce goods, doing without, or trying to purchase goods on the black market. With the end of the war, the OPA quickly abandoned rationing; the agency ceased to exist in 1947.

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Rationing

Children learning to tally points and ration stamps

• Way to allocate scarce goods • Included meat, butter, sugar, coffee, shoes • Stamps and points system • Gasoline rationing particularly complex • Black market emerged

The government realized it needed a system for allocating goods so that both military and civilian populations could get what they needed. The response to this problem was rationing, a way to limit the purchase of scarce goods. Some of the more contested-for rationed goods included meat, butter, sugar, coffee, canned and frozen foods, and shoes. To effectively calculate what goods the consumer might buy, the OPA devised a complicated system of stamps and points. A person without the right combination could not buy the good. Gasoline proved particularly difficult to ration. The OPA granted most motorists an “A” sticker for their car windshield, which guaranteed them four gallons of gas per week. “Essential” workers got “B” stickers entitling them to eight gallons per week. Those whose professions required them to drive (such as physicians, ministers, railroad workers, and mail carriers) received “C” stickers. “X” stickers went to government officials and public servants such as police, firefighters, and civil-defense workers. “T” stickers went to truck drivers who carried goods essential to the war effort; they could buy an unlimited supply of fuel. Regardless of their level of patriotism, many Americans found doing without staples of daily life to be unappealing, and a robust black market soon developed to sell highly prized and highly priced goods. However, both civilian and military populations generally had the goods and material they needed during the war years.

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Rationing: Books and Stamps

Each family received ration books (left) and stamps (above) for determining its monthly allotment.

The government devised a system of ration stamps and books, as well as a complex point system, to fairly determine what families and individuals could buy monthly. For example, goods such as meat, butter, fats, and cheese required red stamps; purchasing other goods, including fruits, vegetables, soup, and baby food involved blue stamps. The point system tended to frustrate many households, with some goods requiring a certain number of points, and others not needing any points. In addition to the multi-tiered system for rationing gasoline, drivers had to live with a 35 mph speed limit to conserve gas as well as tires. Rationing ended along with the war, and all phases of it vanished by 1946.

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Discussion Questions 1. About how much did WWII cost the U.S. government? How did the federal government raise revenue to pay for the war? 2. How did purchasing war bonds help the average citizen? How did they help the war effort? 3. How did the Office of Price Administration prevent wartime inflation? How did its system for rationing goods work?

1. The U.S. government spent more than $321 billion (more than $3 trillion in today’s dollars) to fight the war—more than twice what the federal government had spent in its entire existence to this point. One way the government collected revenue was through substantially increased income tax rates, in addition to an expansion of who qualified for the income tax. The government also sold billions of dollars of war bonds (including war stamps purchased by children) to civilians, banks, and private industry. 2. Average Americans could invest in war bonds, which made money when the bonds matured at an interest rate higher than or comparable to other means of investment. War bonds helped the war effort by raising needed revenue and by making citizens feel as if they were directly contributing to the fight. 3. As goods become scarcer, prices tend to rise, making money worth increasingly less; the Office of Price Administration set the highest prices at which goods could sell, essentially freezing them at March 1942 levels. Regarding scarcity, the OPA devised a system of points and stamps for allotting staple items and other goods. With the right combination of stamps and points, a consumer could purchase their allotment of meat, sugar, or other items.

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Victory Gardens • Government urged citizens to grow fruits and vegetables • Eased food shortages caused by rationing • Nearly 20 million started gardens • Over nine million tons of produces A government poster promoting Victory Gardens

Many Americans found that rationing made many food staples—particularly fruits and vegetables—difficult if not impossible to get. To alleviate the stress on the rationing system, the government encouraged many to plant “Victory Gardens,” in which citizens could grow their own fruits and vegetables. Nearly 20 million Americans took this advice and started their own gardens. National publications such as Life and The Saturday Evening Post promoted Victory Gardens as patriotic and gave housewives helpful hints about preserving and canning fruits and vegetables grown in the gardens. The number of pressure cookers (used in canning and cooking) sold in the U.S. increased 500% between 1942 and 1943. The federal government later estimated that Victory Gardens produced over nine million tons of fruits and vegetables.

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National Housing Agency • Housing construction ceased, except for defense purposes • Relocation caused housing shortages in many cities • NHA established in 1942 • Combined and coordinated housing and loan programs

The Depression had caused housing construction to fall to a near standstill during the 1930s, and the onset of World War II led to a government-mandated moratorium on housing construction for the duration of the war. However, severe housing shortages resulted when large numbers of people looking for jobs moved to cities with defense plants. To combat shortages, Congress passed a bill creating the National Housing Agency. The legislation combined many of the New Deal–era housing and loan agencies and also provided a way to build housing projects on the basis of need as determined by procurement agencies, war plants, and community leaders.

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National War Labor Board • Arbitrated labor disputes during war • Board comprised of representatives from management, labor, and government • “No-strike pledge” • Some “wildcat” strikes still occurred

Guardsmen carry Sewell Avery, president of Montgomery Ward, from his office for failing to comply with NWLR rulings

The Roosevelt Administration recognized that protracted disputes between management and labor could cripple the wartime economy and mobilization efforts. To settle these issues, FDR created the National War Labor Board in early 1942. The board comprised four labor union leaders, four corporate executives, and four public representatives. Early on, the board proved its usefulness when management and labor in communications and transportation industries agreed to a “no-strike pledge” for the duration of the war, agreeing that maintaining production outweighed striking for wages and benefits. Union representatives to the board wanted a “closed shop,” in which all workers in a particular industry have to join the union. The NWLB refused that request, but did agree to what became known as the “maintenance of membership” clause, which forbade union members from quitting the union and required them to pay union dues, frequently through an automatic paycheck deduction. This approach helped to greatly increase labor union membership. While labor agreed to keep wage increases to a minimum, they gained significant benefits such as health insurance, vacation time, and pensions. Regardless of the NWLB’s actions, some wildcat (i.e., unauthorized) strikes did occur. However, these generally caused little if any disruption to war production. The United Mine Workers under John L. Lewis struck three times in 1943, gaining some concessions, but losing a great deal of support as many states and Congress took steps to limit the power of unions.

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The War’s Economic Impact • • • • • •

Nominal GDP more than doubled Wages and salaries nearly tripled Federal civilian employment more than tripled Female employment up by a third Labor union membership grew by over 50% National debt ballooned by over 600%

A number of changes to the U.S. economy occurred in the World War II era (1940–1945): • The nominal gross domestic product (the value of all goods and services produced inside a country in a year, not adjusted for inflation) of the U.S. increased substantially, from approximately $101 billion to about $223 billion. Wages and salaries rose from $45 billion to $120 billion. • In 1940, 14 million women worked outside the home; in 1945, the number was nearly 19 million, down slightly from 1944. Civilian employment by the federal government more than tripled, rising from slightly over one million persons to nearly 3.5 million. Military employment mushroomed, as expected, from less than a million, to nearly 13 million. • Union membership also grew (due especially to the “maintenance of membership” clause enforced by the NWLB) from nine million to more than 14 million • Increases in GDP and employment led to a dramatic increase in the national debt, from about $41 billion to nearly $250 billion

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Geographic Shifts in the Economy • South saw great prosperity • Millions of jobs in textiles, chemicals, and aluminum • Southern shipyards and aircraft plants grew • West became economic powerhouse • California especially benefited from federal expenditures

An Army sentry guards new B-17 F (Flying Fortress) bombers at the airfield of Boeing's Seattle plant

The American South and West benefited greatly from the war, economically speaking. Government spending and the need for increased production created millions of jobs in various Southern industries, including textiles, chemicals, and aluminum. Urban populations grew by about 40%. Consequently, the number of farm workers (including sharecroppers and tenant farmers) fell by about 20%. Shipyards and aircraft factories boomed, industrial capacity shot up by nearly 40%, and per-capita income tripled. Western states received nearly $40 billion in federal funds. California alone got more than ten percent of this total, with 50 cents of every dollar in personal income coming from federally funded jobs. The military established many airbases and naval stations in Southern California especially; defense contractors followed, founding major shipyards and several aircraft manufacturing plants.

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Discussion Questions 1. Why did the federal government encourage Americans to grow Victory Gardens? What impact did these have on the war effort? 2. What sorts of strategies did the government employ regarding housing issues? Regarding disputes between labor and management? 3. What effects did the war have on the U.S. economy from 1940 to 1945?

1. The government feared shortages on the home front because the war effort required a large percentage of the U.S. agricultural output. It therefore encouraged civilians to start their own Victory Gardens so they could grow their own food, thereby alleviating shortages. Victory Gardens had an immense impact: they yielded over nine million tons of fruits and vegetables during the war years, allowing the military to use more commercially grown produce. 2. Housing construction had lagged during the 1930s due to the Depression, and the migration of tens of thousands to the South and West to work in defense plants caused a massive housing shortage in certain areas. To alleviate these shortages, the government created the National Housing Agency, which combined many of the New Deal–era housing and loan agencies and provided a way for cities to create housing projects according to need. The government solved issues between management and labor via the National War Labor Board, which aimed to settle disputes without a work stoppage. Management and labor helped validate the NWLB by agreeing to a “no-strike pledge” for the duration of the war, though some unauthorized strikes did occur (primarily by the United Mine Workers). 3. The nominal GDP more than doubled; wages and salaries nearly tripled; five million more women worked outside the home; civilian employment by the federal government more than tripled; military employment mushroomed by 1300%; union membership grew by almost 50%; and the national debt went up about 600%. (See the relevant slide for figures.)

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Japanese American Internment

A map of relocation centers in the western U.S.

• FDR issued Executive Order 9066 • Removed over 110,000 Issei (Japanese nationals) and Nisei (Japanese Americans) from the West Coast • About two-thirds were citizens

Wartime civil-defense measures such as blackouts and air-raid drills prepared Americans for attacks that never occurred, but did little more than inconvenience people. However, the federal government instituted a program to maintain national security that proved far more damaging—the relocation of about 120,000 Japanese nationals (called Issei) and Japanese American citizens (Nisei) to internment camps across the interior of the western U.S. In early 1942, FDR issued Executive Order 9066, which allowed for the exclusion from “military areas” anyone deemed a threat to national security. Designating the West Coast a “military area,” the government removed all persons of Japanese ancestry (along with a few thousand Germans, Italians, and German Jews). Many Americans, especially on the West Coast, supported the policy, contending that they had likely assisted the Japanese navy in planning and carrying out the attack on Pearl Harbor, and might help facilitate future attacks.

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Prejudice Against Nisei • Long history of antiJapanese sentiment in California • Falsely accused Nisei of helping plan Pearl Harbor • No evidence of sabotage or espionage ever found

This propaganda poster displays typical American-held stereotypes of the Japanese

The fear of Japanese Americans came not only from Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor, but also from deep-seated prejudices against Nisei. Increasing Japanese immigration to California beginning the late 19th century had resulted in legislation in some cities similar to the Jim Crow laws of the American South. Reports of Japanese atrocities against the Chinese in the early 1930s further lowered public opinion of the Japanese. Groups of farmers in California resented having to compete with “foreigners” and wanted to take over their land. However, no concrete evidence of Japanese American espionage or sabotage was ever uncovered during the war; no convictions on such charges ever materialized. In addition, Hawaii did not implement the relocation policy, and no incidents of espionage or sabotage occurred there. Discussion question: Ask students to view the poster included on the slide. What elements display stereotypes of how Americans viewed the Japanese and Japanese Americans? (Student answers should include the thick eyeglasses, buck teeth, and the pidgin English that many movies and radio shows used to imitate the Japanese; some may mention the rumpled uniform as typical of anti-Japanese propaganda.)

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“I Am an American” • Some Nisei tried to demonstrate patriotism • Interned regardless • Most Japanese accepted internment • Wanted to show their loyalty to the U.S. Despite this Oakland, California, grocer’s sign, he was interned and his business sold

Some Nisei made a last-ditch attempt to prove their patriotism by posting large signs on their businesses and homes denoting their citizenship. Most were interned anyway. Even under the difficult conditions they endured in the camps, most accepted their fate and submitted to internment, hoping that compliance might prove their loyalty to the U.S.

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Life in the Camps • Nisei forced to sell homes, businesses, property • Lost an estimated $2 billion • Poor conditions: – Barbed-wire enclosures – Barracks with cots and no plumbing – Meager food budget – Low temperatures

Japanese Americans, faced with their immediate removal from cities on the West Coast, found themselves forced to sell their homes, businesses, and personal possessions for whatever they could get. The Nisei together lost an estimated $2 billion in property. A 1943 War Department report noted that the internees were housed in “tar paper covered barracks of simple frame construction without plumbing or cooking facilities of any kind.” The Heart Mountain, Wyoming, relocation camp greeted internees with barbed-wire fences, toilets with no partitions, cots rather than beds, and a food budget of 45 cents per day. Temperatures at Heart Mountain frequently dropped to below zero during the winter months, and since many of the internees were not told where they were going, they did not include winter clothing in their belongings. Note to teacher: You may play the video clip included on the CD-ROM about the propagandist view of camps such as Manzanar. Ask students who they think the government’s target audience was for films such as this one.

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Manzanar

Manzanar in the winter

• Located in California • Best known of relocation camps • Camp held nearly 12,000 internees • Extremes in climate • Closed in November 1945

Perhaps the best known of all the concentration camps was Manzanar, located in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains in the Owens Valley region of California. At its height, it housed nearly 12,000 internees. The climate there ranged widely, with extremely hot desert summers and winter temperatures frequently falling below freezing at night. High winds frequently posed a problem, especially considering the shoddy construction of most of the camp’s barracks. Internees generally ate food similar to what soldiers received, with little meat due to rationing. However, residents of the camp started a chicken farm and hog farm to supplement their diets. Three months after the Japanese surrendered in World War II, the government closed Manzanar. Internees received $25 for train or bus fare. Some had to be removed from the camp because they did not have any place to go to after the war. It was declared a National Historic Site in 1992.

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Korematsu v. U.S. (1942) • Korematsu refused to obey the relocation order • Appealed conviction on constitutional grounds • Supreme Court ruled the order a valid use of presidential power in wartime • Decision vacated in 1984, due to governmentwithheld evidence in the first trial

One challenge to the relocation order came from Fred Korematsu, a Japanese American from San Leandro, CA, who refused to obey the relocation order. Authorities arrested him and put him in a relocation camp with his family until trial. He was convicted in federal court and sentenced to five years’ probation. With help from the American Civil Liberties Union, Korematsu appealed his conviction until it reached the U.S. Supreme Court. In 1942, the Supreme Court ruled 6–3 against Korematsu, stating that Roosevelt’s order requiring relocation of Japanese Americans was a valid use of his power as commander-in-chief of the armed forces. However, Justice Frank Murphy’s scathing dissent noted that “the exclusion of Japanese falls into the ugly abyss of racism,” and equated relocation with the same type of racism exhibited by the Axis Powers. In the early 1980s, documents came to light showing that the federal government had purposely withheld key evidence that might have cleared Korematsu, including documents proving that Japanese Americans had never posed any meaningful risk to national security. In 1984, a federal appeals court vacated the original judgment (that is, declared that Korematsu’s conviction had never legally happened), citing a WWII-era government report condemning the case for interment as having been based on “willful historical inaccuracies and intentional falsehoods.” The appeals court, however, did not overturn the Supreme Court’s decision concerning the president’s war powers. In 1998, President Bill Clinton awarded Korematsu with the Presidential Medal of Freedom for his ongoing work in the field of civil rights. Fred Korematsu died in 2005.

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The 442nd Regimental Combat Team • Formed in 1943 • Made up of Nisei • Fought with distinction in Italy and France • Most decorated combat unit in U.S. history

Members of the 442nd hiking through France, late 1944

While many Nisei went to relocation camps across the West, some decided on enlisting in the armed forces as the best way to protest against concerns about their patriotism. The 442nd Regimental Combat Team (known as the “Go for Broke” regiment) became one of the best known and most wellrespected army units during the war. The government originally excluded Nisei from the armed forces, but had reversed its policy by 1943, accepting some from relocation camps and many from National Guard units in Hawaii. Trained at Camp Shelby, Mississippi, the 442nd was deployed in September 1944, and soon saw action in the Italian campaign, including Anzio. Over half of the unit became casualties during their Italian service. While a few Nisei served as intelligence agents in the Pacific Theater, the military prohibited them from fighting against Japan. German Americans and Italian Americans had no such restrictions placed on their service. After the liberation of Rome, the 442nd assisted in the invasion of southern France. In the Italian and French campaigns combined, the unit saw an extraordinarily high casualty rate, with some sources estimating casualties (including cases of trenchfoot and various injuries) as high as 93 percent, giving the 442nd the nickname, the “Purple Heart Battalion.” At the end of the war, the 442nd became the most decorated unit in U.S. military history, with more than 18,000 awards and medals earned, including over 9000 Purple Hearts. Soldiers from the 442nd also were awarded 21 Congressional Medals of Honor; the unit as a whole received seven Presidential Unit Citations for its service in the European Theater.

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Civil Liberties Act of 1988

Norman Mineta

• Sponsored by Simpson and Mineta, a former internee • Government formally apologized • Paid $20,000 to each surviving internee • 1992 act added enough money to cover all remaining internees • Government apologized again

The federal government acknowledged its error of interning Japanese Americans with the Civil Liberties Act of 1988. Wyoming Senator Alan Simpson and California Congressman Norman Mineta sponsored the bill—the two had met at a Boy Scout function while Mineta was interned in a Wyoming camp. The act, signed by President Ronald Reagan, stipulated that the U.S. government formally apologize for the internment. It also authorized a cash payment of $20,000 to each surviving internee; nearly $1.2 billion was distributed. A subsequent act, the Civil Liberties Act of 1992, added another $400 million to ensure that all living internees would receive the reparations. The act, passed by President George H.W. Bush, again formally apologized for Japanese American internment.

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Discussion Questions 1. Why did the government feel it necessary to relocate both Issei and Nisei? What was the purpose of Executive Order 9066? 2. What kinds of stereotypes did white Americans tend to hold about Japanese Americans? 3. Do you think that the government was justified in interning Nisei, even though they were American citizens? Why or why not?

1. Many Americans (including many government officials) believed that many Japanese nationals (Issei) and Japanese Americans (Nisei) constituted a risk to national security, either due to possible espionage or sabotage. Since most Japanese lived along the West Coast—the region which the Japanese would likely attack—the government decided to remove them and relocate them to the interior of the U.S. Executive Order 9066, signed by FDR in February 1942, gave U.S. military commanders the authority to remove anyone (“exclude”) from a “military area” considered a threat to national security. 2. White Americans held many stereotypes about Japanese Americans, most of which were documented by the films of the period, as well as by propaganda posters encouraging Americans to become more involved in the war effort. These sources generally showed Japanese with buck teeth, thick eyeglasses, slanted eyes, rumpled clothes, etc. In addition, these also depicted Japanese as only able to speak in halting, pidgin English. 3. Answers may vary, but students will likely say that internment was not justified, especially in light of the report that emerged from the Korematsu case in the 1980s stating that the government had already concluded that Japanese Americans posed a negligible threat to national security. Students may also say that American citizens have a constitutional right regardless of race because of due process and habeas corpus. Others may say that in the times of uncertainty that accompany war, the government has the authority to take such actions to protect national security.

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Internment of Other Groups • German Americans and nationals, and Italian Americans and nationals • Over 10,000 Germans and 3000 Italians interned • Camps similar to those for Nisei • No evidence of espionage or treason

German American and Italian American internees at Ellis Island, 1943

The government also interned German Americans and Italian Americans during the war, although in much smaller numbers than Japanese Americans. The Japanese American internment overshadowed the FBI and the Immigration and Naturalization Service’s program to remove what it saw as German and Italian security threats from of the mainstream U.S. population. As with the Japanese Americans, the vast majority were American citizens. Various locations, including Ellis Island in New York as well as sites in Maryland and Tennessee, became internment camps. Best estimates say that the government held more than 10,000 Germans and 3000 Italians. As with the Nisei, the German and Italian internees were shopkeepers, farmers, and businessmen, not diplomats or people involved in government service. No evidence of espionage activity or sabotage by those investigated or interned has ever come to light. Few records of German American or Italian American internment survive (or have been released), though several persons have attempted to uncover more information.

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African Americans and the War • The irony of fighting a racist regime in Europe while experiencing racism at home • Blacks found limited employment in defense plants • Race riots broke out in many cities • African Americans looked for equality in the workplace and in the military

African Americans, who had been experiencing discrimination long before the war, found that conditions did not change substantially for them during the war years. Many struggled with the grim irony of helping to defeat a racist enemy in Europe while facing the effects of racism and discrimination at home. In addition, the U.S. military itself had segregated units. Many African American workers could not find good jobs at defense plants because of their color. Those who did secure employment frequently received lower salaries than whites. Blacks who migrated to cities in search of defense jobs found housing scarce. Northern blacks unaccustomed to Jim Crow laws had difficulty adjusting to the culture of Southern industrial cities. This migration of African Americans resulted in friction between whites and blacks which frequently boiled over into violence. In the summer of 1943, race riots erupted in 47 cities. In Detroit, riots claimed the lives of 25 blacks and nine whites, with hundreds of persons injured. However, African Americans also looked for ways that they could ensure equality both on the battlefield as well as at home.

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The “Double V” Campaign

The campaign’s logo

• Created in 1942 by the Pittsburgh Courier, a leading black newspaper • Called for “victory over our enemies at home and victory over our enemies on the battlefields abroad”

One of the earliest organized protests against the discrimination of African Americans came in the form of the “Double V” campaign, led by the Pittsburgh Courier, one of the leading black newspapers of the era. The campaign called for two victories: “victory over our  enemies at home and victory over our enemies on the battlefields abroad.” The Courier asserted that the time had come to “persuade, embarrass, compel, and shame our government and our nation…into a more enlightened attitude.” Courier reader James G. Thompson of Wichita, Kansas, had proposed the idea in a letter to the editor, while staff artist Wilbert T. Holloway designed the “Double V” logo. Soon, “Double V” clubs sprang up nationwide, and other newspapers backed the campaign editorially. After the war, the Courier continued with a “Single V” campaign: while the war had ended with victory over the Axis, victory over those who discriminated against African Americans in the U.S. had yet be realized.

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Dorie Miller • A hero of the Pearl Harbor attack • Not initially recommended for any commendation • Later received Navy Cross • Killed in the invasion of the Gilbert Islands A poster featuring Miller

The bravery and valor of many African American soldiers and sailors during World War II were frequently overlooked, such as the case of Doris “Dorie” Miller, who distinguished himself during Pearl Harbor. Miller was serving as a cook onboard the USS West Virginia when the Japanese attacked on December 7, 1941. When the alarm sounded, Miller immediately reported to his battle station but found it destroyed by a torpedo. Instead, Miller was ordered to help carry wounded sailors to aid stations. Seeing West Virginia Captain Mervyn Bennion wounded on the deck, Miller personally carried him to safety. Captain Bennion refused medical treatment and insisted on continuing his command; he bled to death during the attack. Miller then fired a 50-caliber machine gun (which he wasn’t trained to use) at attacking Japanese planes. When the Japanese finally sank the West Virginia, Miller and other sailors abandoned ship. The navy awarded other sailors medals for valor but initially overlooked Miller, although he eventually received the Navy Cross (the navy’s third-highest honor). Captain Bennion posthumously received the Medal of Honor. The Pittsburgh Courier frequently called for Miller to be allowed stateside to participate in war-bond tours. The navy awarded no African American the Medal of Honor during World War II. Only in 1997 did seven African Americans receive the medal, six posthumously. Miller continued his service as a mess cook. In 1943, a Japanese torpedo hit his ship during the invasion of the Gilbert Islands, sinking it in minutes. Over 200 sailors managed to escape; Miller did was not one of them.

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The Tuskegee Airmen

Airmen Marcellus G. Smith and Roscoe C. Brown in Italy, 1945

• All-black combat unit formed in 1941 • 99th Fighter Squadron formed in AL • Commanded by Davis • Escorted bombers over central Europe • Proved superior or equal to white pilots

Just as the 442nd Regimental Combat Team proved Japanese Americans to be as skilled in combat as white troops, the Tuskegee Airmen demonstrated the abilities of African Americans. The Army Air Corps formed an all-black unit in 1941, under congressional pressure. The War Department tried to thwart the plan by requiring that recruits either had flight experience or a higher education. A large number of African Americans nonetheless met the requirements and enlisted in the program. The Army Air Force established the 99th Fighter Squadron at Alabama’s Tuskegee Institute, selecting Captain Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. (one of a few black West Point graduates) to command the squadron. A white officer commented in a Time magazine article that the black pilots were inferior to white pilots. Following a congressional committee hearing, a subsequent evaluation of all pilots in the Mediterranean Theater showed the Tuskegee pilots to be equal to or better than other P-40 pilots. Tuskegee Airmen who escorted bombers in missions over central Europe shot down over 100 enemy aircraft. Many claimed for years after the war that the Airmen did not lose a single plane they escorted, though later evidence proved that some bombers were lost. However, many point to the real achievement of the Tuskegee Airman as proving that African Americans could perform just as well as white pilots.

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Randolph and the Fair Employment Act • Influential labor leader • Proposed a 1941 “March on Washington” to protest discrimination • FDR convinced him to cancel march; enacted Fair Employment Act

A. Philip Randolph meets with first lady Eleanor Roosevelt

A. Phillip Randolph made his name as a labor leader by founding the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, one of the largest African American labor organizations in U.S. history. The union had successfully bargained for better salary and benefits for its members during the 1930s. In 1941, Randolph and civil rights activists Bayard Rustin and A.J. Muste began to plan a “March on Washington” to protest segregation in the armed forces, as well as discrimination in war industries. The march never took place, however, because of FDR’s promise to take steps to ensure fair treatment for blacks. FDR enacted the Fair Employment Act of 1941—the first federal law to address equal employment rights—prohibiting racial discrimination in government defense agencies as well as in private businesses that received defense contracts. The act created the Fair Employment Practices Committee to investigate possible violations of the executive order, and to “take appropriate actions for a redress of grievances.” The FEPC also made recommendations on how to make the act more effective. Segregation of the armed forces, however, lasted until 1948.

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The Navajo Code Talkers

Code Talkers Henry Bake and George Kirk send messages in the Pacific Theater, 1943

• Used to transmit messages in the Pacific Theater • Based on the Navajo language • Navajo words frequently substituted for military terms • Code never broken

Native Americans also served with distinction in WWII, some of whom provided a unique, essential service—the Navajo Code Talkers. These soldiers helped to develop and transmit an unbreakable code for the American military in the Pacific Theater. Phillip Johnston, the son of a Protestant missionary, came up with the idea to use Navajo after reading a newspaper story about the military’s search for an “unbreakable code” to communicate sensitive material. The U.S. military had with some success with Cherokee and Choctaw in World War I for this purpose. Johnston had spent most of his childhood around the Navajo people and knew the difficulty of learning their language. The military had some major concerns, especially how to translate modern military terminology into Navajo. The Code Talkers handled this problem by simply substituting Navajo words for military terms. For example, “tank” became the Navajo word for “tortoise,” and “airplane” became “bird.” The Marines created an entire list of terminology for converting the Navajo language into military use. The group of 29 Code Talkers in May 1942, grew to over 400 by 1945. They never wrote in code, so each had to memorize the system. Code Talkers joined Marine units in the Pacific and served in several major battles, including Guadalcanal and Iwo Jima. Due to their physical resemblance to Japanese, the Code Talkers were sometimes assigned guards so they would not be confused with the enemy. In the end, the Japanese never broke the Navajo code. Twenty-nine Code Talkers received the Congressional Gold Medal in 2001. The rest were similarly honored in 2007.

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The Bracero Program • Established due to wartime labor shortage • Experienced Mexican laborers brought in for CA farm work; expanded nationwide • Braceros also worked for U.S. railroads • Reported human rights abuses • Lawsuits filed to collect savings withheld from braceros’ pay

A bracero

The shortage of wartime labor due to military service, especially in agriculture, prompted the U.S. government to look outside of the country for help. The U.S. and Mexico agreed upon the Bracero Program, which in 1942 began to bring in skilled Mexican laborers (or braceros) to work as farmhands in the southwestern U.S. Soon, braceros were working across the U.S. not only in agricultural jobs, but also alongside skilled and unskilled workers in the railroad industry. The government later instituted a quota of 50,000 agricultural workers and 75,000 for the railroads. By war’s end, braceros were no longer contracted for railroad service, but continued in agricultural jobs until 1964. The government closed the program amid reports of significant human rights abuses against the braceros. From the inception of the program until 1948, braceros brought several lawsuits against U.S. agricultural employers, mainly to recover money from “savings accounts” established by payroll deduction. The program had stipulated that the braceros would receive this money upon their return to Mexico, but most did not receive them. Most of the lawsuits were dismissed because the banks involved in the transactions were not located in the U.S.

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“Zoot Suit Riots”

A zoot suit

• Los Angeles, 1943 • Conflicts between sailors on leave and young Mexican Americans, identifiable by their dress • African Americans and Filipinos wearing zoot suits also targeted • Military eventually placed LA off-limits to servicemen

Another example of racial discord during WWII came in the form of the “Zoot Suit Riots,” which occurred in Los Angeles in May 1943. The riots began when U.S. sailors on leave clashed with young Hispanics. One sailor was stabbed, and soon hundreds of Marines and sailors were roaming the streets, looking for anyone wearing a “zoot suit”—a suit with wide lapels, baggy pants, padded shoulders, and often a wide-brimmed hat and watch chain. While mostly young Mexican Americans wore zoot suits, so did members of other minorities, such as Filipino and African Americans, who also became targets. The local press took the side of the military, calling the zoot suiters “hoodlums.” The uproar subsided when military commanders in Los Angeles declared the city off-limits to military personnel, with those violating the order subject to arrest by Shore Patrol officers.

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Discussion Questions 1. What groups other than Japanese Americans did the government relocate? Why? 2. How did the war impact African Americans? In what ways did African Americans prove themselves as capable of serving as other groups? 3. Why did the government bring in braceros to work in the U.S.? What industries did they work in?

1. While not on the same scale as Japanese Americans, the government also relocated and interned German and Italian Americans, specifically because the U.S. was also fighting these two nations in Europe. Much as with the Japanese Americans, they were never actually security risks; no evidence of espionage or sabotage was ever uncovered in any of cases involving these internees. 2. African Americans found that conditions did not change substantially during the war years. Many saw little point in fighting a racist enemy in Europe while facing racism and discrimination at home. The armed forces had segregated units and frequently gave blacks menial duties. Many met with discrimination when they migrated to cities to work at defense plants; those who did get jobs often received lower salaries than whites. Union leader A. Philip Randolph planned a “March on Washington” to protest discrimination in the defense industry, only calling it off when FDR promised to enact what became the Fair Employment Act. African Americans such as Dorie Miller (a hero of Pearl Harbor) and the Tuskegee Airmen (bomber escorts over Europe) demonstrated courage and ability comparable to or better than whites. 3. The government brought in braceros for much the same reason that so many women entered the workforce at the same time: a shortage of manpower due to workers’ military service. While the braceros originally performed fieldwork and other farming duties, many also worked on the railroads.

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Service Flags • Commonly displayed throughout U.S. • A blue star indicated a relative on active duty • A gold star meant that a relative had died while on active duty • Blue Star (and Gold Star) Mothers clubs A Service Flag with three stars

The Service Flag was a common way for American families to show their support for immediate family in the armed forces. First known as “Son(s) in Service” Flags and used during WWI, the flags were usually hung indoors, in a front window. They had a red border around a white field, with one or more blue stars at its center, one for each family member in the service. A gold star signified that a family member had died while on active duty. In 1942, several hundred women formed Blue Star Mothers of America, a nationwide organization originally meant to provide a network of support for women with children on active duty, and to pressure the government to give promised benefits to returning servicepersons. Its activities have since expanded to include volunteer work in veterans’ hospitals and helping to arrange food and shelter to disaster victims. An organization for the mothers of servicepersons killed in action—Gold Star Mothers—formed after World War I for purposes similar to Blue Star Mothers.

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The Sullivan Brothers • From Waterloo, IA • Enlisted in the Navy on the condition they would serve together • Assigned to the USS Juneau • All five killed at Guadalcanal in 1942

Losing a family member in the war was a concern that affected nearly everyone. However, while many families lost a loved one, no family suffered as much as the Sullivan family of Waterloo, Iowa. All five sons were killed in action in 1942, during the Battle of Guadalcanal. The Sullivan brothers, aged 20 to 27, all volunteered for active duty in the U.S. Navy soon after Pearl Harbor, on the condition that they be allowed to serve together. The Navy had a regulation prohibiting family members to serve together, but did not strictly enforce it; the brothers were assigned to the light cruiser USS Juneau. A Japanese torpedo damaged the Juneau at Guadalcanal. Another torpedo hit the ship’s powder magazine as it was leaving the battle area. The Juneau broke apart and sank in less than a minute. Other ships in the area believed all on board to have been killed, but 100 sailors went into the water after the sinking. The Navy sent no search crews for several days, and once the survivors were finally spotted, only 10 remained; the rest had succumbed to the elements as well as to shark attacks. Three of the Sullivan brothers died in the torpedoing and sinking, another died the next day, and the last died four or five days later. Due to the magnitude of the family’s sacrifice, the Sullivan brothers became nationally mourned. President Roosevelt sent a personal letter of condolence, as did as Pope Pius XII. The Navy later named two destroyers after the brothers, both called The Sullivans.

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The Election of 1944

This map of electoral votes indicates Dewey in red and FDR in green

• FDR practically assured a fourth term • Truman selected as running mate • Defeated NY governor Thomas Dewey

With the outcome of the war in less doubt by late 1944, FDR seemed the favorite to win the election and serve an unprecedented fourth term in office. The Republicans nominated New York governor Thomas E. Dewey, who could not defeat Roosevelt, though he did carry more states and had a higher percentage of the popular vote than previous challengers. Many Democrats, concerned about the liberal philosophies of Vice President Henry Wallace, decided to dump him from the ticket to replace him with a more moderate candidate. They selected Missouri Senator Harry Truman, who had become known from his work investigating waste and fraud in the defense industry. While many felt uneasy about changing vice-presidents during a war, they were also greatly concerned about FDR’s obviously declining health. It appeared that FDR might not live out his term, and for that reason, Truman made a more acceptable running mate than Wallace.

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Roosevelt Dies • April 12, 1945 • At his retreat in Warm Springs, GA • Only a few weeks before the end of the war in Europe • Widely mourned FDR’s funeral procession moves down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington D.C.

The stress of being the nation’s president through both the Depression and the war ruined Franklin D. Roosevelt’s health. Suffering from hypertension as well as various other ailments, Roosevelt died of a massive cerebral hemorrhage on April 12, 1945, while staying at his presidential retreat at Warm Springs, Georgia. Roosevelt was resting there in preparation for the United Nations conference scheduled for later that month in San Francisco. While sitting for a portrait, FDR murmured, “I have a terrific headache.” He collapsed, dying a short time later. The timing of FDR’s death proved grimly ironic, in that he died only a few weeks before Adolf Hitler’s suicide and Germany’s surrender on May 8th that ended the war in Europe. For many Americans, FDR’s death was especially painful because of the length of time he’d served as president; many younger Americans couldn’t remember anyone else in the White House.

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Truman Takes Office • Vice president for only 82 days • Oversaw last months of the war • Authorized use of the atomic bomb • President during the early Cold War Truman takes the oath of office shortly after FDR’s death

Only hours after Roosevelt’s death, Vice President Harry Truman became the nation’s 33rd chief executive. While he had been a U.S. senator for several years, he was relatively unknown to most Americans. Truman was faced with some of the biggest decisions of the war. Remarking to reporters soon after his swearing-in, “Boys, I don’t know if you’ve ever had a load of hay fall on you, but when they told me yesterday what had happened, I felt like the moon, the stars, and all the planets had fallen on me.” Nevertheless, Truman soon proved up to the job: He oversaw the last months of the war and negotiated at the Potsdam Conference the postwar future of Europe. He facilitated U.S. entry into the United Nations, and in one of the most important decisions of his presidency, he authorized the use of atomic weapons against Japan. As his term progressed, he also led the country through the beginnings of the Cold War, including the Berlin Crisis and the Korean War.

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V-E Day and V-J Day

Tens of thousands crowd Times Square to celebrate the Japanese surrender, New York City

• Victory in Europe, May 6–7, 1945 • Victory Over Japan, Sept. 2, 1945 • Celebrations marked the end of the war • Nation still had to deal with postwar issues

A few weeks after Roosevelt’s death, Hitler committed suicide in his bunker under the streets of Berlin. With the Soviet Army closing in on the city, Germany finally surrendered on May 6th and 7th, 1945 (it took two days for all treaties to be signed). With the surrender of Germany, most expected that the military would reassign most of the troops fighting in the European Theater to the Pacific for the eventual invasion of the Japanese mainland. In August 1945, the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki convinced the Japanese to surrender without an Allied invasion. Nearly six years after World War II began in Europe, the Japanese formally surrendered aboard the USS Missouri, ending the war. Americans across the nation celebrated the end of the war, though many had serious concerns. In some instances, families anxiously waited for information about loved ones listed as missing in action; others were dealing with the death in action of a family member. Still others saw an uncertain future, with so many servicemen returning to look for jobs and wanting to start families and further their education.

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The GI Bill • Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 • An attempt to thwart a social and economic crisis • Stalled in Congress as House and Senate hammered out a compromise • Bill provided for education and training, low-cost loans, unemployment benefits

Stamp commemorating the GI Bill

Following World War I, Congress agreed to pay a bonus to veterans for their service, in the form of a certificate that didn’t mature for 20 years. When the Depression hit, veterans upset that they couldn’t get their money when they needed it marched on Washington in 1932 in what became known as the “Bonus March.” Determined not to repeat the same mistakes, Congress introduced a bill to help returning GIs successfully get back into society and on with their lives. However, many members of Congress objected to some of its proposals. Believing college to be a privilege for the rich, some legislators refused to back provisions giving veterans low-cost or free education. Still others objected to providing unemployment benefits to jobless veterans, concerned that it would kill the veterans’ work ethic. Congress managed to hammer out a compromise bill that FDR signed into law in June 1944. The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (also called the “GI Bill of Rights,” or simply the “GI Bill”) offered education benefits, guaranteed mortgage loans, and limited unemployment compensation. In most instances, veterans furthered their education—in 1947, returning veterans made up 49% of incoming college freshmen. By the time the first GI Bill expired in 1956, nearly half of returning WWII veterans had participated in college or training programs. From 1944 to 1952, the government also backed more than 2.4 million home mortgages for veterans.

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Discussion Questions 1. How did people on the home front show that they had family members who were in the service or were killed in action? 2. How did FDR's declining health affect both the election of 1944 and the end of the war? 3. How did the government try to help returning servicemen readjust to civilian life?

1. A family with a son or daughter on active duty would frequently hang a Service Flag in a front window. A blue star located in the flag's white field indicated a relative on active duty, while a gold star there signified one killed in action. 2. Prior to the election, FDR's health led Democratic Party higher-ups to plan for the possibility of his not surviving his fourth term. They dropped liberal Vice President Henry Wallace from the ticket in favor of a more moderate candidate, Missouri Senator Harry Truman. When FDR died in April 1945 (a few weeks prior to the end of the war in Europe), Truman became president and assumed control of the war. While Truman apparently continued FDR's policies, it is unclear as to how his and FDR's conduct of the end of the war might have differed. 3. Congress passed the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 (the “GI Bill of Rights,” or the “GI Bill”) to provide returning servicemen with opportunities to further their education, guaranteed mortgage loans, and unemployment compensation for those unable to immediately find a job.

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World War II: The Home Front

Essential Questions • How did America initially respond to the events leading to WWII? • How did the war change the American home front, both culturally and socially? • How did the war transform the U.S. economy both immediately and in the long term? • How did the war affect minority groups during the period? • What effect did the war have on American industry? • How did the war unify America in a common purpose?

“The Arsenal of Democracy” • America “officially neutral” as European war began • FDR increased military production and skirted Neutrality Acts after Nazi victories • FDR ran for third term • Lend-Lease Act passed • U.S. embargoed oil and scrap-iron sales to Japan

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The Election of 1940

In this map of electoral results, FDR is indicated in green, Willkie in red

• FDR won unprecedented third term • Defeated Willkie • Both candidates considered “internationalists”

The America First Committee • Formed in 1940 • An estimated 800,000 members at its height • Most prominent member was Charles Lindbergh • Advocated building up U.S. defenses and staying out of Europe’s problems • Dissolved four days after Pearl Harbor

Charles Lindbergh speaking at an America First rally

FDR’s “Four Freedoms” • FDR’s 1941 State of the Union address • Early in his third term • Equated aid to Britain with protecting universal freedoms

An excerpt from the speech

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From the “Four Freedoms” Speech “In the future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression—everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his way— everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want—which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants—everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear—which, translated into world terms, means a worldwide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor—anywhere in the world.”

Selective Service Act of 1940

FDR signs the Selective Service Act into law

• First peacetime draft in U.S. • All men aged 21–35 required to register; later 18–65 • Required men picked for duty to serve 12 months • Service in the U.S. or its possessions

Discussion Questions 1. What steps did FDR take toward making the U.S. the “Arsenal of Democracy”? 2. What was the America First Committee? Who were some of its more famous members? Why did it disband? 3. How did FDR explain the need to provide aid to Britain in his “Four Freedoms” speech? Why do you think that FDR took this approach?

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Pearl Harbor • December 7, 1941 • Carrier-based Japanese planes bombed naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii • More than 2400 Americans killed • U.S. Pacific fleet temporarily crippled

The USS Arizona burns during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor

Pearl Harbor: The Nature of the Attack

Japanese aerial view of Pearl Harbor under attack

• Japanese intended to knock out U.S. military power • Aircraft carriers followed less detectable northern route • U.S. officials knew of a coming attack, but not at Pearl Harbor • Not meant to be a “sneak attack”

FDR’s War Message • Delivered to Congress on December 8, 1941 • Only one member of Congress voted against declaring war • Germany declared war on the U.S. a few days later FDR signs the declaration of war with Japan

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FDR’s War Message: A Significant Change • FDR changed the first line, which included the phrase, “a date which will live in world history” • FDR’s reading copy found after 43 years

FDR’s annotated draft copy of his speech

German Agents in the U.S. • Four German agents landed at Amagansett, NY (June 1942) • Four others near Jacksonville, FL • Both groups had maps, explosives, cash • Planned to sabotage factories, bridges, other installations • FBI arrested both groups

Trial of captured German saboteurs, July 1942

U-Boats in the Western Atlantic

A German U-boat

• Operation Paukenschlag • East Coast essentially undefended • U-boats sank over 500 ships in the U.S. defense zone, July–December 1942 • U.S. 10th Fleet fought against U-boats in western Atlantic • Sank 65 U-boats in six months

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Japanese Balloon Bombs • Carried anti-personnel and incendiary bombs • Floated to the West Coast • Killed six picnickers in Oregon in 1945

A balloon bomb

Civil Defense • Fears of attack by Axis Powers on U.S. mainland • Office of Civilian Defense • Civil Air Patrol and Civil Defense Corps • Performed various protective services The WWII-era Civil Defense logo

The War Powers Act • Gave the president sweeping powers to conduct the war • President allowed to initiate and terminate war contracts • Government agencies set for wartime priorities • Foreign assets also frozen • Censorship allowed, though media generally censored themselves

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Discussion Questions 1. What were the immediate effects on the U.S. of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor? 2. What were some ways in which the Germans and Japanese tried to directly attack the U.S.? 3. What did the War Powers Act give FDR the authority to do in conducting the war?

New Recruits • Over 60,000 enlisted immediately after Pearl Harbor • Military training facilities overwhelmed • Not enough barracks or materiel • Recruits processed, then sent to basic training • Recruits broke down cultural and class barriers

Recruits arriving at the naval training center in San Diego

Basic Training • Designed to build strength and stamina • Obstacle courses, forced marches, marksmanship • Instilled a strong sense of discipline Army recruits practice calisthenics at Camp Robinson, Arkansas, in 1942

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Marshall and Mobilization • Army underfunded and underdeveloped in late 1930s • Marshall became Army Chief of Staff • Convinced FDR and Congress to provide increased manpower and funding

General George C. Marshall

Women in the War Effort • Took over many jobs for servicemen, most notably in heavy industry • Some joined the military • Altered family life, brought several drawbacks

A poster urging women to take manufacturing jobs to help the war effort

The Women’s Army Corps

WAC Director Col. Oveta Culp Hobby (right) confers with WAC members at Mitchell Field, NY

• Marshall noted British success in using women for noncombat duties • Congress created Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps in 1942 • WAAC later renamed “Women’s Army Corps”

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WAVEs • “Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service” • Navy program similar to WACs • Did not serve overseas • Nurses, clerical work, communications jobs

A WAVES recruitment poster explaining the pay scale for members

WASPs

Four WASPs receive final instructions as they chart a cross-country course

• “Women’s Airforce Service Pilots” • Aviators Cochran and Love proposed idea separately • Performed noncombat flight duties • Freed male pilots for combat missions

Women in the Workforce • Women were encouraged to work in defense plants • Others grew Victory Gardens and helped with recycling for the war effort • Generally earned less than male workers

Factory workers polish Plexiglas nose cones for A-20 attack bombers

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“Rosie the Riveter” • A symbol of working women during the war • Based on factory worker Rose Will Monroe • Miller and Rockwell both created iconic “Rosie” images This poster for the Westinghouse Corporation is frequently associated with “Rosie the Riveter”

Discussion Questions 1. What role did General George C. Marshall play in mobilizing the armed forces early in the war? 2. How did women contribute to the U.S. war effort?

Office of War Information • Established in 1942 • Coordinated release of war news • Promoted patriotism • Tried to recruit women into factory work • Propaganda program abroad • The Voice of America

Patch worn by Office or War Information personnel

H10

Wartime Propaganda Posters

Government propagandists sometimes used fear and racial slurs in order to convey their message

Donald Duck in Nutziland • Produced by Disney in 1943 • Donald Duck dreams he works on a German munitions line • Bandleader Spike Jones recorded “Der Fuehrer’s Face” • Name of cartoon later changed to reflect song title

Chorus to “Der Fuehrer’s Face”: When der fuehrer says we is de master race We heil heil right in der fueher's face Not to love der fuehrer is a great disgrace So we heil heil right in der fuehrer's

1940s Movies

A scene depicting the Nazi propaganda machine, from one of Frank Capra’s Why We Fight films

• Feature films included war themes • Nazis and Japanese portrayed as buffoons or villains • Patriotism also a common theme • Characters such as Sherlock Holmes and Tarzan battled Nazis • Documentaries by Capra and Wyler also popular

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Mobilization of Industry • “Dr. Win the War” replaced “Dr. New Deal” • Many civilian industries converted to war production • Manpower needed for defense plants • Scarce goods rationed and price controls established • Disputes between management and labor to resolve

Workers assembling an aircraft

“A Production Miracle” • Axis Powers underestimated American production • Many factories and businesses converted to war production • New industries emerged • Output significantly increased

Liberty Ships

The SS Carlos Carrillo, a Liberty ship later made into a troop carrier

• Usually cargo ships • Developed by Henry Kaiser • Featured welded hulls • Many sections prefabricated • By 1943, three entered service daily

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Ford’s Willow Run Facility • Built B-24 “Liberator” bombers • World’s largest factory under one roof • Produced 14 aircraft per day in August 1944

Workers at the Willow Run facility assemble B-24 bombers, 1943

Discussion Questions 1. What was the purpose of the Office of War Information? How did it accomplish this? 2. How did the film industry contribute to the war effort in the 1940s? What were some significant productions? 3. What techniques did Henry Kaiser introduce to dramatically increase production of Liberty ships?

War Production Board • Ensured that the military had the resources it needed • Directed industrial output • Prohibited nonessential business activities • Allocated raw materials • Organized scrap drives

A “War Educational Bulletin” produced by the War Production Board

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Scrap Drives

Results of a scrap rubber drive

• Organized by the WPB • Encouraged collection of waste and scrap goods for war use • Materials included iron, aluminum, paper • Waste cooking fats for making glycerin

Scrap Drives: Posters The government used posters and publicity pictures of celebrities such as Rita Hayworth (right) to encourage citizens to recycle scrap items.

Office of War Mobilization • Created in 1943 by FDR • Headed by James Byrnes • Became dominant mobilization agency • Byrnes worked well with labor and with the military

OWM head James F. Byrnes

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The Truman Committee • Created to expose waste and fraud in the defense industry • Truman personally inspected factories and military installations • Saved taxpayers millions Senator Harry S. Truman

War Manpower Commission • Headed by former IN governor Paul McNutt • Balanced the military’s recruiting needs with requirements of agriculture and industry • Gave deferments to certain groups • Oversaw the draft until 1943

WMC head Paul McNutt

Discussion Questions 1. What were the functions of the War Production Board? 2. What was the Truman Committee? How did its work contribute to the war effort? 3. What made scrap drives so necessary to the war effort? What types of materials did they collect?

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Financing the War • U.S. spent more than $321 billion (over $3 trillion today) • National debt increased dramatically • More Americans required to pay income taxes • War-bond sales raised needed revenue

War Bonds • Used to help finance the war • More than $185 billion sold • Bought by businesses, banks, and civilians • Celebrities helped with bond drives • High interest rates

An example of a $100 war bond

War Bonds: Posters

Posters such as these sought to convince Americans that they should help the war effort and stop the enemy by buying war bonds

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Office of Price Administration • Designed to limit wartime inflation • Established “ceiling prices” for many goods • Rationed scarce goods and many consumer staples • Rationing stopped at end of war • Dissolved in 1947

Rationing

Children learning to tally points and ration stamps

• Way to allocate scarce goods • Included meat, butter, sugar, coffee, shoes • Stamps and points system • Gasoline rationing particularly complex • Black market emerged

Rationing: Books and Stamps

Each family received ration books (left) and stamps (above) for determining its monthly allotment.

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Discussion Questions 1. About how much did WWII cost the U.S. government? How did the federal government raise revenue to pay for the war? 2. How did purchasing war bonds help the average citizen? How did they help the war effort? 3. How did the Office of Price Administration prevent wartime inflation? How did its system for rationing goods work?

Victory Gardens • Government urged citizens to grow fruits and vegetables • Eased food shortages caused by rationing • Nearly 20 million started gardens • Over nine million tons of produces A government poster promoting Victory Gardens

National Housing Agency • Housing construction ceased, except for defense purposes • Relocation caused housing shortages in many cities • NHA established in 1942 • Combined and coordinated housing and loan programs

H18

National War Labor Board • Arbitrated labor disputes during war • Board comprised of representatives from management, labor, and government • “No-strike pledge” • Some “wildcat” strikes still occurred

Guardsmen carry Sewell Avery, president of Montgomery Ward, from his office for failing to comply with NWLR rulings

The War’s Economic Impact • • • • • •

Nominal GDP more than doubled Wages and salaries nearly tripled Federal civilian employment more than tripled Female employment up by a third Labor union membership grew by over 50% National debt ballooned by over 600%

Geographic Shifts in the Economy • South saw great prosperity • Millions of jobs in textiles, chemicals, and aluminum • Southern shipyards and aircraft plants grew • West became economic powerhouse • California especially benefited from federal expenditures

An Army sentry guards new B-17 F (Flying Fortress) bombers at the airfield of Boeing's Seattle plant

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Discussion Questions 1. Why did the federal government encourage Americans to grow Victory Gardens? What impact did these have on the war effort? 2. What sorts of strategies did the government employ regarding housing issues? Regarding disputes between labor and management? 3. What effects did the war have on the U.S. economy from 1940 to 1945?

Japanese American Internment

A map of relocation centers in the western U.S.

• FDR issued Executive Order 9066 • Removed over 110,000 Issei (Japanese nationals) and Nisei (Japanese Americans) from the West Coast • About two-thirds were citizens

Prejudice Against Nisei • Long history of antiJapanese sentiment in California • Falsely accused Nisei of helping plan Pearl Harbor • No evidence of sabotage or espionage ever found

This propaganda poster displays typical American-held stereotypes of the Japanese

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“I Am an American” • Some Nisei tried to demonstrate patriotism • Interned regardless • Most Japanese accepted internment • Wanted to show their loyalty to the U.S. Despite this Oakland, California, grocer’s sign, he was interned and his business sold

Life in the Camps • Nisei forced to sell homes, businesses, property • Lost an estimated $2 billion • Poor conditions: – Barbed-wire enclosures – Barracks with cots and no plumbing – Meager food budget – Low temperatures

Manzanar

Manzanar in the winter

• Located in California • Best known of relocation camps • Camp held nearly 12,000 internees • Extremes in climate • Closed in November 1945

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Korematsu v. U.S. (1942) • Korematsu refused to obey the relocation order • Appealed conviction on constitutional grounds • Supreme Court ruled the order a valid use of presidential power in wartime • Decision vacated in 1984, due to governmentwithheld evidence in the first trial

The 442nd Regimental Combat Team • Formed in 1943 • Made up of Nisei • Fought with distinction in Italy and France • Most decorated combat unit in U.S. history

Members of the 442nd hiking through France, late 1944

Civil Liberties Act of 1988

Norman Mineta

• Sponsored by Simpson and Mineta, a former internee • Government formally apologized • Paid $20,000 to each surviving internee • 1992 act added enough money to cover all remaining internees • Government apologized again

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Discussion Questions 1. Why did the government feel it necessary to relocate both Issei and Nisei? What was the purpose of Executive Order 9066? 2. What kinds of stereotypes did white Americans tend to hold about Japanese Americans? 3. Do you think that the government was justified in interning Nisei, even though they were American citizens? Why or why not?

Internment of Other Groups • German Americans and nationals, and Italian Americans and nationals • Over 10,000 Germans and 3000 Italians interned • Camps similar to those for Nisei • No evidence of espionage or treason

German American and Italian American internees at Ellis Island, 1943

African Americans and the War • The irony of fighting a racist regime in Europe while experiencing racism at home • Blacks found limited employment in defense plants • Race riots broke out in many cities • African Americans looked for equality in the workplace and in the military

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The “Double V” Campaign

The campaign’s logo

• Created in 1942 by the Pittsburgh Courier, a leading black newspaper • Called for “victory over our enemies at home and victory over our enemies on the battlefields abroad”

Dorie Miller • A hero of the Pearl Harbor attack • Not initially recommended for any commendation • Later received Navy Cross • Killed in the invasion of the Gilbert Islands A poster featuring Miller

The Tuskegee Airmen

Airmen Marcellus G. Smith and Roscoe C. Brown in Italy, 1945

• All-black combat unit formed in 1941 • 99th Fighter Squadron formed in AL • Commanded by Davis • Escorted bombers over central Europe • Proved superior or equal to white pilots

H24

Randolph and the Fair Employment Act • Influential labor leader • Proposed a 1941 “March on Washington” to protest discrimination • FDR convinced him to cancel march; enacted Fair Employment Act

A. Philip Randolph meets with first lady Eleanor Roosevelt

The Navajo Code Talkers

Code Talkers Henry Bake and George Kirk send messages in the Pacific Theater, 1943

• Used to transmit messages in the Pacific Theater • Based on the Navajo language • Navajo words frequently substituted for military terms • Code never broken

The Bracero Program • Established due to wartime labor shortage • Experienced Mexican laborers brought in for CA farm work; expanded nationwide • Braceros also worked for U.S. railroads • Reported human rights abuses • Lawsuits filed to collect savings withheld from braceros’ pay

A bracero

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“Zoot Suit Riots”

A zoot suit

• Los Angeles, 1943 • Conflicts between sailors on leave and young Mexican Americans, identifiable by their dress • African Americans and Filipinos wearing zoot suits also targeted • Military eventually placed LA off-limits to servicemen

Discussion Questions 1. What groups other than Japanese Americans did the government relocate? Why? 2. How did the war impact African Americans? In what ways did African Americans prove themselves as capable of serving as other groups? 3. Why did the government bring in braceros to work in the U.S.? What industries did they work in?

Service Flags • Commonly displayed throughout U.S. • A blue star indicated a relative on active duty • A gold star meant that a relative had died while on active duty • Blue Star (and Gold Star) Mothers clubs A Service Flag with three stars

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The Sullivan Brothers • From Waterloo, IA • Enlisted in the Navy on the condition they would serve together • Assigned to the USS Juneau • All five killed at Guadalcanal in 1942

The Election of 1944

This map of electoral votes indicates Dewey in red and FDR in green

• FDR practically assured a fourth term • Truman selected as running mate • Defeated NY governor Thomas Dewey

Roosevelt Dies • April 12, 1945 • At his retreat in Warm Springs, GA • Only a few weeks before the end of the war in Europe • Widely mourned FDR’s funeral procession moves down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington D.C.

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Truman Takes Office • Vice president for only 82 days • Oversaw last months of the war • Authorized use of the atomic bomb • President during the early Cold War Truman takes the oath of office shortly after FDR’s death

V-E Day and V-J Day

Tens of thousands crowd Times Square to celebrate the Japanese surrender, New York City

• Victory in Europe, May 6–7, 1945 • Victory Over Japan, Sept. 2, 1945 • Celebrations marked the end of the war • Nation still had to deal with postwar issues

The GI Bill • Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 • An attempt to thwart a social and economic crisis • Stalled in Congress as House and Senate hammered out a compromise • Bill provided for education and training, low-cost loans, unemployment benefits

Stamp commemorating the GI Bill

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Discussion Questions 1. How did people on the home front show that they had family members who were in the service or were killed in action? 2. How did FDR's declining health affect both the election of 1944 and the end of the war? 3. How did the government try to help returning servicemen readjust to civilian life?

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World War II: The Home Front Backwards Planning Activities Enduring understandings: • • • • • • •

World War II was a major political, social, and economic event of the 20th century The U.S. government attempted to stay neutral in the early days of the conflict U.S. entry into the war caused major changes to and disruptions in citizens’ lives WWII allowed the U.S. government to become greatly involved in and have more control over citizens’ daily lives The war caused significant economic changes that ended the Great Depression and solidified America’s position as the world’s leading economic power Some American citizens were singled out for prejudicial treatment because of race or nationality; members of such groups still sought to prove their patriotism and loyalty While the war caused significant hardship and demanded sacrifice, it united the nation in an unprecedented and unrivaled way

Essential questions: • • • • • •

How did America initially respond to the events leading to WWII? How did the war change the American home front, both culturally and socially? How did the war transform the U.S. economy both immediately and in the long term? How did the war affect minority groups during the period? What effect did the war have on American industry? How did the war unify America in a common purpose?

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Learning experiences and instruction: Students will need to know… 1. Events leading to U.S. entry into WWII 2. Early policies established by the U.S. government prior to and immediately after the attack on Pearl Harbor 3. What impact the war had on ethnic groups in the U.S. 4. Government regulations and policies that affected the economy 5. What methods the federal government used regarding psychological mobilization (propaganda) 6. How the government and citizens dealt with the shortage of staple goods and allocation of resources 7. Government policies that helped returning servicemen adjust to civilian life

Students will need to be able to… 1. Read and interpret primary source documents from the WWII era 2. Make conclusions and inferences regarding various programs, writings, and philosophies from the era 3. Identify key persons involved in developing economic and political policies during the era 4. Recognize emerging trends in society and culture during the first half of the 1940s 5. Determine how the war affected the development of government policy and philosophy which continued into the Cold War 6. Determine how the war affected American life in the long term (beyond the early 1940s)

Teaching and learning activities that will equip students to demonstrate targeted understandings: • • • • • • • • •

An overview of essential questions and basic understandings Class discussion of questions posed in the PowerPoint presentation Introduction of common terms and ideas in the essential questions and related projects Providing students with primary source materials from which they will complete the unit’s related projects Students conduct research in groups to be used later in individual and cooperative projects Informal observation and coaching of students as they work in groups Delivering feedback and evaluations on projects and research reports Student creation and presentation of their projects A posttest on the presentation, made up of multiple-choice questions and one or more essential questions as essay questions

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Project #1: The Impact of the War in Your Town Overview: In this lesson, students research the World War II–era defense industry as well as government programs from the era that directly affected their community, and speculate on the impact and effectiveness of those projects regarding the war effort overall. Using their research, student groups create blogs in which they analyze those projects and make conclusions as to their importance in helping the war effort as well as boosting the local economy. If desired, you may publicize the blogs so that persons in the community with memories of the World War II era can post to them.

Objectives: Having completed this lesson, students will have: • Understood the impact of the war on their local community and local economy • Developed research skills targeted at gathering information on their local community • Synthesized this information and made conclusions regarding the effect of the war economy and war policy on their town or geographic region • Made conclusions about the long-term impact of the effect of the war economy and war policy on their community to the present day

Time required: Five to seven class periods, depending on time allotted for student research of local history and economics

Materials: Computer (s) with Internet access, access to a blog-hosting site, sources of local historical information (if available), scanner or digital camera (if desired), tape recorder or pen and paper for interviewing local people with memories of the WWII home front (if desired and available); scanner for adding pictures to blog (if available and desired)

Methodology: Begin the lesson by discussing how the war impacted local communities and economies during the early 1940s. It may be helpful for the class to review the slides in the PowerPoint presentation that deal with programs in which individual citizens across the country would have participated, such as women in the war effort (slides 23–28), scrap drives (40–41), sale of war bonds (47–48), rationing (50–51), Victory Gardens (53), or other slides you deem suitable. In

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addition, if your school’s community has a large ethnic population, you may elect to have students view the slides related to the contributions of African Americans, Hispanics, or Japanese Americans in the war. After you have involved students in brainstorming the effects of the war on individual citizens, ask students to speculate as to how the war might have specifically affected their community. Write responses on the chalkboard or an overhead. Students will probably contribute ideas such as men leaving for the armed services, shortages of goods and rationing, war-bond drives, blackouts, homecomings of returning servicemen, or periods of mourning for those killed in action. Next ask students to relate what they know about “Web 2.0” tools such as blogging, social networking sites, etc. Most students will have at least a basic idea about these resources, while several will probably have used them. Ask students about which specific resources they are familiar with; most will probably mention Blogger, Facebook, MySpace, and similar sites. NOTE: If you are not familiar with the concept of blogging, or wish to further explain blogging to students, you may use http://codex.wordpress.org/Introduction_to_Blogging as a rudimentary introduction to the process. Once this discussion has concluded, explain to the students that they’ll be constructing “Web logs” (or “blogs”) focusing on some aspect of the World War II–era home front. You may elect to have groups research a certain aspect of life on the home front (rationing, the war industry, propaganda, etc.) or wish to have students research a particular year of the war. You will also need to decide whether each group should have its own blog, or contribute to one single blog. Popular blog sites include Blogger (http://www.blogger.com) and Edublogs (http://edublogs.org/). In addition, your school’s e-mail server may also include blogging software, so you may wish to contact the school’s information technology department before beginning the lesson. NOTE: Some school filtering systems may block blogging sites, since blogs are frequently used for recreational or personal reasons. Check prior to beginning the project whether a desired blogging site is available to students; if it is not, contact your school’s information technology department to unblock the site prior to beginning the project. In addition, some schools and districts may have specific policies dealing with the use of blogs by students and with student accounts. You should review these prior to starting the lesson. Most freeware blogging sites will create a URL (Uniform Resource Locator, or Web address) for individual or group blogs. Be sure to have students include their URL on the “Home Front Blogging Information Sheet” in order to monitor student content and contributions to the blog. Once you have established groups, students should begin research on their particular topic or year. Depending on the community, some digitized collections of local histories of the war may exist online, or groups may wish to research at a local library, historical society, or museum for related information. In addition, local newspaper offices and libraries may have microfilm copies

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of newspapers from the period. In some instances, students may also know veterans or townspeople alive during that era that would be able and willing to provide an oral history of the World War II era. Have students collect data and write their information on the included graphic organizer. Once students have collected necessary information, have them create their blog by adding textual content based on their research. They may also wish to add scanned photographs from local resources as well. (NOTE: In some instances, resources may be copyrighted. In such cases, you and the students should plan to request permission from the copyright holder before adding the text or photographs to the blog.) In addition, you and your students may wish to publicize the blogs via local media or veterans’ groups and ask community residents with memories of the home front or firsthand information about the period to post to the blog or reply to current discussions.

Evaluation: After providing sufficient time for students to write blog posts and to reply to the posts of others, evaluate student work using a suitable rubric. You may use the one included with this activity, or you may elect to develop your own.

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Home Front Blogging Information Sheet Group members: Topic(s) researched: Blog URL: Name and date of resource used (newspaper, oral history, etc.):

Description of home-front industry or activity

How did this industry or activity impact the local community?

Other information about the industry or activity that may help in creating a blog entry

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Home Front Blogging Rubric Excellent (15–10):

Good (9–5):

Fair (4–2):

Poor (1–0):

Research

Information chart completed; student shows mastery of material

Most of chart completed; student shows reasonable mastery of material

Approximately half of chart completed; student shows some mastery of material

Less than half of chart completed; student shows little or no mastery of material

Clear expression of ideas

Clearly and effectively communicates main idea, theme, and point of view

Clearly communicates main idea, theme, and point of view

Communicates important information, but not a clear theme or overall structure

Communicates information as random, isolated pieces

Grammar and spelling

Proper grammar used in all blog posts; no spelling errors

Proper grammar frequently used; no spelling errors

Proper grammar generally used; some spelling errors

Many grammatical mistakes; frequent spelling errors

Use of technology

Student demonstrates mastery in developing and posting to blog

Student demonstrates above average competency in developing and posting to blog

Student adequately develops and posts to blog

Student unable to develop and effectively post to blog

Criterion:

Student score:

Teachercreated criteria Final student score

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Project #2: World War II Propaganda Filmmaking Overview: In this lesson, students investigate various World War II–era propaganda films that may have been shown on the home front, then act as “directors” of propaganda films, storyboarding scenes for a possible short propaganda film designed to motivate the World War II home front.

Objectives: Having completed this lesson, students will have: • Familiarized themselves about how propaganda influenced American civilians during the World War II era • Used various techniques and information to develop storyboards for propaganda films dealing with the home front • Made conclusions about the impact and effect of propaganda on various aspects of mobilization and patriotism during World War II

Time required: Three to four class periods

Materials: Computer(s) with Internet access and media player or similar software, as well as a sound card, external speakers, storyboard sheets (described in this activity), filming equipment (if desired)

Methodology: Prior to starting the lesson, brainstorm with the class about the meaning of the term “propaganda.” Ask students to give definitions of the word. After several students have shared their ideas, have a student look up the definition in a dictionary. Compare student views of the word with the dictionary definition. Next, have students reflect on the “goodness” or “badness” of propaganda. You may wish to find recent examples of propaganda, both from foreign nations and the U.S., such as songs, posters, etc. released in the days and months after September 11, 2001. Suggest to the class that the “goodness” or “badness” of propaganda frequently depends on how it is used and the outcomes a government or group wants to achieve by its use.

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You may also wish to demonstrate World War II propaganda by showing posters from or a short film highlighting the propaganda of the period. Web sites including examples of visual propaganda include the National Archives site (http://www.archives.gov) and the Library of Congress (http://www.loc.gov); you may find many other examples via a Web search using Google or another search engine. Once students have viewed some representative posters, films, etc. from the World War II era, explain to them that they’ll be working in groups to creating storyboards for “propaganda films” for the U.S. home front. Since the home front includes many possible topics, you should provide suggestions for film topics. These might include: • • • • • • • •

Rationing Supporting scrap drives Buying war bonds Registering for the draft or enlisting in the military Anti-German propaganda Anti-Japanese propaganda Propaganda to ensure national security (blackouts, ensuring secrecy, instilling patriotism, etc.) Other topics that you or the class might develop

Explain to the students that their storyboards and films, while designed to stir up emotions, should accurately represent the period, as well as the causes and concerns of the government and nation. Groups should collect information and ideas for their films from either the suggested Web sites listed below, or by searching and collecting their own information. Remind the class that their storyboards should contain information, but should be descriptive as to directions for producing the movie. This might include dialogue, historical photographs or film, titles, animation, and other features typical to films. Recommend to the students that they should find and view government-produced films from the era, particularly those located on the National Archives site or the Internet Archives’ “Moving Image Archive.” (Note: Some of the films and posters included in the resources are racist in nature, especially toward the Japanese. You may wish to prepare students for the possibility of offensive stereotypes prior to their starting research.) Students should collect information on the “Propaganda Film Information Chart” provided. You may easily create blank storyboards via PowerPoint. Create a presentation that includes three to six blank slides. Go to the File menu and select Print. In the print-dialog box, be sure to select Handouts in the Print What dialog. Select the option for three slides per page. Print and duplicate as many storyboards as needed. Allow time for students to complete research, fill in the propaganda collection sheet, and complete their storyboards.

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Evaluation: At the conclusion of the project, evaluate student work using a suitable rubric. You may wish to use a rubric developed by your school or district, or use the sample rubric included with this activity.

Extension Activity: If your school has sufficient resources, you may elect for students to actually create short propaganda films based on their research and storyboards.

Suggested Web Resources: Students may wish to supplement the resources listed below with their own searches using Google or other search engines. Indiana Historical Society. “Digital Image Library: WWII Materials.” (http://images.indianahistory.org/cdm4/browse.php?CISOROOT=/ww2) Internet Archive. Moving Image Archive. (http://www.archive.org/details/movies) (The site includes a searchable index of films from various eras, including Frank Capra’s Why We Fight series.) National Archives. Powers of Persuasion: Poster Art From World War II. (http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/powers_of_persuasion/powers_of_persuasion_home.html) Northwestern University. World War II Poster Collection. (http://www.library.northwestern.edu/govinfo/collections/wwii-posters/) Stanford University. World War II Propaganda Posters. (http://infolab.stanford.edu/~mmorten/propaganda/wwii/) PBS. The War. (http://www.pbs.org/thewar)

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Propaganda Film Collection Sheet Identification of resource (what type is it, bibliographical information):

Evidence of emotional appeal shown (quotes from resources; description of images):

Rationale for including in storyboard (why this is an effective use of propaganda):

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Propaganda Film Storyboard Rubric Category:

Excellent (10–15):

Good (5–9):

Fair (2–4):

Poor (0–1):

Research

Collection sheet completed; evidence that resources are thoughtfully selected

Collection sheet mostly filled out; justification sketchy for some resources

Collection sheet incomplete; inclusion of several resources not justified

Collection sheet not completed; little or no justification for including resources

Historical accuracy

Selected resources germane and portray the period accurately

Selected resources mostly germane; generally portray the period accurately

Selected resources somewhat germane; rarely portray the period accurately

Selected resources not germane and do not accurately portray the period

Creativity

Storyboards show high level of creativity and thought

Storyboards show a relatively high level of creativity and thought

Storyboards show some creativity and thought

Storyboards show little creativity and thought

Neatness of finished product

All storyboards arranged in a neat and orderly fashion

Storyboards generally arranged in a neat and orderly fashion

Most storyboards poorly arranged and not in order

All storyboards poorly arranged; no evidence of organization

Score:

Teachercreated criteria Total score

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Project #3: Letters from the Home Front Overview: In this lesson, students role-play high school students on the home front who write letters to a brother, father, or other family member stationed overseas. In their letters, they describe conditions and hardships they are enduring at home, as well as what they are doing in the States to help the war effort.

Objectives: After completing the lesson, students will have: • Researched various resources describing life on the home front during WWII • Made conclusions about the importance and validity of those sources • Described conditions during the era as they affected the “average” high school student

Time required: Two to three class periods

Materials: Computer with Internet access, printer (optional), word processing software (optional)

Methodology: Students should have some background as to life in the U.S. during WWII prior to beginning the lesson. If needed, you may wish to review with students topics from the PowerPoint presentation that might have specifically affected high school students. Some suggestions include rationing, movies in the 40s, buying war bonds, working in defense plants, and the stress of having a family member in the service. Once you have completed the review, introduce the lesson, either by using the following script, or your own explanation: While family members back home were glad to get letters from servicemen fighting in Europe and Asia, it was just as important for those GIs to get letters from the folks back home. Frequently, those letters were the only way that military personnel could find out what was happening back home—what was happening in sports, their home towns, what morale was like, and many other concerns. In this lesson, you’ll role-play a typical high school student during the war years, writing a letter to your brother, father, or other family member serving overseas. In your letter, you’ll want to express interest in and concern about what is happening to the person you’re writing to, but

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you’ll also want to inform them about what’s happening at home. It’s up to you to decide the date your letter is written (as long as it’s during the World War II years), but you should consider adding some or all of the following topics in your letter: • • •

• •

What’s happening at home concerning the war effort (scrap drives, rationing, war bond drives, etc.)? How would you describe how these might have impacted you and your friends? What’s happening in entertainment? What do you think would be playing at the theater if you went to a movie on the evening you mailed your letter? What radio shows would you be listening to? What news other than war news might you read in the newspaper? What’s happening in sports? If you can find the information, how are the local high school and college teams doing (in football, baseball, etc.)? If you are writing your letter during baseball season, which teams are in the lead for the National League and American League pennants? Prices of goods and how some goods were scarce during the war Any other information you think is pertinent

While you’ll be doing research about what happened on the home front in a national sense, you may want to try to find information about local industry and local events as well, if they are available. As you conduct your research, write important points and ideas in your “Home Front Letter Information Chart.” You’ll use this information to help you write your letter. Remember, you will write through the eyes of the person you are portraying, so be sure to include eyewitness material to try to capture the mindset of that person. Also, remember to use proper spelling and grammar in your letter. Allow sufficient time for students to complete their research as well to write their letters.

Evaluation: Once students have completed their letters, evaluate them using the rubric included with this lesson, or devise one of your own.

Suggested Web Resources: Ames (IA) Historical Society. “World War II Rationing.” (http://www.ameshistoricalsociety.org/exhibits/events/rationing.htm) Historical Text Archive. “World War II: Home Front–U.S.” (http://historicaltextarchive.com/links.php?op=viewslink&sid=295)

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Indiana Historical Society. “Digital Image Library: WWII Materials.” (http://images.indianahistory.org/cdm4/browse.php?CISOROOT=/ww2&CISOSTART=1,1) (Contains examples of actual letters written by people on the home front to service personnel, as well as other exhibits from the IHS’s digital collection.) Library of Congress. On the Homefront: America During World War I and World War II (http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/homefront/resources.html) Life on the Home Front: Oregon Responds to World War II (http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/exhibits/ww2/) National Archives. “World War II Photo Page” (http://www.archives.gov/research/ww2/photos/#home) Private Art: World War II Letters to and From Home (http://www.private-art.com/) University of Wisconsin. “The Home Front: Manitowoc County in World War II.” (http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/WI/subcollections/HomeFrontAbout.html) The Victory Home: A World War II Home Front Reference Library. (http://tvh.bfn.org/)

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Home Front Letter Information Chart Who am I writing this letter to? Where is he or she located?

What’s the date of the letter (pick a date between Dec. 1941 and Sep. 1945)? What sorts of activities are going on regarding the war effort (bond rallies, rationing, scrap drives, and other activities)?

What sorts of things are people watching at the movies? Listening to on the radio? What’s happening in sports? What are people doing for recreation?

What are prices like? Information about the availability of goods?

Any other information that I think is pertinent to the letter:

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Home Front Letter Rubric Research and historical accuracy: Relevant supporting evidence; sufficient quantity of facts used

Level 1 (0–2): Limited support of points in letter, evidence mostly irrelevant; limited or unrelated facts Level 2 (3–5): Some points supported, some facts not relevant; missing or insufficient number of facts Level 3 (6–8): Most points supported with relevant evidence Level 4 (9–10): Each point supported with relevant evidence; substantial facts used

Score:

Supportive reasons or arguments: Supportive details related to the main idea or topic

Level 1 (0–2): Unsupportive, unrelated details Level 2 (3–5): Supportive details unclear and not logically related to main idea Level 3 (6–8): Supportive details usually clear and logically related to main idea Level 4 (9–10): Supportive details very clear and logically related to main idea

Score:

Mechanics of writing: Correct grammar and spelling used

Level 1 (0–2): Grammar and spelling used with limited accuracy and effectiveness Level 2 (3–5): Grammar and spelling used with some accuracy and effectiveness Level 3 (6–8): Grammar and spelling used with considerable accuracy Level 4 (9–10) Grammar and spelling used with accuracy and effectiveness almost all the time

Score:

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Structure— introduction: Introduction states main points and sets stage for narration

Level 1 (0–2): Simple opening statement; limited identification of topic Level 2 (3–5): Introduction stated but unclear; main points unclear Level 3 (6–8): Introduction stated but somewhat unclear; main points introduced with moderate clarity Level 4 (9–10): Introduction precisely stated; main points clearly introduced

Score:

Structure— conclusion: Summarizes main ideas and main points

Level 1 (0–2): Abrupt ending; limited summarizing of main points Level 2 (3–5): Main points summarized but unclear Level 3 (6–8): Main points summarized, but somewhat unclear Level 4 (9–10): Main points clearly summarized

Score:

Teacher-created criteria:

Score:

Total score:

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World War II: The Home Front Multiple-Choice Quiz 1. Which of the following allowed FDR to circumvent the Neutrality Acts? a. b. c. d.

America First Committee Selective Service Act Lend-Lease National War Labor Board

2. In 1940, who did FDR defeat to win his third term as president? a. b. c. d.

Wendell Willkie Thomas Dewey Alf Landon Herbert Hoover

3. Which was a spokesman for the America First Committee? a. b. c. d. 4.

George M. Cohan Charles Lindbergh George C. Marshall Dwight Eisenhower

Which of the following was NOT one of the “Four Freedoms” described by FDR? a. b. c. d.

Freedom of speech Freedom of worship Freedom from want Freedom from hunger

5. According to the Selective Service Act of 1940, what was the highest age at which males were required to register for the draft? a. b. c. d.

29 35 40 60

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6. German agents were captured trying to infiltrate the U.S. in which two locations? a. b. c. d.

Long Island and Florida Washington, D.C. and New York New Orleans and Los Angeles Detroit and Philadelphia

7. Which general was named Army Chief of Staff in 1941? a. b. c. d.

George C. Patton George C. Marshall Douglas MacArthur Dwight D. Eisenhower

8. Which of the following was not a duty of members of the Women’s Army Corps? a. b. c. d.

Operating switchboards Driving staff cars Flying fighter missions Sorting mail

9. Which character was best identified with the slogan, “We Can Do It!”? a. b. c. d.

Uncle Sam GI Joe Rosie the Riveter Donald Duck

10. Who revolutionized shipbuilding with the production of Liberty ships? a. b. c. d.

Henry Kaiser Henry Ford A. Philip Randolph Benjamin O. Davis

11. What did Ford build at the Willow Run Facility? a. b. c. d.

Airplanes Tanks Liberty ships Prefabricated housing

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12. Which agency organized scrap drives to recycle waste materials into needed goods? a. b. c. d.

Office of War Information War Production Board National War Labor Board Office of Price Administration

13. Which senator led a committee investigating fraud and mismanagement in the defense industry? a. b. c. d.

James Byrnes Joseph McCarthy Hubert Humphrey Harry Truman

14. What made waste cooking fats so prized in scrap drives? a. b. c. d.

They were used to make glycerin They were used to make gasoline They were used as a preservative They were used by army cooks to make soldiers’ rations

15. Which of the following did the federal government NOT do to help pay for the war? a. b. c. d.

Raise income-tax rates Sell war bonds Increase the national debt Increase tariff rates

16. The National War Labor Board scored a major victory when management and labor agreed to: a. b. c. d.

A 10 percent wage hike A “no-strike” pledge A “wildcat” strike A “maintenance of membership” clause

17. Which of the following allowed for Japanese American relocation? a. b. c. d.

Executive Order 9066 Congress’s declaration of war on Japan The Office of War Mobilization Korematsu v. U.S.

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18. The Supreme Court’s decision in Korematsu v. U.S.: a. b. c. d.

Allowed the government to intern Japanese Americans Stated that the government wrongly interned Japanese Americans Upheld a curfew and relocation order as legal Authorized a $20,000 cash payment to surviving Nisei

19. What did the “Double V” Campaign call for? a. b. c. d.

Victory in Europe and victory in the Pacific Victory in the war and victory over discrimination and prejudice Victory in the war and victory in postwar Europe None of the above

20. Benjamin O. Davis was most associated with which? a. b. c. d.

The Manzanar internment camp The Office of War Information The Tuskegee Airmen The GI Bill

21. Why did A. Philip Randolph decide to cancel his “March on Washington”? a. b. c. d.

Eleanor Roosevelt pleaded with him to cancel it The weather was too severe on the day he’d scheduled the march Randolph died suddenly FDR promised to end discrimination in the war industry

22. Phillip Johnston proposed the formation of which group? a. b. c. d.

The Tuskegee Airmen The Navajo Code Talkers The Bonus Army The “March on Washington”

23. In 1944, who did FDR defeat to win an unprecedented fourth term? a. b. c. d.

Wendell Willkie Harry Truman Alf Landon Thomas Dewey

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24. V-E Day took place in which month? a. b. c. d.

December 1941 June 1944 May 1945 September 1945

25. The GI Bill sought to provide what for returning veterans? a. b. c. d.

Education funding Low-interest mortgage loans Unemployment compensation All the above

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World War II: The Home Front Multiple-Choice Quiz Answer Key 1. C 2. A 3. B 4. D 5.

B

6. A 7. B 8. C 9. C 10. A 11. A 12. B 13. D 14. A 15. D 16. B 17. A 18. C 19. B 20. C 21. D 22. B 23. D 24. C 25. D

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